Rizpah was the daughter of Aiah, one of Saul's concubines. She was the mother of Mephibosheth. After the death of Saul, according to the Bible, Abner was accused of sleeping with Rizpah, resulting in a quarrel between him and Saul's son and successor, Ishbosheth; the quarrel led to Abner's defection to David, king of the breakaway Kingdom of Judah. This incident led to the downfall of Ishbosheth and the rise of David as king of a reunited Kingdom of Israel. A famine lasting three years hit Israel during the earlier half of David's reign at Jerusalem; this calamity was believed to have happened because of "Saul and for his bloody house, because he slew the Gibeonites." The Gibeonites were not Israelites, but the remnant of the Amorites, which Saul pursued from within Israel. David inquired of the Gibeonites what satisfaction they demanded, was answered that nothing would compensate for the wrong Saul had done to them but the death of seven of Saul's sons. David accordingly delivered up to them the two sons of Rizpah and five of the sons of Merab, Saul's eldest daughter, whom she bore to Adriel.
These the Gibeonites put to death, hung up their bodies at the sanctuary at Gibeah. Rizpah thereupon took her place on the rock of Gibeah, for five months watched the suspended bodies of her children, to prevent them from being devoured by the beasts and birds of prey, till they were at length taken down and buried by David in the family grave at Zelah with the bones of Saul and Jonathan.. British rabbi Jonathan Magonet has described Rizpah as "every mother who sees her sons killed before their time for reasons of state, be they in time of peace or in war. All that remains is for her to preserve the dignity of their memory and live on to bear witness and call to account the rulers of the world"; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Matthew George. "article name needed". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons
King David (musical)
King David is a musical, sometimes described as a modern oratorio, with a book and lyrics by Tim Rice and music by Alan Menken. The musical is based on Biblical tales from the Books of Samuel and 1 Chronicles, as well as text from David's Psalms. King David is sung-through with little dialogue, the music swings from pop to jazz to grand choral arrangements, it uses a large choir. The work was conceived as an outdoor piece to commemorate the 3,000th anniversary of the city of Jerusalem. However, according to Rice, "When it proved logistically and financially impossible to do it and Disney took an interest, we changed gears.... We felt we'd been commissioned to write it as an oratorio, still hoped it would be performed as such in Israel.... We should have emphasized that more to avoid being judged as a Broadway show." ACT ONE 1. PROLOGUE: King David, the great King of all Israel, is dying, his long-serving general and henchman, ushers Bathsheba, her young son Solomon, into the King’s presence. Bathsheba is determined that Solomon, rather than any of David’s sons by other wives, will succeed to the throne.
The death of Bathsheba’s first husband Uriah, engineered by David many years before, remains an horrendous stain on their lives. She believes complete atonement for the crime is only possible if their son becomes a God-fearing king; the cynic Joab is unimpressed. He reminds Bathsheba that if it had not been for the profit Samuel’s strange choice of Saul as Israel’s first king, none of this would have mattered. 2. SAMUEL: Joab recalls how Samuel deliberately chose Israel’s first king to be a man he thought would not be up to the job, in order that the people would demand a return to rule by holy judges, controlled by Samuel. Saul however is a great success and Samuel is forced to undermine the military victories of the king he appointed. Samuel tells Saul that he had disobeyed God’s command by sparing the life of Agag, the defeated Amalekite king. Saul is appalled when Samuel murders Agag in cold blood and the rift between king and prophet widens irrevocably. Samuel determines to find a replacement for Saul and travels to Bethlehem whence he has heard tales of a gifted youth, the son of Jesse.
On meeting David, Samuel realizes that the young shepherd is a future leader of Israel. Samuel anoints a bewildered but composed David. 3. SAUL: Saul wrestles with his inner demons, his court is awash with rumor that Samuel is attempting to depose Saul and replace him with David, who happens to be a cousin of the ubiquitous Joab. In any event, David has been summoned to sing for Saul, his Psalm of devotion to God calms the restless king who, in relaxed mood, asks David about himself and about his contact with Samuel. David gives little away. Before David is sent home, Joab introduces him to Saul’s son, to Saul’s daughter, Michal, he is captivated by Michal and the seeds of the greatest of friendships, between David and Jonathan, are sewn. 4. GOLIATH: The Israelite and Philistine armies face each other across the Valley of Elah. Neither side is able to advance; the Philistines parade one of their number up and down the valley, the gargantuan Goliath, who hurls a continuous stream of abuse towards the Israelites.
