SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Abraham

Abraham is the common patriarch of Christianity, Islam and some other religions. In Judaism, he is the founding father of the covenant of the pieces, the special relationship between the Hebrews and God; the narrative in the Book of Genesis revolves around the themes of land. Abraham is called by God to leave the house of his father Terah and settle in the land given to Canaan but which God now promises to Abraham and his progeny. Various candidates are put forward. Abraham purchases a tomb at Hebron to be Sarah's grave. Abraham marries Keturah and has six more sons; the Abraham story cannot be definitively related to any specific time, it is agreed that the patriarchal age, along with the exodus and the period of the judges, is a late literary construct that does not relate to any period in actual history. A common hypothesis among scholars is that it was composed in the early Persian period as a result of tensions between Jewish landowners who had stayed in Judah during the Babylonian captivity and traced their right to the land through their "father Abraham", the returning exiles who based their counter-claim on Moses and the Exodus tradition.

Terah, the ninth in descent from Noah, was the father of three sons: Abram and Haran. The entire family, including grandchildren, lived in Ur of the Chaldees. According to a midrash, Abram worked in Terah's idol shop in his youth. Haran was the father of Lot, thus Lot was Abram's nephew. Haran died in Ur of the Chaldees. Abram married Sarah, barren. Terah, with Abram and Lot departed for Canaan, but settled in a place named Haran, where Terah died at the age of 205. God had told Abram to leave his country and kindred and go to a land that he would show him, promised to make of him a great nation, bless him, make his name great, bless them that bless him, curse them who may curse him. Abram was 75 years old when he left Haran with his wife Sarai, his nephew Lot, the substance and souls that they had acquired, traveled to Shechem in Canaan. There was a severe famine in the land of Canaan, so that Abram and Lot and their households, traveled to Egypt. On the way Abram told Sarai to say that she was his sister, so that the Egyptians would not kill him.

When they entered Egypt, the Pharaoh's officials praised Sarai's beauty to Pharaoh, they took her into the palace and gave Abram goods in exchange. God afflicted Pharaoh and his household with plagues, which led Pharaoh to try to find out what was wrong. Upon discovering that Sarai was a married woman, Pharaoh demanded that Sarai leave; when they came back to the Bethel and Hai area, Abram's and Lot's sizable herds occupied the same pastures. This became a problem for the herdsmen; the conflicts between herdsmen had become so troublesome that Abram suggested that Lot choose a separate area, either on the left hand or on the right hand, that there be no conflict amongst brethren. Lot chose to go eastward to the plain of Jordan where the land was well watered everywhere as far as Zoar, he dwelled in the cities of the plain toward Sodom. Abram went south to Hebron and settled in the plain of Mamre, where he built another altar to worship God. During the rebellion of the Jordan River cities against Elam, Abram's nephew, was taken prisoner along with his entire household by the invading Elamite forces.

The Elamite army came to collect the spoils of war, after having just defeated the king of Sodom's armies. Lot and his family, at the time, were settled on the outskirts of the Kingdom of Sodom which made them a visible target. One person who escaped capture told Abram what happened. Once Abram received this news, he assembled 318 trained servants. Abram's force headed north in pursuit of the Elamite army, who were worn down from the Battle of Siddim; when they caught up with them at Dan, Abram devised a battle plan by splitting his group into more than one unit, launched a night raid. Not only were they able to free the captives, Abram's unit chased and slaughtered the Elamite King Chedorlaomer at Hobah, just north of Damascus, they freed Lot, as well as his household and possessions, recovered all of the goods from Sodom, taken. Upon Abram's return, Sodom's king came out to meet with him in the Valley of Shaveh, the "king's dale". Melchizedek king of Salem, a priest of God Most High, brought out bread and wine and blessed Abram and God.

