An abjad is a type of writing system in which each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel. So-called impure abjads do represent vowels, either with optional diacritics, a limited number of distinct vowel glyphs, or both; the name abjad is based on the Arabic alphabet's first four letters—a, b, j, d—to replace the common terms "consonantary" or "consonantal alphabet" to refer to the family of scripts called West Semitic. The name "abjad" is derived from pronouncing the first letters of the Arabic alphabet order in the original order; the ordering of Arabic letters used to match that of the older Hebrew and Semitic alphabets: aleph, gimel, dalet. According to the formulations of Peter T. Daniels, abjads differ from alphabets in that only consonants, not vowels, are represented among the basic graphemes. Abjads differ from abugidas, another category defined by Daniels, in that in abjads, the vowel sound is implied by phonology, where vowel marks exist for the system, such as nikkud for Hebrew and ḥarakāt for Arabic, their use is optional and not the dominant form.
Abugidas mark a minor attachment to the letter, or a standalone glyph. Some abugidas use a special symbol to suppress the inherent vowel so that the consonant alone can be properly represented. In a syllabary, a grapheme denotes a complete syllable, that is, either a lone vowel sound or a combination of a vowel sound with one or more consonant sounds; the antagonism of abjad versus alphabet, as it was formulated by Daniels, has been rejected by some other scholars because abjad is used as a term not only for the Arabic numeral system but, most important in terms of historical grammatology as term for the alphabetic device of ancient Northwest Semitic scripts in opposition to the'south Arabian' order. This caused fatal effects on terminology in general and in Semitic philology, it suggests that consonantal alphabets, in opposition to, for instance, the Greek alphabet, were not yet true alphabets and not yet complete, lacking something important to be a working script system. It has been objected that, as a set of letters, an alphabet is not the mirror of what should be there in a language from a phonological point of view.
The first abjad to gain widespread usage was the Phoenician abjad. Unlike other contemporary scripts, such as cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphs, the Phoenician script consisted of only a few dozen symbols; this made the script easy to learn, seafaring Phoenician merchants took the script throughout the then-known world. The Phoenician abjad was a radical simplification of phonetic writing, since hieroglyphics required the writer to pick a hieroglyph starting with the same sound that the writer wanted to write in order to write phonetically, much as man'yōgana was used to represent Japanese phonetically before the invention of kana. Phoenician gave rise to a number of new writing systems, including the Greek alphabet and Aramaic, a used abjad; the Greek alphabet evolved into the modern western alphabets, such as Latin and Cyrillic, while Aramaic became the ancestor of many modern abjads and abugidas of Asia. Impure abjads have characters for optional vowel diacritics, or both; the term pure abjad refers to scripts lacking in vowel indicators.
However, most modern abjads, such as Arabic, Hebrew and Pahlavi, are "impure" abjads – that is, they contain symbols for some of the vowel phonemes, although the said non-diacritic vowel letters are used to write certain consonants approximants that sound similar to long vowels. A "pure" abjad is exemplified by early forms of ancient Phoenician, though at some point it and most of the contemporary Semitic abjads had begun to overload a few of the consonant symbols with a secondary function as vowel markers, called matres lectionis; this practice was at first rare and limited in scope but became common and more developed in times. In the 9th century BC the Greeks adapted the Phoenician script for use in their own language; the phonetic structure of the Greek language created too many ambiguities when vowels went unrepresented, so the script was modified. They did not need letters for the guttural sounds represented by aleph, he, heth or ayin, so these symbols were assigned vocalic values; the letters waw and yod were adapted into vowel signs.
The major innovation of Greek was to dedicate these symbols and unambiguously to vowel sounds that could be combined arbitrarily with consonants. Abugidas developed along a different route; the basic consonantal symbol was considered to have an inherent "a" vowel sound. Hooks or short lines attached to various parts of the basic letter modify the vowel. In this way, the South Arabian alphabet evolved into the Ge'ez alphabet between the 5th century BC and the 5th century AD. Around the 3rd century BC, the Brāhmī script developed; the other major family of abugidas, Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, was developed in the 1840s by missionary and linguist James Evans for the Cree and Ojibwe languages. Evans used features of Devanagari script a
Tombolo Vigontina San Paolo F. C. is an Italian association football team of the city of Vigonza, Veneto. It plays in Promozione; the club was founded in 2010 after the merger with A. S. San Paolo and the Serie D club of Albignasego Calcio, founded in 1959, its first official football match in Serie D was on 29 August 2010, against Treviso, for the Coppa Italia di Serie D: San Paolo Padova won the match by 2–0. It was played on the neutral venue of Rovigo, since Stadio Plebiscito was still not available for football matches. In the summer of 2014, the San Paolo Padova S.r.l. Declares bankruptcy. On 11 July, the A. R. L. S. S. D. Atletico San Paolo Padova detects rights. At the end of the 2014–15 season in Serie D, relegated to Eccellenza. June 22, 2015 Atletico San Paolo Padova changes its name in Luparense San Paolo Football Club moving in San Martino di Lupari, forming the main team of the city. August 5 is admitted at 2015–16 Serie D. June 17, 2016 Luparense San Paolo Football Club changes its name in Vigontina San Paolo Football Club moving in Vigonza, forming the main team of the city.