Goliath challenges the Israelites to find a champion to fight him, the winner of this personal conflict to determine the outcome of the larger battle. No Israelite soldier is willing to face the giant and Saul is paralyzed with indecision. David appears with provisions for his brothers, some of whom are in the Israelite army. To the amusement of all, David volunteers to fight Goliath on behalf of Israel, he is taken to Saul. Saul assumes. David is delighted to accept the deal. Saul is convinced that David grants him permission to fight. David kills the slow moving Goliath with a stone from his sling and the elated Israelites rout the Philistines. David, who has become a national hero, is made a general to Saul’s forces. David vows to return the Ark of the Covenant to Israel, he marries Michael. She is as in love with him. 5. JONATHAN: Public enthusiasm for David is overwhelming. Jonathan, with whom David has sworn a covenant of friendship, warns David that Saul is dangerously resentful of his protege’s success and popularity.
David attempts to show his unwavering respect and love for Saul but this time his Psalm is greeted by violent anger and an attempt on his life. David is urged by both Michal to leave the court before he is killed. Joab has switched allegiance to David and leads him into exile following his emotional farewell to wife and closest friend. 6. EXILE: David and his few supporters are on the run. David “the hunted partridge on the hill.” An enraged Saul gives Michal to a new husband. Years pass. David renews his promise to regain the Ark and increases his outlaw following. Saul is now assailed by both the David. One night Joab informs David that Saul has camped within a mile of David’s settlement and this would be the chance to take him by surprise and destroy him. David decides otherwise and sneaks into Saul’s headquarters on his own, stealing the king’s water and spear as proof of his nocturnal visit and mercy; the rivals address each other across a valley. The paranoid Saul cannot understand why David did not kill him, yet accuses him of wanting to claim his crown and taunts him about Michal.
David by now has a son he loves dearly, Absalom, by one of his new wives, but laments the loss of Michel and his rejection by Sau
A mezuzah comprises a piece of parchment called a klaf contained in a decorative case and inscribed with specific Hebrew verses from the Torah. These verses consist of the Jewish prayer Shema Yisrael, beginning with the phrase: "Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One". In mainstream Rabbinic Judaism, a mezuzah is affixed to the doorpost of Jewish homes to fulfill the mitzvah to "write the words of God on the gates and doorposts of your house"; some interpret Jewish law to require a mezuzah in every doorway in the home except bathrooms, laundry rooms and closets, if they are too small to qualify as rooms. The klaf parchment is prepared by a qualified scribe who has undergone training, both in studying the relevant religious laws, in the more practical parts i.e. carving the quill and practising writing. The verses are written in black indelible ink with a special quill pen made either from a feather or, in what are now rare cases, a reed; the parchment is rolled up and placed inside the case.
This article deals with the mezuzah as it is used in Rabbinic Judaism. Karaite Judaism and Samaritanism have their own distinct traditions. In Karaite Judaism the deuteronomic verse "And you shall write them on the doorposts of your houses and your gates" is interpreted to be a metaphor and not as referring to the Rabbanite mezuzah, thus Karaites do not traditionally use mezuzot, but put up a little plaque in the shape of the two Tables of the Law with the Ten Commandments. In Israel, where they might try not to make other Jews feel uncomfortable, many Karaites make an exception and place a mezuzah on their doorpost as well; the Karaite version of the mezuzah is fixed to the doorways of public buildings and sometimes to private buildings, too. The Samaritans interpret the deuteronomic commandment to mean displaying any select text from the Samaritan version of the five Books of Moses; this can contain a blessing or a holy or uplifting message. In the past they placed a stone plaque inscribed with the Ten Commandments above the house door, some examples dating back to the Byzantine and Early Muslim periods being now shown in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.
Nowadays a Samaritan mezuzah is made of either marble, a wooden plate, or a sheet of parchment or high quality paper, on which they inscribe select verses from the Samaritan Torah. This they place either above the house door, or inside the house, in the entrance hall or at a prominent place on a large wall; these mezuzot are found in every Samaritan household as well as in the synagogue. Today some Samaritans would use a Jewish-style mezuzah case and place inside it a small written Samaritan scroll, i.e. a text from the Samaritan Torah, written in the Samaritan alphabet. The more such mezuzot there are in the house, the better it is considered to be. According to halakha, the mezuzah should be placed on the right side of the door or doorpost, in the upper third of the doorpost, within 3 inches of the doorway opening. Care should be taken to not tear or damage the parchment or the wording on it, as this will invalidate the mezuzah, considered Torah. Halakha requires that mezuzot be affixed within 30 days of moving into a rented house or apartment.
