Abseiling known as rappelling or rappeling in American English, is a controlled descent off a vertical drop, such as a rock face, using a rope. This technique is used by climbers, cavers, canyoners and rescue and rope access technicians to descend cliffs or slopes when they are too steep and/or dangerous to descend without protection. Many climbers use this technique to protect established anchors from damage. Rope access technicians use this as a method to access difficult-to-reach areas from above for various industrial applications like maintenance, construction and welding. To descend safely, abseilers use a variety of techniques to increase the friction on the rope to the point where it can be controlled comfortably; these techniques range from wrapping the rope around their body to using a custom built device like a rack. Practitioners choose a technique based on speed, safety and other circumstantial concerns. In the United States, the term "rappelling" is used nearly exclusively. In the United Kingdom, both terms are understood, but "abseiling" is preferred.
In Australia, New Zealand and Canada, the two terms are used interchangeably. Globally, the term "rappelling" appears in books written in English more than "abseiling"; the origin of the term rappel in reference to the technique is attributed by Roger Frison-Roche circa 1944. Frison in turn attributed the techinique of abseiling to Jean Charlet-Straton, a Chamonix guide who lived from 1840–1925. Charlet devised the technique during a failed solo attempt of Petit Dru in 1876. After many attempts, some of them solo, he managed to reach the summit of the Petit Dru in 1879 in the company of two other hired Chamonix guides, Prosper Payot and Frédéric Folliguet. During that ascent, Charlet mastered the technique. Ropes: Static rope is ideal, but dynamic rope is used. Anchors: Usually constructed from trees, ice or rock features, using webbing/cordellete, or rock climbing equipment; some areas have fixed anchors such as pitons. A descender: A friction device or friction hitch that allows rope to be played out in a controlled fashion, under load, with a minimal effort by the person controlling it.
Climbing harness: Fixed around the waist or whole body used to secure the descender. Fit is important to prevent suspension trauma. Safety back-up: Typically a friction hitch such as a prusik, Klemheist knot, or autoblock knot wrapped around the rope as to prevent uncontrolled descents. Helmets: Used to protect the head from bumps and falling rocks. Gloves: Used to protect hands from the rope and from colliding with the wall. May increase the risk of accident by becoming caught in the descender. Boots or climbing shoes: Used to increase friction against the rock Knee-pads Abseiling is used in a number of applications, including: Climbing - for returning to the base of a climb or to a point where one can try a new route. Recreation Canyoning - to descend tall waterfalls and/or cliffs. Mountaineering Caving and speleology - where underground pitches need to be accessed. Adventure racing Industrial/commercial applications - to access parts of structures or buildings so as to perform maintenance, cleaning or construction Access to wildfires.
Confined spaces access - e.g. ballast tanks, manholes Rescue applications - used to access injured people on or nearby cliffs. Military applications - tactical heliborne insertion of troops, including special forces, into the battlefield close to the objective when proper landing zones are not available. Australian rappel — Used in the military; the abseiler descends facing downwards allowing them to see. Tandem or spider abseiling — Used in climbing. Involves two climbers descending on the same belay device; this is useful in rescue situations when one of the climbers is incapacitated or the descent needs to be done quickly. The set-up is similar to a regular rappelling, with the incapacitated climber suspended from the descender. Simul-rappelling or rappelling — Used in climbing and canyoning. Two climbers descend on the same length of rope, where one climber’s weight counterbalances the other; the technique is considered less safe than the regular rappelling. This is common in places like the Needles of South Dakota’s Black Hills.
Counterbalance abseiling — Used in climbing. This rescue technique is used by a leader to reach an injured second; the leader abseils off on one strand of rope, using the incapacitated second's weight on the other strand of the rope as a counterbalance. Releasable abseil — Used by guides; this safety technique allows a leader to descend with inexperienced abseilers. A rope about twice the length of the descent is anchored with a munter mule hitch; the client descends on a single isolated strand of the rope. If the client becomes stuck halfway down the guide will be able to unlock the other strand and lower the client to the ground using the hitch as a belay device; this could be useful if the client gets clothing or hair entangled in the descender. Classical, e.g. the Dülfersitz — Used in emergencies. These technique are more dangerous than modern alternatives and only used when no other option is available, they involve descending without aid of mechanical devices, by wrapping the rope around the body, were used before the advent of harnesses and hardware.
