Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Mahmoud Sami el-Baroudi
Mahmoud Samy Elbaroudy was a significant Egyptian political figure and a prominent poet. He served as 5th Prime Minister of Egypt from 4 February 1882 until 26 May 1882, he was known as rab alseif wel qalam رب السيف و القلم. His father belonged to an Ottoman-Egyptian family while his mother was a Greek woman who converted to Islam upon marrying his father. Works by Mahmoud Sami el-Baroudi at LibriVox
Prime Minister of Egypt
The Prime Minister of Egypt is the head of the Egyptian government. In the late 1970s, Egypt had several cohabitation governments which proved to be unstable, due to the struggle arising between the president and the prime minister. From 1981 until 2011, the National Democratic Party had maintained a majority in the People’s Assembly and supplied the Egyptian president; the National Democratic Party was dissolved by the supreme administrative court on 16 April 2011, following the Egyptian uprising which caused the resignation of Hosni Mubarak. Under the 1971 Constitution as amended on 1980, 2003 and 2007, the role of the Prime Minister was limited only to supervising the Cabinet, as the President at that time, was both the head of state and of the government; the Prime Minister, heads the cabinet, the entire government of the country under the 2012 and the present 2014 Constitutions, aside from supervising and directing its activities and overseeing its work. And, he or she, plays a leading role in shaping the agenda of House of Representatives, the unicameral parliament.
He or she, alongside the members of the Cabinet, may propose laws to Parliament as well as amendments during parliamentary meetings. The Prime Minister has the power to issue regulations enforcing the laws as well as ensuring full public services and disciplinary measures, which must be subject to government approval; the said powers were held by the President under the 1971 Constitution, as amended on 1980, 2003 and 2007. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet helps the President in formulating the state's general policy and in overseeing its implementation under the both 2012 and the present 2014 Constitutions; when parties from opposite ends of the political spectrum control Parliament and the presidency, the power-sharing arrangement is known as cohabitation. Several cohabitation governments took control in the 1970s yet proved to be unstable. From 1 March to 17 June 2014, Ibrahim Mahlab served as the Acting Prime Minister of Egypt. At the time of his appointment by Adly Mansour, he said, "security and stability in the entire country and crushing terrorism will pave the way for investment."A new cabinet was formed on 19 September 2015.
Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi accepted the resignation of the government and asked Petroleum Minister Sherif Ismail to form a new cabinet. In June 2018, Ismail submitted his letter of resignation to Sisi. Soon afterwards, Sisi appointed Housing Minister Mostafa Madbouly as acting prime minister; as of April 2019, there are seven living former Prime Ministers of Egypt. Living former Prime Ministers of Egypt The most recent Prime Minister to die was Aly Lotfy Mahmoud, on 27 May 2018 aged 82. Cabinet of Egypt Politics of Egypt President of Egypt List of political parties in Egypt List of Prime Ministers of Egypt Media related to Prime ministers of Egypt at Wikimedia Commons
Turkish people or the Turks known as Anatolian Turks, are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most spoken Turkic language. They are the largest ethnic group in Turkey, as well as by far the largest ethnic group among the speakers of Turkic languages. Ethnic Turkish minorities exist in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire. In addition, a Turkish diaspora has been established with modern migration in Western Europe. Turks arrived from Central Asia and settled in the Anatolian basin in around the 11th century through the conquest of Seljuk Turks, mixing with the peoples of Anatolia; the region began to transform from a predominately Greek Christian one to a Turkish Muslim society. Thereafter, the Ottoman Empire came to rule much of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East, North Africa over the course of several centuries, with an advanced army and navy; the Empire lasted until the end of the First World War, when it was defeated by the Allies and partitioned.
Following the successful Turkish War of Independence that ended with the Turkish national movement retaking most of the land lost to the Allies, the movement abolished the Ottoman sultanate on 1 November 1922 and proclaimed the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. Not all Ottomans were Muslims and not all Ottoman Muslims were Turks, but by 1923, the majority of people living within the borders of the new Turkish republic identified as Turks. Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone, bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship". However, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity and are estimated at 70–75 percent; the ethnonym "Turk" may be first discerned in Herodotus' reference to Targitas, first king of the Scythians. Pomponius Mela refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov, Pliny the Elder lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area; the first definite references to the "Turks" come from Chinese sources in the sixth century.
