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Abolitionism in the United States

Abolitionism in the United States of America was the movement which sought to end slavery in the United States active both before and during the American Civil War. In the Americas and western Europe, abolitionism was a movement which sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and set slaves free. In the 17th century, enlightenment thinkers condemned slavery on humanistic grounds and English Quakers and some Evangelical denominations condemned slavery as un-Christian. At that time, most slaves were Africans, but thousands of Native Americans were enslaved. In the 18th century, as many as six million Africans were transported to the Americas as slaves, at least a third of them on British ships to North America; the colony of Georgia prohibited slavery. Between 1780 and 1804 all Northern states, beginning with An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery from Pennsylvania in 1780, passed legislation abolishing slavery, sometimes by gradual emancipation. Massachusetts ratified a constitution. In Virginia, similar declarations of rights were interpreted by the courts as not applicable to Africans or African Americans.

All the states banned the international slave trade by 1790. South Carolina in 1803 reversed itself. During the ensuing decades, the abolitionist movement grew in Northern states, Congress regulated the expansion of slavery as new states were admitted to the Union; the United States federal government criminalized the international slave trade in 1808 and made slavery unconstitutional in 1865 as a result of the American Civil War. Historian James M. McPherson defines an abolitionist "as one who before the Civil War had agitated for the immediate and total abolition of slavery in the United States", he does not include antislavery activists such as Abraham Lincoln, U. S. President during the Civil War, or the Republican Party, which called for the gradual ending of slavery. Abolitionism in the United States was an expression of moralism, had a religious component to it: slavery was incompatible with Christianity, according to the many religious abolitionists, it operated in tandem with another social reform effort, the temperance movement.

The statement against slavery in America was written in 1688 by the Religious Society of Friends. On February 18, 1688, Francis Daniel Pastorius of Germantown, Pennsylvania drafted the 1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery, a two-page condemnation of the practice of slavery and sent it to the governing bodies of their Quaker church; the intention of the document was to stop slavery within the Quaker community, where 70% of Quakers owned slaves between 1681 and 1705. It acknowledged the universal rights of all people. While the Quaker establishment did not take action at that time, the unusually early and forceful argument in the 1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery initiated the spirit that led to the end of slavery in the Society of Friends and in the commonwealth of Pennsylvania; the Quaker Quarterly Meeting of Chester, made its first protest in 1711. Within a few decades the entire slave trade was under attack, being opposed by such Quaker leaders as William Burling, Benjamin Lay, Ralph Sandiford, William Southby, John Woolman.

Slavery was banned in the colony of Georgia soon after its founding in 1733. The colony's founder, James Edward Oglethorpe, fended off repeated attempts by South Carolina merchants and land speculators to introduce slavery to the colony. In 1739, he wrote to the Georgia Trustees urging them to hold firm: If we allow slaves we act against the principles by which we associated together, to relieve the distresses. Whereas, now we should occasion the misery of thousands in Africa, by setting men upon using arts to buy and bring into perpetual slavery the poor people who now live there free; the struggle between Georgia and South Carolina led to the first debates in Parliament over the issue of slavery, occurring between 1740 and 1742. Within the British Empire, the Massachusetts courts began to follow England when, in 1772, denied slave owners in England the legal right to move a slave out of England against the slave's will; the decision did not apply to the colonies. Between 1764 and 1774, seventeen slaves appeared in Massachusetts courts to sue their owners for freedom.

Boston lawyer Benjamin Kent represented slaves in court against their masters in the mid-18th century. In 1766, Kent won a case to liberate Jenny Slew a white woman, kidnapped and held as a slave; the Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage was the first American abolition society, formed 14 April 1775, in Philadelphia by Quakers. The society suspended operations during the American Revolutionary War and was reorganized in 1784, with Benjamin Franklin as its first president. Rhode Island Quakers, associated with Moses Brown, were among the first in America to free slaves. Benjamin Rush was another leader. John Woolman gave up most of his business in 1756 to devote himself to campaigning against slavery along with other Quakers. One of the first articles advocating the emancipation of slaves and the abolition of slavery was written by Thomas Paine. Titled "African Slavery in America", it appeared on 8 March 1775 in the Postscript to the Pennsylvania Journal and Weekly Advertiser.

The Constitution had several provisions. Passed unanimously by the Congress of the Confederation in 1787, the Northwest Ordinance forbade slavery i

Macau Air Transport Company

Macau Air Transport Company was a subsidiary of Cathay Pacific Airways that operated seaplane service between Macau and Hong Kong from 1948 to 1961. Formed in 1948, the airline operated 2 Consolidated PBY Catalina seaplanes from Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal, Macau to Kai Tak Airport in Hong Kong. Miss Macao, one of the MATCO's seaplane was lost in a hijacking. In 1960 ownership by Cathay Pacific ended with Roger Lobo and Stanley Ho as new owners with the airline renamed as Macau Air Transport Company Limited; the introduction of a new runway at Kai Tak and conditions in Macau were the beginning of the end of MATCO and service continued until October 1961 when the airline ceased operations. The airline remained registered in Hong Kong up to January 1964 and all remaining aircraft were de-registered by 1967. MATCO operated 2 Canadian Vickers CBV-1A Canso in 1948. VR-HDT - Miss Macao crashed and written off in 1948 VR-HDH - acquired from RCAF November 1946 by Cathay Pacific. With the removal of the Catalina seaplanes, MATCO operated as a freight airline and acquired a new aircraft: VH-HFP - Piaggio Aerospace P.136-L2 was ordered in 1960 and in service in 1961 and remained in Hong Kong until 1967