South African classical abseil (double-roped
Fathi Safwat Kirdar was an Iraqi painter and sculptor. Born in Kirkuk into a well-known Turkmen family of Kirdar/Qirdar. In 1905, his father moved to Baghdad, where he studied at the Rushdiya military school and taught at its schools, he served in the Ottoman army during World War I, was captured once in Palestine. He completed his post-graduate studies at the Teachers' House in Istanbul and was appointed as a teacher for painting in Iraq from 1927 to 1961. Among his students were Faeq Hassan, Atta Sabri, Hafiz Al-Droubi and Jawad Saleem, he died in Istanbul. Fathi Safwat Kirdar was born in Kirkuk in 1896, he belongs to the well-known Kirdar family. His father, Muhammad Said Chalabi, was a major merchant of Kirkuk and moved his family to Baghdad in 1905. Fathi taught in Baghdad schools, he was captured by British forces and arrested in Tulkarm and in Sidi Bishr, Alexandria. After the end of WW I, he moved to Istanbul and completed his graduate studies at the Teachers' House under management of Sati' al-Husri, he who appointed Fathi Safwat as a painting teacher in the Turkish capital schools.
He participated in courses under professors of painting. When Sati' al-Husri took over Director of General Education, he recalled Fathi Safwat to Baghdad and appointed him a teacher of painting and handicrafts, including sculpture at the primary teachers' house on September 1, 1927. Among his students were Faeq Hassan, Atta Sabri, Hafiz Al-Droubi and Jawad Saleem, he traveled to Istanbul for a summer trip and died there in July 1966. Some famous works of Fathi Safwat are busts of King Faisal I, Jamil Sidqi Zahawi, King Ghazi of Iraq and Ali Mazloum and others. In painting, he was inclined to paint in watercolor, but he encouraged his students to paint all kinds. One of his most prominent sculptors was Muhammad Ghani. Sati' al-Husri Jawad Saleem Faeq Hassan List of Iraqi artists
Noam is an Orthodox Jewish, Religious Zionist, right-wing political party in Israel, established in July 2019 by a conservative faction in the Religious Zionist community inspired by Rabbi Zvi Thau and his Har Hamor Yeshiva. The party's main goal is to advance policies against LGBT rights, against what its backers call "the destruction of the family"; the party's basis is in his Har Hamor Yeshiva. Rabbi Thau and his followers believe that Bayit Yehudi, led by Rabbi Rafi Peretz, Tkuma, led by Bezalel Smotrich, have not sufficiently advanced Jewish values – in the realm of opposition to LGBT rights, protection of the Shabbat as a day of rest, the protection of the Orthodox conversion process. Following Rabbi Thau's disappointment with the parties of the Union of the Right-Wing Parties, he and his followers decided to form the Noam party. While Rabbi Thau is the party's spiritual leader, Rabbi Dror Aryeh is the political leader of the party. Another student of Thau, involved in the creation of the party is Rabbi Shlomo Aviner.
He said that: "The party will fight against the destruction of the family, against the destruction of conversion, against the destruction of Shabbat, against the destruction of the Western Wall, against the use of deviant content in the IDF and the Education Ministry."The Noam party was reported to be in talks with the Otzma Yehudit party, which split from the United Right, for a possible joint run. In 2015, Otzma Yehudit allied itself with the Yachad party of former Shas chief Eli Yishai, running on a joint ticket for the 2015 Israeli legislative election. Rabbi Thau endorsed the joint ticket, marking the first time the Har Hamor dean had explicitly endorsed a political party. On 28 July and Otzma Yehudit agreed to run on a joint list for the September 2019 Israeli legislative election; the agreement between Noam and Otzma Yehudit was dissolved on 1 August because Noam disagreed with Otzma having secular Jewish candidates. Noam filed its list independently of any other party, though it withdrew from the race on 15 September.