In these sources, "Turk" appears as "Tujue". In the 19th century, the word Türk only referred to Anatolian villagers; the Ottoman ruling class identified themselves as Ottomans, not as Turks. In the late 19th century, as the Ottoman upper classes adopted European ideas of nationalism the term Türk took on a much more positive connotation. During Ottoman times, the millet system defined communities on a religious basis, a residue of this remains in that Turkish villagers consider as Turks only those who profess the Sunni faith. Turkish Jews, Christians, or Alevis may be considered non-Turks. On the other hand, Kurdish followers of the Sunni branch of Islam who live in eastern Anatolia were sometimes considered "Mountain Turks". Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone, "bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship." It is believed by Robert Fisk. Anatolia was first inhabited by hunter-gatherers during the Paleolithic era, in antiquity was inhabited by various ancient Anatolian peoples.
After Alexander the Great's conquest in 334 BC, the area was Hellenized, by the first century BC it is thought that the native Anatolian languages, themselves earlier newcomers to the area, as a result of the Indo-European migrations, became extinct. In Central Asia, the earliest surviving Turkic-language texts, the eighth-century Orkhon inscriptions, were erected by the Göktürks in the sixth century CE, include words not common to Turkic but found in unrelated Inner Asian languages. Although the ancient Turks were nomadic, they traded wool, leather and horses for wood, silk and grain, as well as having large ironworking stations in the south of the Altai Mountains during the 600s CE. Most of the Turkic peoples were followers of Tengrism, sharing the cult of the sky god Tengri, although there were adherents of Manichaeism, Nestorian Christianity and Buddhism. However, during the Muslim conquests, the Turks entered the Muslim world proper as slaves, the booty of Arab raids and conquests; the Turks began converting to Islam after Muslim conquest of Transoxiana through the efforts of missionaries and merchants.
Although initiated by the Arabs, the conversion of the Turks to Islam was filtered through Persian and Central Asian culture. Under the Umayyads, most were domestic servants, whilst under the Abbasid Caliphate, increasing numbers were trained as soldiers. By the ninth century, Turkish commanders were leading the caliphs’ Turkish troops into battle; as the Abbasid Caliphate declined, Turkish officers assumed more military and political power taking over or establishing provincial dynasties with their own corps of Turkish troops. During the 11th century the Seljuk Turks who were admirers of the Persian civilization grew in number and were able to occupy the eastern province of the Abbasid Empire. By 1055, the Seljuk Empire captured Baghdad and began to make their first incursions into the edges of Anatolia; when the Seljuk Turks won the Battle of Manzikert against the Byzantine Empire in 1071, it opened the gates of Anatolia to them. Although ethnically Turkish, the Seljuk Turks appreciated and became the purveyors of the Persian culture rather than the Turkish culture.
Nonetheless, the Turkish language and Islam were introduced and spread over the region and the slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a pr
Mohamed Sherif Pasha
Mohamed Sherif Pasha GCSI was an Egyptian statesman of Turkish origin. He served as Prime Minister of Egypt three times during his career, his first term was between April 7, 1879 and August 18, 1879. His second term was served from September 14, 1881 to February 4, 1882, his final term was served between August 21, 1882 and January 7, 1884. Sherif, from Kavala in northern Greece, filled numerous administrative posts under Sa'id Pasha and Isma'il Pasha, he was better educated than most of his contemporaries, had married a daughter of Colonel Sèves, the French non-commissioned officer who became Suleiman Pasha under Mehmet Ali. As minister of foreign affairs he was useful to Ismail, who used Sherif's bluff bonhomie to veil many of his most insidious proposals. Of singularly lazy disposition, he yet possessed considerable tact. Sherif's favorite argument against any reform was to appeal to the Pyramids as an immutable proof of the solidity of Egypt financially and politically, his fatal optimism rendered him responsible for the collapse of Egyptian credit which brought about the fall of Ismail.
