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Abigail Adams

Abigail Adams was the wife and closest advisor of John Adams, as well as the mother of John Quincy Adams. She is sometimes considered to have been a Founder of the United States, is now designated as the first Second Lady and second First Lady of the United States, although these titles were not used at the time, she and Barbara Bush are the only two women to be the wife of one U. S. president and the mother of another. Adams's life is one of the most documented of the First Ladies: she is remembered for the many letters she wrote to her husband while he stayed in Philadelphia, during the Continental Congresses. John sought the advice of Abigail on many matters, their letters are filled with intellectual discussions on government and politics, her letters serve as eyewitness accounts of the American Revolutionary War home front. Abigail Adams was born at the North Parish Congregational Church in Weymouth, Massachusetts, to William Smith and Elizabeth Smith. On her mother's side, she was descended from the Quincy family, a well-known political family in the Massachusetts colony.

Through her mother she was a cousin of wife of John Hancock. Adams was the great-granddaughter of John Norton, founding pastor of Old Ship Church in Hingham, the only remaining 17th-century Puritan meetinghouse in Massachusetts. Smith married Elizabeth Quincy in 1742, together they had four children, including three daughters: one born in 1743, Abigail born in 1744 and another born in 1745, their only son, born in 1746, died of alcoholism in 1787. As with several of her ancestors, Adams's father was a liberal Congregational minister: a leader in a Yankee society that held its clergy in high esteem. Smith did not focus his preaching on original sin. In July 1775 his wife Elizabeth, with whom he had been married for 33 years, died of smallpox. In 1784, at age 77, Smith died. Abigail did not receive formal schooling. In life, Adams would consider that she was deprived an education because females were given such an opportunity. Although she did not receive a formal education, her mother taught her and her sisters Mary and Elizabeth to read and cipher.

Her grandmother, Elizabeth Quincy contributed to Adams' education. As she grew up, Adams read with friends in an effort to further her learning, she became one of the most erudite women to serve as First Lady. Abigail Smith first met John Adams when she was 15 years old in 1759. John accompanied his friend Richard Cranch to the Smith household. Cranch was engaged to Abigail's older sister, Mary Smith, they would be the parents of federal judge William Cranch. Adams reported finding the Smith sisters neither "fond, nor frank, nor candid."Although Adams' father approved of the match, her mother was appalled that her daughter would marry a country lawyer whose manner still reeked of the farm, but she gave in. The couple married on October 1764, in the Smiths' home in Weymouth. Smith, Abigail's father, presided over the marriage of his daughter. After the reception, the couple mounted a single horse and rode off to their new home, the small cottage and farm John had inherited from his father in Braintree, Massachusetts.

They moved to Boston, where his law practice expanded. The couple welcomed their first child nine months into their marriage. In 12 years, she gave birth to six children: Abigail John Quincy Adams Grace Susanna Charles Thomas Boylston Adams Elizabeth Her childrearing style included relentless and continual reminders of what the children owed to virtue and the Adams tradition. Adams was responsible for farm when her husband was on his long trips. "Alas!", she wrote in December 1773, "How many snow banks divide thee and me." Abigail and John's marriage is well documented through other writings. Letters exchanged throughout John's political obligations indicate his trust in Abigail's knowledge was sincere. Like her husband, Abigail quoted literature in her letters. Historian David McCullough claims, their correspondence illuminated their intellectual respect. John excused himself to Abigail for his "vanity", exposing his need for her approval, he moved the family to Boston in April 1768, renting a clapboard house on Brattle Street, known locally as the "White House."

He and Abigail and the children lived there for a year moved to Cold Lane. John's growing law practice required changes for the family. In 1771, he moved Abigail and the children to Braintree, but he kept his office in Boston, hoping the time away from his family would allow him to focus on his work. After some time in the capital, he became disenchanted with the rural and "vulgar" Braintree as a home for his family. In August 1772, Adams moved his family back to Boston, he purchased a large brick house on Queen Street, not far from his office. In 1774, Abigail and John returned the family to the farm due to the unstable situation in Boston, Braintree remained their permanent Massachusetts home. Abigail took responsibility for the