Abram gave Melchizedek a tenth of everything. The king of Sodom offered to let Abram keep all the possessions if he would return his people. Abram refused any deal from the king of Sodom, other than the share to which his allies were entitled; the voice of the Lord came to Abram in a vision and repeated the promise of the land and descendants as numerous

Cabbage moth

The cabbage moth is known as a pest, responsible for severe crop damage of a wide variety of plant species. The common name, cabbage moth, is a misnomer as the species feeds on many fruits and crops in the genus Brassica. Other notable host plants include tobacco and tomato, making this pest species economically damaging; the moth spans a wide geographic range encompassing the entire Palearctic region. Due to this wide geographic region and the presence of various populations globally, local adaptations have resulted in a species with high variability in life history and behavior across different populations; the cabbage moth has a wide geographic distribution across parts of Europe and Asia ranging from about 30°N to 70°N in latitude. This geographic range is within the Palearctic region, which includes parts of Europe, Asia north of the Himalayan Mountains, Africa north of the Sahara Desert; as many host plants are both endemic or domesticated in various parts of this region, the moth is able to thrive in nearly all parts of this region due to local adaptation.

While the moth is limited to this range, there is a threat that it could be introduced to new regions through global food trade industries involving live plant imports. The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae, should not be confused with the cabbage looper or the white cabbage butterfly which share similar names but occupy different taxonomies. Mamestra brassicae belongs to the order Lepidoptera. Within this order, the species belongs to the clade Ditrysia, which contains 98% of the Lepidoptera species and indicates that the female has two separate openings for mating and laying eggs; the species belongs to the second largest family in Lepidoptera. Within this family, the cabbage moth falls within the subfamily Hadeninae; the genus Mamestra has a global distribution. B. brassicae L. Forewing grey-brown varied with fuscous: lines pale, dark-edged. - The insect varies in opposite directions. A local German form, is melanic, with both wings blackish, much like albidilinea, but without the white submarginal line.

Larva polyphagous, varying in ground colour from green to brown and blackish, with broad pale spiracular line. The life history is variable depending on the location of the population; some populations are able to fit two to three generations within one calendar year. Other populations, in less favorable climates, may have only one generation in a given year. Diapause is this species' most variable life stage, lasting anywhere from 80 days to six months if needed over the winter. Upon oviposition, the eggs are pale white, oblong and ribbed; the eggs develop a brown marking at their center. The egg measures 1.2 mm in diameter and hatch within six to ten days. The caterpillar progresses through six instars of development. In the first instar, the caterpillar has a light green body with three pairs of legs along the thorax and an anal appendage at the end of the abdomen; the caterpillars remain the same in color until the fourth instar, in which the dorsal region darkens. The dorsal region now appears brown.

There is some variability in coloring at this stage. There is a dark stripe that appears to run down the length of the caterpillar with light yellow stripes flanking the sides; the head is a copper color. At the sixth and final instar, the head develop a dorsal hump; the total time for this larval development is four to six weeks and the final body length ranges from 40–50 mm. Larvae can be found feeding on plant leaves during the night, they are located on the underside of the leaves of the host plant close to the ground. Larvae are gregarious feeders in their initial stages. In the fourth instar, the larvae may disperse to the other areas of the original host plant and may migrate to other host plants; when forming into pupae, the larvae will burrow into the soil where they will remain until they emerge as adults. The pupae are glossy. Pupae can develop once or twice during the year, with pupation taking place over winter. Pupae develop within cocoons; the pupae are 20 mm long. The pupae can be found in the ground anywhere from 2–10 mm deep into the soil.

Adult moths emerge from the pupae in soil during the months of June. Their appearance is similar to many m

Padbury Buildings

Padbury Buildings is the name for a range of existing and former structures found in various localities in Western Australia. The Padbury family Walter Padbury, had a range of buildings, some of which now are heritage listed. In the Perth central business district the Padbury building was on the eastern side of Forrest Place. In the eastern suburbs of Perth were a number of businesses and buildings in Bassendean and Midland. In Bassendean, Padbury Buildings Padbury Store, were on Perth Road across Guildford Road from the Bassendean railway station. In East Guildford, Padbury Buildings were on Terrace Road, just east of the Crown Hotel. By 1949 the Guildford Padbury building was owned by C & C; the names of buildings and business did not have Padbury as the part of the name. The Guildford store is referred to in 1908 as the Colonial Stores. Padbury Stores were opened in Moora and Toodyay. A number of buildings in Perth were named "Padbury House" at different times. Part of the Saint Charles Seminary in Guildford has been known as Padbury House.

Padbury House was a building in 1929 on St Georges Terrace, Perth. On the Midland railway line east of Guildford and located in East Guildford, a siding had been in place for William Padbury's Peerless Flour Mill