At the end of the 2016–17 season in Serie D/C, they were relegated to Eccellenza. June 9, 2018 Vigontina San Paolo Football Club changes its name in Tombolo Vigontina San Paolo Football Club moving te first team in Tombolo; the team's colors are black. San Paolo Calcio and blue, 1965–2010 San Paolo Padova and blue, 2010–2014 Atletico San Paolo Padova and blue, 2014–2015 Luparense San Paolo and blue, 2015–2016 Vigontina San Paolo and black, 2016-2018 Tombolo Vigontina San Paolo and black, 2018-now Official website Official page on Facebook History of San Paolo Padova S.r.l. on web.archive.org
Stanija Dobrojević is a Serbian television personality and model. Recognised as a sex symbol, she was featured on the covers of FHM and Playboy. Dobrojević was the winner of the 2015 season of Farma. Stanija was born in Virovitica in Socialist Federal Republic of nowadays Croatia; as a child, she lost her father during the Yugoslav Wars and was forced to flee Croatia and move several times alongside her family. They settled down in Ruma, where she grew up, she graduated with a Master's in Economics at the state University of Novi Sad. Survivor Srbija VIP: Costa Rica - ejected Farma 4 - runner-up Farma 6 - winner Zadruga 2 - second runner-up List of glamour models Stanija Dobrojević on Instagram
The Fharmacist is the eighth album released by MC Breed. It was released on May 8, 2001 for Fharmacy Recordings and featured production from MC Breed, Jazze Pha, The D. O. C. Dog, Corey Peterson and Gee Pierce. By the time this album was released, Breed's popularity had decreased, thus the album did not make it to the Billboard charts, his single "Let's Go To The Club" received massive airplay in his native Detroit area, but not as much elsewhere. It is his most successful single since 1991's "Ain't No Future in Yo Frontin'". On September 17, 2001, "Let's Go to the Club" broke the record for any other Detroit radio airplays. "Intro"- 2:47 "Let's Go to the Club"- 4:22 "Baller"- 4:28 "Off the Dribble"- 4:29 "Goodie"- 3:27 "Ounce in Her Boot"- 3:56 "How Many Niggas You Know"- 3:55 "Interlude"-:57 "Hot Ones"- 3:25 "Killa Instinct"- 2:20 "Show Me How It Work"- 3:16 "Bullet Proof"- 4:09 "You Don't Know"- 3:23 "Outro"- 2:25
Upptåg was the third album from Swedish singer/songwriter Ted Gärdestad, released in 1974 on the Polar Music label. It contains the hits "Fantomen", "Silver", "Eiffeltornet" and "Viking"; the album was produced by Benny Andersson, Björn Ulvaeus and Ted, engineered by Michael B. Tretow and features vocals by Anni-Frid Lyngstad. A non-album single followed in early 1975, the Melodifestivalen entry "Rockin'n' Reelin'", backed with an English-language version of the track "Jag Ska Fånga En Ängel" from 1973 album Ted, entitled "Gonna Make You My Angel". Both the English-language version of "Rockin'n' Reelin'" and "Gonna Make You My Angel" remain unreleased on CD. Music by Ted Gärdestad, lyrics by Kenneth Gärdestad Side A: "Silver" – 3:33 "Öppna din himmel" – 2:43 "Viking" – 3:37 "Buffalo Bill" – 3:53 "Love Comes" – 3:18Side B: "Eiffeltornet" – 3:04 "Goliat från gat" – 3:54 "Can't Stop The Train" – 3:18 "Fantomen" – 3:02 "Regnbågen" – 2:04 Ted Gärdestad – lead vocals, acoustic guitar Benny Andersson – honky-tonk piano, Moog synthesizer, Mellotron Björn J:son Lindh – piano, flute Janne Schaffer – electric guitar Lasse Wellander – acoustic guitar Mike Watson – bass guitar Johnny Gustafsson – bass Ola Brunkert – drums Bengt Belfrage – horn "Regnbågen" Kenneth Arnström – soprano saxophone "Eiffeltornet", alto saxophone "Silver" Christer Eklund – tenor saxophone "Buffalo Bill" Jan Kling – tenor saxophone "Buffalo Bill" Malando Gassama – congas Agnetha Fältskog – backing vocals Anni-Frid Lyngstad – backing vocals Lena Karlsson-Ericsson – backing vocals Liza Öhman – backing vocals Kai Kjäll – backing vocals Benny Andersson – producer Björn Ulvaeus – producer Ted Gärdestad – producer Michael B.
Tretow – sound engineer Rune Persson – sound engineer Åke Elmsäter – sound engineer Björn J:son Lindh – strings and brass arrangements Recorded at Metronome Studios, Stockholm Originally released as Polar POLS 253, 1974. Official home page, The Ted Gärdestad Society Liner notes Upptåg, Ted Gärdestad, Polar Music POLS 253, 1974. Allmusic.com entry, Upptåg, Ted Gärdestad, 1974
Cristian Eduardo Esnal Fernández is a Salvadoran footballer of Uruguayan descent, who last played professionally for Club Atlético River Plate. Esnal is Cousin of Alexis Rolín, he began his career playing for C. D. Chalatenango. After that season he caught the attention of C. D. Águila. He failed to see any playing time. In October 2009, Esnal left Águila to join second division side Dragón. On July 27, 2010, Esnal signed to Uruguayan first division club Montevideo Wanderers, he was called up by Ruben Israel for the El Salvador friendly against Venezuela. On August 7, 2011, Esnal started the match but was subbed-out at the 67th minute for a more offensive technique. Cristian abruptly canceled his contract with UES and left El Salvador in 2013 and moved to his father's birth country of Uruguay because his family was threatened by extortionists, he signed a contract with River Plate in 2014. As of April 2017, he resides in Los Angeles, is a free agent, he played during the 2017 Spring Season with Ozzy's Laguna FC and Santa Clarita Storm, was selected once as UPSL National Player Of The Week and received All-UPSL Team honors for the 2017 Spring Season.
El Salvador's goal tally first. "Profile at Montevideo Wanderers". Archived from the original on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2010-08-12. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown Cristian Esnal at National-Football-Teams.com