Arabic is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE. It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world, it is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in Northwestern Arabia and in the Sinai Peninsula. The ISO assigns language codes to thirty varieties of Arabic, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic referred to as Literary Arabic, modernized Classical Arabic; this distinction exists among Western linguists. Arabic is taught in schools and universities and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. Arabic, in its standard form, is the official language of 26 states, as well as the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. During the Middle Ages, Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy; as a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it.

Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages—mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese and Catalan—owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language presence in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words, many of which relate to agriculture and related activities, as a legacy of the Emirate of Sicily from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries, while Maltese language is a Semitic language developed from a dialect of Arabic and written in the Latin alphabet; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many other languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Azeri, Hindustani, Kurdish, Kazakh, Malay, Pashto, Spanish, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa and some languages in parts of Africa.

Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Hebrew, Greek and Persian in medieval times and languages such as English and French in modern times. Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is but not universally, classified as a Central Semitic language, it is related to languages in other subgroups of the Semitic language group, such as Aramaic, Hebrew, Phoenician, Amorite, Eblaite, epigraphic Ancient North Arabian, epigrahic Ancient South Arabian, Modern South Arabian, numerous other dead and modern languages. Linguists still differ as to the best classification of Semitic language sub-groups.

The Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the emergence of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms; the development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken.

It is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time. To the north, in the oases of northern Hejaz and Taymanitic held some presti

Rage comic

A rage comic is a short comic using a growing set of pre-made cartoon faces, or rage faces, which express rage or some other simple emotion or activity. They are crudely-drawn in Microsoft Paint or other simple drawing programs, were most popular in the early 2000s; these webcomics have spread much in the same way that internet memes do, several memes have originated in this medium. They have been characterized by Ars Technica as an "accepted and standardized form of online communication." The popularity of rage comics has been attributed to their use as vehicles for humorizing shared experiences. The range of expression and standardized identifiable faces has allowed uses such as teaching English as a foreign language. Although used on numerous websites such as Reddit, Cheezburger, ESS. MX, 9GAG, the source of the rage comic has been attributed to 4chan in mid-2004; the first rage comic was posted to the 4chan /b/random board in 2005. It was a simple 4-panel strip showing the author's anger about getting "splashback" while on the toilet, with the final panel featuring a zoomed-in face, known as Rage Guy, saying" FFFFFFFUUUUUUUUUUUU-".

It was reposted and modified, with other users creating new scenarios and characters. Google Trends data shows that the term "rage guy" peaked in April 2008 while the terms "rage comics" and "troll face" both peaked in March 2009. One of the most used rage comic faces is the trollface, drawn by Oakland artist Carlos Ramirez in 2005. Posted in a comic to his DeviantArt account Whynne about Internet trolling on 4chan, the trollface is a recognizable image of Internet memes and culture. Ramirez has used his creation, registered with the United States Copyright Office in 2007, to gain over $100,000 in licensing fees and other payouts; the video game Meme Run for Nintendo's Wii U console was taken down for having the trollface as the main character. List of Internet memes

Texas Music Office

The Texas Music Office is a state-funded business promotion office and information clearinghouse for the Texas music industry. It is headquartered in the State Insurance Building in Austin. More than 14,000 individual clients use TMO resources and assistance each year, including more than 8,600 direct referrals to Texas music businesses and event planners; the TMO is the sister office to the Texas Film Commission, both of which are within the Office of the Governor. By creating the Texas Music Commission in 1985, the 70th session of the Texas Legislature identified music as an industry in need of state government recognition and assistance; the TMC was a nine-member advisory board appointed by the Governor Mark White that held hearings for and issued annual reports to the Legislature. Its primary advocate was House Speaker Gib Lewis, whose staff, notably Bekki Lammert, handled the support for the volunteer Commission's nine members; this was the first law passed by a state legislature in the United States creating an office promoting commercial music business.

The Austin Music Industry Council initiated and the Texas Legislature in 1987 appropriated $25,000 to the new Texas Department of Commerce to further research the music industry and to determine the best way for a state entity to assist music business development. In 1988 TDC funded Texas' first Group Stand at MIDEM, at that time the world's largest music business convention, consisting of various Texas music businesses presenting their music at the Palais des Festivals in Cannes, France; the TMC recommended the creation of a staffed office in the Executive branch promoting music business as a sister office to the Texas Film Commission. As part of the TDC budget, the Texas Legislature passed a new law that stated, " The office shall promote the development of the music industry in the state by informing members of that industry and the public about the resources available in the state for music production."In September 1989, the TFC appropriated $39,000 for music and posted a job notice for the first director of the TMO.

TFC Director Joseph Dial and Deputy Director Tom Copeland selected Casey Monahan, a music journalist with the Austin American-Statesman since 1985. The TMO opened January 20, 1990 during the administration of Texas Governor William P. Clements. During its first year the TMO interviewed more than 1,000 music businesses and compiled Texas' first Business Referral Network for music. In January 1991, Ann Richards was sworn in as Texas Governor. One of her first legislative requests was to move the TMO and the TFC from the Texas Department of Commerce to the Office of the Governor. Richards' longtime personal interest in Texas music and film raised the public profile of both industries, bringing these two programs into the Governor's Office institutionalized music and film as key parts of Texas' future economic growth plans. Other Richards music milestones include publishing the first Texas Music Industry Directory, her "Welcome to Texas" speech to the opening-day registrants of the 1993 South By Southwest conference.

In March 1991, the TMO published the first of 16 annual editions of the Texas Music Industry Directory. The TMID, released concurrently with SXSW, went from 199 pages with 1,169 listings in 1991, to 432 pages with 15,278 listings in its final edition in 2006; the TMID referenced 96 different types of music business and was edited by Monahan along with Deb Freeman, Jodi Jenkins, Andrew Leeper who served as publications coordinator with the TMO. The 1993, 1994 and 1997 editions are housed in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Library and Archives. In 1994, Monahan joined Austin area artist manager Carlyne Majer, Asleep at the Wheel band leader Ray Benson, SXSW director Roland Swenson, City of Austin music liaison Bob Meyer to bring the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences to Texas in 1994: the first new NARAS chapter in 22 years; that same year, the TMO created its first annual calendar of annual live music events, in 1995, the TMO collaborated with the Texas State Library & Archives Commission to create its first website,

In 1999, the TMO created the first statewide referral network for Mariachi Education and Mariachi Talent. In 1999, the TMO collaborated with the University of Texas School of Law Fellowship recipient Kate Hayman to produce Getting Started in the Texas Music Business; this online publication provides answers to basic legal and business questions associated with the music industry. The 2011 edition has been expanded to cover many Internet-related topics, including digital music copyright law; the TMO brought together the Texas State Historical Association and Texas State University's new Center for Texas Music History to publish The Handbook of Texas Music, an encyclopedia of the state's rich musical history and heritage in 2001. That same year, the TMO began its annual Capitol Salute to Texas Music, a reception during South by Southwest bringing together state legislators with music industry leaders to discuss music opportunities and to hear Texas legends such as Johnny Gimble, W. C. Clark, Junior Brown, Randy Garibay, Reckless Kelly, Ryan Bingham, Hayes Carll.

In 2002, the TMO created the Texas Music History Tour, an online guide to the large number of classic Texas music venues and historical music sites. The Texas Legislature passed a bill authored by former Sam Lightnin' Hopkins' bassist Rep. Ron Wilson creating an Enjoy Texas Music special license plate, which Governor Rick Perry signed into law in 2003. $22 of the $30 extra fee goes into a TMO-administered fund that awards grants to schools to purchase musical instruments and lesson from Texas retailers and instructors. In 2005, the TMO w