Upon the military insurrection of September 1881 under Urabi Pasha, Sherif was summoned by the khedive Tawfiq to form a new ministry. The impossibility of reconciling the financial requirements of the national party with the demands of the British and French controllers of the public debt, compelled him to resign in the following February. After the suppression of the Urabi Revolt he was again installed in office by Tawfiq, but in January 1884 he resigned rather than sanction the evacuation of the Sudan; as to the strength of the Mahdist movement he had no conception. When urged by Sir Evelyn Baring early in 1883 to abandon some of the more distant parts of the Sudan, he replied with characteristic light-heartedness: "Nous en causerons plus tard. Hicks Pasha's expedition was at the time preparing to march on El Obeid. Sherif died in Graz, Austria-Hungary, on April 20, 1887
Mohamed Mahmoud Pasha
Mohamed Mahmoud Pasha was Prime Minister of Egypt twice. Mahmud first became Prime Minister from June 27, 1928 to October 4, 1929, running under the Liberal Constitutional Party; when he left office, Sir Percy Lyham Loraine led Egypt as Governor General for two months until a new Prime Minister could be elected. After Egypt became an independent kingdom, Mahmud again was elected, this time as a member of the Wafd Party; this term lasted from December 29, 1937 to August 18, 1939. Anton Haggar sculpted a statue for him in 1941; the book'The Solimanian Family' depicts Mohamed Mahmoud Pacha's life in office, his relations to the British royal family, his commitments to serve Egypt as best as he could. A street was named after the prime minister, in the heart of Cairo, close to the famous Tahrir Square. Newspaper clippings about Mohamed Mahmoud Pasha in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Youssef Wahba Pasha Egyptian Prime Minister and jurist. Youssef Wahba was born in Egypt in 1852 of a prominent Coptic family, his father, Wahba Bey had been a founder of the first Coptic charitable society that included Muslim scholars such as Abdallah Nadim and Sheikh Muhammed Abduh. He translated the Code Napoleon into Arabic while at the Ministry of Justice between 1875 and 1882 and participated in setting the modern judicial system in Egypt becoming one of the first Egyptian judges in the Mixed Court of Appeals in 1894, he became Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1912 Minister of Finance from 15 April 1914 until 21 May 1920. As Minister of Finance, he introduced the first bank notes in Egypt backed by the full faith and credit of the Egyptian Sultanate which bore his signature as Minister of Finance, he became Prime Minister of Egypt in 1919 during a difficult period in Egypt's political life. Many members of the Coptic Christian community to which he belonged, objected to his accepting the premiership on the grounds that it would antagonize the relationship between Muslims and Christians when both were united under the Wafd Party to fight against the British occupation.
Youssef always maintained the view that it was critical that a government nominated by the Sultan of Egypt lead the country rather than have the British annex it. During his premiership, Youssef Wahba introduced several economic reforms including the removal of price controls on agricultural products a first in the history of Egypt, as well as the creation of the Banque Misr by Talaat Harb Pasha, the first national bank, he joined the first independent Senate when he was elected from a district in Alexandria in 1924. During his tenure in the Egyptian Senate, he supported various legislation relating to strengthening the independence of the Egyptian judicial system, he resisted the introduction of any special privileges for minorities in Egypt whether based on ethnicity or religion first suggested by the Brunyate Commission for Judicial reform in 1917. He retired from the Senate in 1930, he has two publications on the Commercial Code in Egypt, the first co-authored with Shafik Mansour Bey "Sharh Al Qanun Al Madani" and the second, co-authored with a fellow Judge from the Mixed Court Abdel Aziz Kahil Bey "Sharh Al Qanun Al Toujari Al Masri.
Youssef Wahba drafted the constitution of the Majllis Milli, the first Coptic Christian council to manage the affairs of the Coptic community in Egypt in 1882 outside of the control of the Coptic Orthodox Church. He died in 1934 and was married to Doudou, daughter of Mikhail Bey El Nakkadi and had eight children. Two of his sons Mourad Wahba Pasha and Sadek Wahba Pasha had prominent careers in the Egyptian judicial system and the diplomatic service respectively. Youssef Wahba's grandson, Sadek Wahba, is a notable New York City-based managing partner of a private equity firm I Squared Capital and member of the board of trustees of the American University in Cairo. Journal Officiel, various issues relating to nomination dates Zaghloul, Saad Muzakirat Saad Zaghloul, General Egyptian Book Organization, Arthur Re-Envisioning Egypt 1919-1952, The American University in Cairo Press Public Records Office, British Government Kew Gardens Daly, Martin Cambridge History of Egypt:volume 2: Modern Egypt, Cambridge University Press