George Duke

George M. Duke was an American keyboardist, singer-songwriter and record producer, he worked with numerous artists as arranger, music director, writer and co-writer, record producer and as a professor of music. He first made a name for himself with the album The Jean-Luc Ponty Experience with the George Duke Trio, he was known for thirty-odd solo albums, of which A Brazilian Love Affair from 1979 was his most popular, as well as for his collaborations with other musicians Frank Zappa. George Duke was born in San Rafael and raised in Marin City. At four years old he became interested in the piano, his mother told him about this experience. "I don't remember it too well. I ran around saying'Get me a piano, get me a piano!'" He began his formal piano studies at the age of 7 at a local Baptist church. He attended Tamalpais High School in Mill Valley before earning a bachelor's degree in trombone and composition with a minor in contrabass from the San Francisco Conservatory of Music in 1967, he earned a master's degree in composition from San Francisco State University in 1975.

Although Duke started playing classical music, he credited his cousin Charles Burrell for convincing him to switch to jazz. He explained that he "wanted to be free" and Burrell "more or less made the decision for me" by convincing him to "improvise and do what you want to do", he taught a course on American culture at Merritt College in Oakland. Duke recorded his first album in 1966, his second was with whom he performed in San Francisco. After Frank Zappa and Cannonball Adderley heard him play, they invited him to join their bands, he spent two years with Zappa as a member of The Mothers of Invention, two years with Adderley returned to Zappa. Zappa played guitar solos on his album Feel, he recorded I Love the Blues She Heard My Cry with Zappa's bandmates Ruth Underwood, Tom Fowler, Bruce Fowler and jazz guitarist Lee Ritenour. In 1975, Duke fused jazz with pop and soul music on his album From Me to You. Three years his album Reach for It entered the pop charts, his audiences increased. During the 1980s his career moved to a second phase as he spent much of his time as a record producer.

He produced pop and R&B hits for A Taste of Honey, Jeffrey Osborne, Deniece Williams. His clients included Anita Baker, Rachelle Ferrell, Everette Harp, Gladys Knight, Melissa Manchester, Barry Manilow, The Pointer Sisters, Smokey Robinson and Take 6. Duke worked as musical director at the Nelson Mandela tribute concert at Wembley Stadium in London in 1988. In 1989, he temporarily replaced Marcus Miller as musical director of NBC's late-night music performance program Sunday Night during its first season, he was a judge for the second annual Independent Music Awards. He died on August 2013 in Los Angeles at the age of 67 from chronic lymphocytic leukemia; the Grammy Awards are awarded annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Duke has received two awards out of nine nominations, he was inducted into The SoulMusic Hall of Fame at SoulMusic.comAl Jarreau recorded the tribute album My Old Friend: Celebrating George Duke with songs written by Duke. Appearing the album were Gerald Albright, Stanley Clarke, Dr. John, Lalah Hathaway, Boney James, Marcus Miller, Jeffrey Osborne, Kelly Price, Dianne Reeves, Patrice Rushen.

The album received the 2015 NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Jazz Album. Official website George Duke on IMDb George Duke at NPR Music George Duke interview at allaboutjazz.com "New album, more treats". George Duke interview at allaboutjazz.com "Deja Vu". George Duke 2012 Interview Part 1 at Soulinterviews.com. George Duke 2012 Interview Part 2 at Soulinterviews.com. George Duke at Find a Grave Interview with George Duke - NAMM Oral History Library, July 20, 2010

Overcall

In contract bridge, an overcall is a bid made after an opening bid has been made by an opponent. A direct overcall is such a bid made by the player seated to the left of the opener, i.e. next in the bidding rotation. The overcaller has one or more of the following objectives: To secure the contract To suggest a good lead from partner To induce the opponents to a higher-level contract To find an effective sacrifice To hinder the opponents in their bidding In most bidding systems, an overcall in an unbid suit is natural, denoting length and strength in the suit bid; the common requirements include: A good five-card or any longer suit. 8-16+ high-card points for an overcall at the one-level. 10-16+ HCP for an overcall at the two-level. A higher level overcall requires at least opening-bid strength; the rule of thumb is that the weaker a hand is in high card points, the better the bid suit should be. ExamplesAccording to modern bridge theory, the following hands warrant a 1♥ overcall over an opposing 1♣ or 1♦ opening: ♠ 632 ♥ AKJ96 ♦ 8752 ♣ 4♠ A32 ♥ AKJ96 ♦ 752 ♣ 104♠ A3 ♥ AK986 ♦ KQ5 ♣ 742 Stronger hands such as ♠ A3 ♥ AK986 ♦ KQ5 ♣ Q42 are considered too strong for an overcall, should be bid via a takeout double followed by the most economical rebid in hearts.