This applies to Jews living in the Diaspora. For a purchased home or apartment in the Diaspora, or a residence in Israel, the mezuzah is affixed upon moving in; the reason for this difference is that there is an assumption that when a Jew lives in Israel, Israel shall remain his/her permanent residence, whereas a home in the diaspora is temporary. Mezuzot are special objects and must be taken care of and according to Jewish laws and traditions. Where the doorway is wide enough, many Ashkenazi Jews tilt the mezuzah so that the top slants toward the room into which the door opens; this is done to accommodate the variant opinions of Rashi and of his grandson, Rabbeinu Tam, as to whether it should be placed vertically or horizontally, to imply that God and the Torah are entering the room. The compromise solution has been suggested by Rabbi Jacob ben Asher. Most Sephardic and other non-Ashkenazi Jews affix the mezuzah vertically, though Spanish and Portuguese Jews living in countries where the majority of Jews are Ashkenazim place it slanting.
The procedure is to hold the mezuzah against the spot upon which it will be affixed recite a blessing: בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשַׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ לִקְבּוֹעַ מְזוּזָה Barukh atah Adonai Eloheinu melekh ha‘olam, asher qideshanu bemitzvotav vetzivanu liqboa‘ mezuzah. Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the Universe, Who sanctified us with His mitzvot, commanded us to affix a mezuzah. Any Jew can recite the blessing provided he or she is old enough to understand the significance of the mitzvah. After the blessing, the mezuzah is attached. Whenever passing through the doorway, many people touch a finger to the mezuzah as a way of showing respect to God in a simpler fashion than saying the prayer; when affixing several mezuzot, it is sufficient to recite the blessing once, before affixing the first one. Many observant Jews from all Jewish denominations have a qualified scribe check the mezuzot parchments for defects at least twice every seven years.
This job can be done by anyone with similar training. A sofer can make new
Goliath is described in the biblical Book of Samuel as a Philistine giant defeated by the young David in single combat. The story signified Saul's unfitness as Saul himself should have fought for Israel; the phrase "David and Goliath" has taken on a more popular meaning, denoting an underdog situation, a contest where a smaller, weaker opponent faces a much bigger, stronger adversary. Saul and the Israelites are facing the Philistines in the Valley of Elah. Twice a day for 40 days and evening, the champion of the Philistines, comes out between the lines and challenges the Israelites to send out a champion of their own to decide the outcome in single combat, but Saul is afraid. David, bringing food for his elder brothers, hears that Goliath has defied the armies of God and of the reward from Saul to the one that defeats him, accepts the challenge. Saul reluctantly agrees and offers his armor, which David declines, taking only his staff and five stones from a brook. David and Goliath confront each other, Goliath with his armor and javelin, David with his staff and sling.
"The Philistine cursed David by his gods", but David replies: "This day the Lord will deliver you into my hand, I will strike you down. David hurls a stone from his sling and hits Goliath in the center of his forehead, Goliath falls on his face to the ground, David cuts off his head; the Philistines flee and are pursued by the Israelites "as far as Gath and the gates of Ekron". David puts the armor of Goliath in his own tent and takes the head to Jerusalem, Saul sends Abner to bring the boy to him; the king asks whose son he is, David answers, "I am the son of your servant Jesse the Bethlehemite." The Books of Samuel, together with the books of Joshua and Kings, make up a unified history of Israel which biblical scholars call the Deuteronomistic history. The first edition of the history was written at the court of Judah's King Josiah and a revised second edition during the exile, with further revisions in the post-exilic period. Traces of this can be seen in the contradictions and illogicalities of the Goliath story - to take a few examples, David turns from Saul's adult shield-bearer into a child herding sheep for his father, Saul finds it necessary to send for him when as the king's shield-bearer he should be beside his royal master, has to ask who David is, which sits strangely with David's status at his court.
The Goliath story is made up of base-narrative with numerous additions made after the exile: Original storyThe Israelites and Philistines face each other. AdditionsDavid is sent by his father to bring food to his brothers, hears the challenge, expresses his desire to accept. Goliath's stature as described in various ancient manuscripts varies: the oldest manuscripts, the Dead Sea Scrolls text of Samuel, the 1st-century historian Josephus, the 4th-century Septuagint manuscripts, all give his height as "four cubits and a span", whereas the Masoretic Text gives this as "six cubits and a span". Large numbers of scholars believe that the "taller" reading is based on an exaggeration, that the "shorter" reading is original, although some disagree; the underlying purpose of the story of Goliath is to show. Saul was chosen to lead the Israelites against their enemies, but when faced with Goliath he refuses to do so. Saul's exact height is not given, but he was a head taller than anyone else in all Israel, which implies he was over 6 feet tall and supposed to be the obvious challenger for Goliath, David is the one who defeated him.
