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2001–02 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2001–02 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season had the earliest named storm since 1992. Many storms formed in the north-east portion of the basin, several more originated around Australia; the basin is defined as the waters of the Indian Ocean west of longitude 90°E to the coast of Africa and south of the equator. Eleven tropical storms formed, compared to an average of nine. Tropical systems were present during 73 days, higher than the average of 58 for this basin. Tropical cyclones in this basin are monitored by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in Réunion; the season started on November 1, 2001, ended on April 30, 2002. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the basin; the first storm was Andre, which emerged from the Australian basin as Tropical Cyclone Alex in late October. The strongest storm, Cyclone Hary, was the first intense tropical cyclone since 2000. In January, Cyclone Dina left heavy damage in the Mascarene Islands on Réunion, where it dropped 2,102 mm of rainfall.

The second-to-last storm was Cyclone Kesiny, which killed 33 people when it struck Madagascar in the midst of a political crisis. Météo-France's meteorological office in Réunion is the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the South-West Indian Ocean, tracking all tropical cyclones from the east coast of Africa to 90° E; the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, a joint United States NavyUnited States Air Force task force that issues tropical cyclone warnings for the region issued advisories for storms during the season. Following the season, the start of the tropical cyclone year was changed to July 1, which defines the boundary between tropical cyclone seasons. Although the previous season was tame, the 2001–02 season was active and featured several intense tropical cyclones. During the season, eleven systems were named, above the average of nine. However, nine of the systems attained the second highest total in 30 years. In terms of both the number of systems and number of "cyclone days", the season was considered comparable by MFR to the 1993–94 season.

In this season, there were 73 days on which tropical cyclones were active, more than twice as much as the previous season and 19 days above the average. A system of cyclone intensity was active on 35 days, 15 days above the mean. Additionally, five of the systems attained "intense tropical cyclone" status, including one – Hary – that attained the "very intense tropical cyclone" stage. Activity was distributed throughout the season and had the earliest start since 1992. Like most seasons within the basin, activity reached a climax in late January. Several systems during the season developed in the eastern portion of the basin, similar to 1993–94; the Bureau of Meteorology classified a tropical low as Tropical Cyclone Alex on October 26 in the Australian region. It was located in an area of strong wind shear, which prevented significant strengthening. However, convection over the system increased on October 27, it crossed into the South-West Indian Ocean at around the same time, it was renamed Andre, becoming the earliest date for the first named storm since 1992.

After reaching 10‑minute sustained winds of 100 km/h, according to the MFR, Andre began weakening, due to increasing shear. It moved to the west-southwest before turning northwestward on October 29, around which time the convection separated from the center. Moving Andre turned to the southwest after weakening to a tropical depression. Late on October 31, the system was no longer classifiable as a tropical system, the remnants continued to the west-southwest until being absorbed by a trough on November 8; the monsoon trough spawned a tropical low on November 24 in the Australian basin. It moved to the southwest, strengthening into Tropical Cyclone Bessi on November 27. Two days it moved into the South-West Indian Ocean, was renamed Bako on December 1. Located in a similar position to the previous storm, Bako strengthened into a severe tropical storm on December 1, aided by warm waters and slack wind shear; the storm turned to the southeast on December 2, despite predictions to the contrary, that day it intensified further into a tropical cyclone, the first of the season.

However, on December 3, Bako weakened back into a severe tropical storm due to much cooler sea surface temperatures and increasing northwesterly wind shear. It weakened into a tropical depression on December 5, before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone the same day. RSMC La Reunion continued to track the remnants of Bako until December 9. On December 25, a cold front dragged over the central Mozambique Channel. A weak circulation formed in the Channel and moderate convection appeared on December 27. On December 30, RSMC La Reunion designated this low pressure as a zone of disturbed weather and was classified as a tropical depression on January 1, 2002; the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert early on December 31 and designated it as Tropical Cyclone 08S the next day. As it moved further eastwards it strengthened from a tropical depression into a severe tropical storm, with the Meteorological Services of Madagascar giving it the name Cyprien on January 1. Cyprien soon became a serious threat to western Madagascar.