Ightenhill

Ightenhill is a civil parish in the Borough of Burnley in Lancashire, with a population of 1,975. Since its creation as Ightenhill Park in 1866 the parish has seen a number of boundary changes; the modern civil parish includes Gawthorpe Hall and extends across the River Calder leaving the hill it is named after. As a result, adjoining parts of Burnley, although not inside the parish, are still locally considered part of the Ightenhill area. Much of the populated part of the parish is composed principally of large 1990s housing estates forming part of Burnley's urban area; the parish adjoins the unparished area of Burnley and the parish of Padiham along with the Pendle parishes of Higham with West Close Booth, Reedley Hallows. It is in the Whittlefield with Ightenhill ward of Burnley borough; the name is recorded as Hightenhull, Ightenhill and Ichtenhill. Ightenhill was one of the demesne manors of the Honour of Clitheroe, an estate administered from Clitheroe Castle; the honour passed from the de Lacy family to the Earls Dukes of Lancaster, becoming part of the Duchy of Lancaster until 1661.

The manor covered a much larger area than the parish, including Heyhouses, Habergham Eaves, Burnley and Little Marsden. After 1661 the area of Pendle Forest was included with it; the site of Ightenhill Manor House is about a quarter of a mile to the east of Gawthorpe Hall on the brow of the hill, the site providing a good view of the whole of Pendle Forest. Manorial courts were originally held here before moving to Higham for Pendle Forest and Burnley for the rest of the manor; the earliest surviving reference of the name occurs in a charter signed here by John de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln in 1238, it appears again in the grant of free warren obtained by his son Edmund in 1251. Edmund signed at least one charter here the same year; the accounts of Henry de Lacy in 1296 show that a horse stud was established here, in connection with three enclosures inside the forest, namely Higham and West Closes and Filly Close in Reedley Hallows. During the rebellion led by Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, raiders loyal to the king, took most of stock at Ightenhill and in the forests away to Skipton, as a result King Edward II stayed here for several days in October 1323.

The 19th-century historian T D Whitaker theorised that the site provided a preferred stop-over as the de Lacys travelled over the Pennines between Pontefract Castle and Clitheroe, as the Plantagenets continued on to Lancaster. Parts of the park, at least, must have been enclosed under the de Lacys, but in 1380, under John of Gaunt, the keeper of Pendle Chase was ordered to surround the entire park with a ditch and quickwood hedge; the first Ordnance Survey map of the area, published in 1840s, shows the park to cover the summit and northern side of the hill. From the early 1400s, the right to farm inside the park was leased to tenants; the last park-keeper to be appointed was Robert Rishton in 1502, after 1507 the entire park was leased, with Rishton the first occupant, before passing it to the Towneleys by 1519. The hall was a ruin by 1522, however a survey taken at the time gives detail on the buildings at the site, listing the hall with a great chamber and long chamber at its western end the kitchen, oven-house, great barn, chapel and houses for the park-keeper and butler.

In 1894 no part of the walls was still standing, but the foundations of the keep could still be traced. Stone from the site is thought have used in the construction of the neighbouring farmhouse. By 1593, the Shuttleworths of Gawthorpe had taken control of the park a result of the recusancy of John Towneley. With the exception of the site of the hall, the family acquired the freehold title, continued to own it into the 20th-century. Outside the park a hamlet anciently known as Ightenhill lay to the south near to Whittlefield and Gannow. In the part of the parish across the Calder, Whittaker must have been a settlement comparable to Padiham during the Late Middle Ages, as that township was called Padiham cum Whitacre in 1296, it was the residence of the Whittaker family from as early as 1311, until around the start of the 17th-century, when it was acquired by the Shuttleworths. Quarrying stone for construction occurred at various sites including the area near the Tim Bobbin Public House and areas near Gawthorpe, into the 20th-century.

The summit of Ighten Hill is 146 metres above sea level. It is bounded to the north and east by the River Calder, on the west by Green Brook and its tributary Sweet Clough. A ridge to the south has today been cut through by the M65 motorway and East Lancashire line railway, with the Leeds and Liverpool Canal running a in tunnel under it; as well as the civil parish, the hill extends under Burnley's Habergham, with parts of Gannow and Lowerhouse districts, part of the town of Padiham. In the early 19th-century the Calder had become extensively polluted by manufacturing waste and the Shuttleworths had its route diverted away from Gawthorpe to the other side of the valley. Gawthorpe is one of the trailheads of the Brontë Way, a 43-mile long-distance footpath that crosses the South Pennines to Haworth, continuing to Oakwell Hall, West Yorkshire; the Burnley Way passes through the parish, with both crossing the bridge over the Calder on the bridleway to Higham. Ightenhill Park was an extra-parochial area surrounded by the ancient parish of Whalley.

In 1866 the area became a civil parish