Saul's armour and weaponry are no worse than Goliath's. "David declares that when a lion or bear came and attacked his father's sheep, he battled against it and killed it, has been cowering in fear instead of rising up and attacking the threat to his sheep." 2 Samuel 21:19 tells how Goliath the Gittite was killed by "Elhanan the son of Jaare-oregim, the Bethlehemite." According to Baruch Halperin, "Most storytellers displaced the deed from the otherwise obscure Elhanan onto the more famous character, David." The fourth-century BC 1 Chronicles explains the second Goliath by saying that Elhanan "slew Lahmi the brother of Goliath", constructing the name Lahmi from the last portion of the word "Bethlehemite", the King James Bible adopted this into 2 Samuel 21:18–19, although the Hebrew text at this point makes no mention of the word "brother". The armor described in 1 Samuel 17 appears typical of Greek armor of the sixth century BCE rather than of Philistines armor of the tenth century. Narrative formulae such as the settlement of battle by single combat between champions has been thought characteristic of the Homeric epics, rather than of the ancient Near East.
The designation of Goliath as a איש הביניים, "man of the in-between" appears to be a borrowing from Greek "man of the metaikh
Benjamin of Tudela
Benjamin of Tudela was a medieval Jewish traveler who visited Europe and Africa in the 12th century. His vivid descriptions of western Asia preceded those of Marco Polo by a hundred years. With his broad education and vast knowledge of languages, Benjamin of Tudela is a major figure in medieval geography and Jewish history; the Travels of Benjamin is an important work not only as a description of the Jewish communities, but as a reliable source about the geography and ethnography of the Middle Ages. Some modern historians credit Benjamin with giving accurate descriptions of everyday life in the Middle Ages. Written in Hebrew, his itinerary was translated into Latin and translated into most major European languages, it received much attention from Renaissance scholars in the 16th century. His journeys reveal the concurrent interconnectedness and diversity of Jewish communities during this time period. Little is known of his early life, apart from the fact that he was from the Navarrese town of Tudela in what is now Spain.
Today, a street in the aljama is named after him. There is no consensus among scholars as to Benjamin of Tudela's exact route, although most scholars believe from his itinerary that he travelled on a popular route frequented by travelers at the time. Benjamin set out on his journey from the northeast Iberian Peninsula around 1165, in what may have begun as a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, it has been suggested. Several times the subject shows an interest in the coral trade as a professional gem-merchant. On the other hand, he may have intended to catalog the Jewish communities en route to the Land of Israel to provide a guide where hospitality could be found for Jews traveling to the Holy Land, or for those fleeing oppression elsewhere, he stopped meeting people, visiting places, describing occupations, giving a demographic count of Jews in each town and country that he visited. Benjamin provided his own evaluations of various cultures he encountered and, drew parallels between customs he encountered.
His journey began in Zaragoza, further down the valley of the Ebro to Tarragona and Girona, whence he proceeded north to France set sail from Marseilles. After visiting Genoa, Lucca and Rome, he went to Greece and Constantinople set off across Asia, he visited Syria, the Land of Israel, northern Mesopotamia before reaching Baghdad. From there he went to Persia cut back across the Arabian Peninsula to Egypt and North Africa, returning to the Iberian Peninsula in 1173. In his travels, he described a significant Jewish community somewhere around modern-day Ethiopia. While it appears clear that such a community exists, scholars still struggle to decide where in Africa he visited—a lack of uniform spelling makes it hard to distinguish what places Benjamin and other contemporary writer travel writers are referencing, his visit to the ruins outside Mosul is one of the earliest accurate descriptions of the site of ancient Nineveh. He visited 300 cities in all, including many of importance in Jewish history, such as Susa and Pumbedita.
In addition, he gathered information on many more areas that he heard about in his travels, including China and Tibet. He recorded details on cultures such as that of Al-Hashishin, the hemp smokers, introducing Western Europeans to people and places far beyond their experience, he described his years abroad in a book, The Travels of Benjamin, which describes the countries he visited, with an emphasis on the Jewish communities, including their total populations and the names of notable community leaders. He described the customs of the local population, both Jewish and non-Jewish, with an emphasis on urban life. In his accounts, Benjamin of Tudela describes Baghdad with great enthusiasm, making particular note of the virtuosity of the Caliph, he writes of the respect and intermingle that he encounters between Judaism and Islam. He gave detailed descriptions of sites and landmarks passed along the way, as well as important buildings and marketplaces. Although Benjamin is noted for citing sources and is regarded by historians as trustworthy, some of his claims are faulted as relying on earlier writers.