Notrump overcalls at the one-level indicate 15-18 HCP in a balanced hand, with at least one stopper in opponent's suit. Stayman is on but transfers are off. ExampleThe hand ♠ KJ63 ♥ AQ2 ♦ A84 ♣ Q93 is suitable for a 1NT overcall over any opening bid, as well as a 2NT overcall over an opponent's weak two bid. Jump overcalls are made by skipping one level of bidding, e.g. 1♦ –. Jump overcalls are classified according to strength of hand as weak and strong. In the United States weak jump overcalls are considered normal, while intermediate and strong overcalls are not expected by the opponents and those treatments of the bid by partnership agreement require that the opponents be alerted to the meaning of the bid; the Four Aces team introduced the weak, "preemptive jump overcall" in the U. S. late in 1933, but the strong treatment was standard for decades, following the popular authorities Ely Culbertson and Charles Goren whose bidding systems incorporated the strong. Goren adopted the weak treatment in May 1955, two months before the ACBL introduced its first convention card, with "Pre-emptive single jump overcalls and responses" one of ten pre-printed items to be marked if applicable.

According to The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge, published by ACBL, the definitions of the three bids are as follows: Weak. A hand equivalent to a weak two bid opening in the 6-10 point range, below the strength for a normal overcall; the strength requirement declines. Intermediate. A hand about equivalent to a minimum opening. Used in balancing seat by those who use weak jump overcalls in other situations. Strong. A hand worth an opening bid followed by a jump; such a bid is sometimes used over weak two-bids by those who use weak jump overcalls in other situations. Thus, a weak jump overcall of 2♠ would be made with ♠ KQJ653 ♥ J53 ♦ 432 ♣ 3, while an intermediate jump overcall of 2♠ would be closer to or including opening bid values, like ♠ QJT532 ♥ AK3 ♦ J43 ♣ 3 or ♠ AKJ432 ♥ 3 ♦ 43 ♣ K432. Strong jump overcalls are not used in today's game except over a weak preemptive bid by an opponents. After 2♦, a jump overcall of 3♠ would reflect a hand such as ♠ AKQ543 ♥ AQ3 ♦ K94 ♣ 5; some partnerships utilise more exotic overcalls.

An example are the canapé overcalls used by the Italian top pair Norberto Giorgio Duboin. In canapé overcalls the suit bid contains a three card, whilst the hand contains a five card in another suit. Conventional overcalls, such as Michaels cuebid, Unusual notrump and Raptor, denote specific hand types; the partner of the overcaller is called the Advancer. In response to partner's overcall, Advancer bids as follows: pass: weak hand Single raise: three or more trumps, 7-10 total points, including distribution cue bid: Three or more trumps, invitational or better. Game or slam may be bid from this starting point. 11+ total points. May be a notrump response with 16+ HCP, clarified on the next round of bidding. Jump raise: four or more trumps, weak; the distinction between a weak jump raise and a single raise may be based on the constructive values contained in the hand, such as HCP. The fewer the values and the greater the number of trumps, the more the jump raise will interfere with the opponents' bidding while warning partner of lack of HCP assets.

Preemptive raises are based on four or more trumps and shortness in a side suit. New suit: at least five cards. Depending on agreements, either forcing one round or constructive. 10 or more HCP. Jump shift: A good six card suit and opening bid values or better. Forcing for one round. 1NT: 8-11 HCP, no fit, stopper in opener's suit. 2NT: 12-15 HCP, no fit, stopper in opponent's suit. Takeout double Leaping Michaels Unusual notrump Ghestem Raptor List of defenses to 1NT CitationsDowney, Ned. Standard Bidding with SAYC. Toronto: Master Point Press. ISBN 978-1-897106-03-7. Lawrence, Mike; the Complete Book on Overcalls in Contract Bridge. Toronto: Master Po