Hydrogen selenide

Hydrogen selenide is an inorganic compound with the formula H2Se. This hydrogen chalcogenide is the simplest and most encountered hydride of selenium. H2Se is a flammable gas under standard conditions, it is the most toxic selenium compound with an exposure limit of 0.05 ppm over an 8-hour period. At low concentrations, this compound has a irritating smell resembling that of decayed horseradish or'leaking gas', but smells of rotten eggs at higher concentrations. H2Se adopts a "bent" structure with a H-Se-H bond angle of 91°. Consistent with this structure, three IR-active vibrational bands are observed: 2358, 2345, 1034 cm−1; the properties of H2S and H2Se are similar, although the selenide is more acidic with pKa = 3.89, the second pKa = 15.05 ± 0.02 at 25 °C. Reflecting its acidity, H2Se is soluble in water. Industrially, it is produced by treating elemental selenium at T > 300 °C with hydrogen gas. A number of routes to H2Se have been reported, which are suitable for both large and small scale preparations.

In the laboratory, H2Se is prepared by the action of water on Al2Se3, concomitant with formation of hydrated alumina. A related reaction involves the acid hydrolysis of FeSe. Al2Se3 + 6 H2O ⇌ 2 Al3 + 3 H2SeH2Se can be prepared by means of different methods based on the in situ generation in aqueous solution using boron hydride, Marsh test and Devarda's alloy. According to the Sonoda method, H2Se is generated from the reaction of H2O and CO on Se in the presence of Et3N. H2Se can be purchased in cylinders. Elemental selenium can be recovered from H2Se through a reaction with aqueous sulfur dioxide. 2 H2Se + SO2 ⇌ 2 H2O + 2 Se + SIts decomposition is used to prepare pure Se metal. H2Se is used in the synthesis of Se-containing compounds, it adds across alkenes. Illustrative is the synthesis of selenoureas from cyanamides. H2Se gas is used to dope semiconductors with selenium. Hydrogen selenide is hazardous, being the most toxic selenium compound and far more toxic than its congener hydrogen sulfide.

The threshold limit value is 0.05 ppm. The gas acts as an irritant at concentrations higher than 0.3 ppm, the main warning sign of exposure. Exposure at high concentrations for less than a minute, causes the gas to attack the eyes and mucous membranes. In Germany, the limit in drinking water is 0.008 mg/L, the US EPA recommends a maximum contamination of 0.01 mg/L. Despite being toxic, no human fatalities have yet been reported, it is suspected that this is due to the gas' tendency to oxidise to form red selenium in mucous membranes. Hydrogen diselenide WebElements page on compound's properties CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards

Hero's journey

In narratology and comparative mythology, the monomyth, or the hero's journey, is the common template of a broad category of tales and lore that involves a hero who goes on an adventure, in a decisive crisis wins a victory, comes home changed or transformed. The study of hero myth narratives started in 1871 with anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor's observations of common patterns in plots of heroes' journeys. On, others introduced various theories on hero myth narratives such as Otto Rank and his Freudian psychoanalytic approach to myth, Lord Raglan's unification of myth and rituals, hero myth pattern studies were popularized by Joseph Campbell, influenced by Carl Jung's view of myth. In his 1949 work The Hero with a Thousand Faces, Campbell described the basic narrative pattern as follows: A hero ventures forth from the world of common day into a region of supernatural wonder: fabulous forces are there encountered and a decisive victory is won: the hero comes back from this mysterious adventure with the power to bestow boons on his fellow man.

Campbell and other scholars, such as Erich Neumann, describe narratives of Gautama Buddha and Christ in terms of the monomyth. Others, such as Otto Rank and Lord Raglan, describe hero narrative patterns in terms of Freudian psychoanalysis and ritualistic senses. Critics argue that the concept is too broad or general to be of much usefulness in comparative mythology. Others say. Campbell borrowed the word monomyth from James Joyce's Finnegans Wake. Campbell was a notable scholar of Joyce's work and in A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake co-authored the seminal analysis of Joyce's final novel. Campbell's singular the monomyth implies that the "hero's journey" is the ultimate narrative archetype, but the term monomyth has been used more as a term for a mythological archetype or a supposed mytheme that re-occurs throughout the world's cultures. Omry Ronen referred to Vyacheslav Ivanov's treatment of Dionysus as an "avatar of Christ" as "Ivanov's monomyth"; the phrase "the hero's journey", used in reference to Campbell's monomyth, first entered into popular discourse through two documentaries.

The first, released in 1987, The Hero's Journey: The World of Joseph Campbell, was accompanied by a 1990 companion book, The Hero's Journey: Joseph Campbell on His Life and Work. The second was Bill Moyers's series of seminal interviews with Campbell, released in 1988 as the documentary The Power of Myth. Cousineau in the introduction to the revised edition of The Hero's Journey wrote "the monomyth is in effect a metamyth, a philosophical reading of the unity of mankind's spiritual history, the Story behind the story". Campbell describes 17 stages of the monomyth. Not all monomyths contain all 17 stages explicitly. In the terminology of Claude Lévi-Strauss, the stages are the individual mythemes which are "bundled" or assembled into the structure of the monomyth; the 17 stages may be organized in a number of ways, including division into three "acts" or sections: In the departure part of the narrative, the hero or protagonist lives in the ordinary world and receives a call to go on an adventure.

The hero is helped by a mentor figure. The initiation section begins with the hero traversing the threshold to the unknown or "special world", where he faces tasks or trials, either alone or with the assistance of helpers; the hero reaches "the innermost cave" or the central crisis of his adventure, where he must undergo "the ordeal" where he overcomes the main obstacle or enemy, undergoing "apotheosis" and gaining his reward. The hero must return to the ordinary world with his reward, he may be pursued by the guardians of the special world, or he may be reluctant to return, may be rescued or forced to return by intervention from the outside. In the return section, the hero again traverses the threshold between the worlds, returning to the ordinary world with the treasure or elixir he gained, which he may now use for the benefit of his fellow man; the hero himself is transformed by the adventure and gains wisdom or spiritual power over both worlds. Campbell's approach has been widely received in narratology and psychotherapy since the 1980s, a number of variant summaries of the basic structure have been published.

The general structure of Campbell's exposition has been noted before and described in similar terms in comparative mythology of the 19th and early 20th century, notably by Russian folklorist Vladimir Propp who divided the structure of Russian folk tales into 31 "functions". The following is a more detailed account of Campbell's original 1949 exposition of the monomyth in 17 stages; the hero begins in a situation of normality from which some information is received that acts as a call to head off into the unknown. Campbell: "... a forest, a kingdom underground, beneath the waves, or above the sky, a secret island, lofty mountaintop, or profound dream state. The hero can go forth of their own volition to accomplish the adventure, as did Theseus when he arrived in his father's city and heard the horrible history of the Minotaur.

Pilot's kneeboard

A kneeboard is an accessory with various types of clips or mounts to hold objects for pilots during flight. While their dimensions and specifics vary from model to model, a kneeboard, by definition, includes the following components: flat plate 4 to 6 inches in width, 8 to 11 inches in length. An elastic strap, attached to the plate, to hold fast to the pilot's upper thigh. A binder clip, mounted for holding items. Models vary from a small clipboard with thigh straps to more elaborate designs with multiple panels that fold much like a wallet As the kneeboard is designed to keep flight-pertinent information close at hand, it may have charts and information printed directly on it, or include pockets and clips to hold maps, approach plates, aids to calculation such as the E6B Flight Computer; the popularity of cockpit iPads has necessitated kneeboards designed to hold tablets. Lap desk

Peter Stebbings

Peter Stebbings is a Canadian actor, director and screenwriter best known for portraying Kevin Sharp in the drama series Madison, Paul Deeds in the series Traders, for writing and directing Defendor. He portrayed Alvin Klein on the science fiction drama series The Listener. Stebbings started practicing his trade at the Vancouver Youth Theatre, he worked at various odd jobs growing up, including bus boy and bike courier, before making the serious move to acting. At 22 he went to New York City to study at the Circle in the Square Theater School. Following his time in New York, he returned to Canada and made his mark playing Kevin Sharp on the hit Canadian series Madison, a role that earned him two Gemini Award nominations as Best Actor in a Continuing Leading Dramatic Role, he played Paul Deeds in the Canadian series Traders. He has a recurring role on the Canadian series Murdoch Mysteries as industrialist/inventor James Pendrick, he is married to Charlotte Sullivan. Peter Stebbings on IMDb Official CTV site for The Listener