For instance, Benjamin's identification of Laish with Baniyas along with Philostorgius and Samuel ben Samson is incorrect. Eusebius of Caesarea, locates Dan/Laish more in the vicinity of Paneas at the fourth mile on the route to Tyre. Benjamin of Tudela; the Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela: Travels in the Middle Ages. Trans. Marcus Nathan Adler. Introductions by Michael A. Signer, Marcus Nathan Adler, A. Asher. Published by Joseph Simon/Pangloss Press, 1993. ISBN 0-934710-07-4 The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela. Trans. Marcus Nathan Adler. 1907: includes map of route and commentary. Works by Benjamin of Tudela at Project Gutenberg Sefer Masaot Benjamin MiTudela Tri-lingual edition in Basque and Hebrew published in Pamplona, 1994 by the Government of Navarra. Xabier Kintana translated Sefer Masaot into Basque language and Jose Ramon Magdalena Nom de Deu translated into Spanish; this trilingual special edition of Benjamin MiTudela book has an introduction by the president of Navarra, Juan de la Cruz Alli Aranguren ISBN 9788423512867 Tudelalı Benjamin ve Ratisbonlu Petachia, Ortaçağ’da İki Yahudi Seyyahın Avrupa, Asya ve Afrika Gözlemleri [trans. by Nuh Arslantas, from Marmara U
Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine foresees it as its seat of power. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times and recaptured 44 times, attacked 52 times; the part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem was named as "Urusalim" on ancient Egyptian tablets meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the Canaanite period. During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE, in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.
In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters; the Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, Christians 14,000 and 9,000 were not classified by religion. According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous — and monotheistic — religion centered on El/Yahweh, one of the Ancient Canaanite deities.
These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city was attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times; the holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Medina. In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran; as a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the Supreme Court. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba.
The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation of the god Shalem". Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived; the name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace", "dwelling of peace", alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors. The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city sat on two hills; the form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of "Yireh" and "Shalem" the two names were un
Joab the son of Zeruiah, was the nephew of King David and the commander of his army, according to the Hebrew Bible. The name Joab is derived from Yahweh, the name of the God of Israel, the Hebrew word'av', meaning'father', it therefore means'Yahweh father'. Joab was the son of a sister of king David, who made him captain of his army, he had two brothers and Asahel. Asahel was killed by Abner in combat, for which Joab took revenge by murdering Abner in an ambush, against David's wishes and shortly after Abner and David had secured peace between the House of David and the House of Saul. After leading the assault on the fortress of Mount Zion, Joab was promoted to the rank of General, he led the army against Aram, Ammon and Edom. He colluded with David in the death of Uriah. Joab played a pivotal role as the commander of David's forces during Absalom's rebellion. Absalom, one of David's sons, rallied much of Israel in rebellion against David, forced to flee with only his most trusted men. However, David could not bring himself to harm his son, ordered that none of his men should kill Absalom during the ensuing battle.
However, when a man reported that Absalom had been found, caught in a tree and his men killed him. Hearing of David's grief over the reported death of Absalom, Joab admonished David; the king followed Joab's advice to make a public appearance to encourage his troops. David replaced him as commander of the army with his nephew, Amasa. Joab killed Amasa. Joab and other commanders began questioning David's judgment; as David neared the end of his reign, Joab offered his allegiance to David's eldest son, Adonijah rather than to the promised king, Solomon. On the brink of death, David told Solomon to have Joab killed citing Joab's past betrayals and the blood that he was guilty of, for this Solomon ordered his death by the hand of Benaiah. Hearing this, Joab told Benaiah that he would die there. Benaiah, as ordered by King Solomon, killed Joab in the House of Yahweh and replaced him as commander of the army. Joab was buried in'the wilderness'. According to Josephus, Joab did not kill Abner out of revenge, because he had forgiven him for the death of his brother, since Abner had slain Asahel honorably in combat after he had twice warned Asahel and had no other choice but to kill him out of self-defense.
If this was the case, the reason Joab killed Abner may have been that he became a threat to his rank of general, since Abner had switched to the side of David and granted him control over the tribe of Benjamin. Yet the narrative explicitly states that Joab killed Abner "to avenge the blood of his brother Asahel"; the ATS Bible Dictionary describes Joab as "a valiant warrior, an able general. Ut as a man he was imperious and unscrupulous". Joab in Rabbinic Literature This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George. "article name needed". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons