Anthony Wilford Brimley is an American actor who has appeared in films and television series. After serving in the Marines and doing a variety of jobs including ranch hand and wrangler, Brimley became an extra for Westerns, in little more than a decade he had established himself as a character actor in films such as The China Syndrome, The Thing and The Natural, his trademark mustache and brusque delivery made Brimley recognizable, but forthrightness on screen was on occasion matched by bluntness on set when his interpretation of a character was being faulted. Brimley's weather-beaten appearance enabled him to be convincing as someone decades older in the film Cocoon. Brimley was the long-time face of television advertisements for the Quaker Oats Company, he has promoted diabetes education and appeared in related commercials for Liberty Medical. Brimley was born in Salt Lake City, Utah, on September 27, 1934, where his father worked as a real estate broker. Prior to his career in acting, Brimley dropped out of high school to serve in the United States Marine Corps, where he served in the Aleutian Islands for three years.
He worked as a bodyguard for Howard Hughes, a ranch hand, a wrangler, a blacksmith. He began shoeing horses for film and television, he began acting in the 1960s as a riding extra in Westerns and a stunt man at the urging of his friend, actor Robert Duvall. Brimley married his first wife, the former Lynne Bagley, on July 6, 1956, they had several grandchildren. Brimley and Lynne were married until her death in June 2000. Brimley married Beverly Berry on October 31, 2007. Together they have lived in Greybull and Santa Clara, Utah. In 2009, they founded nonprofit organization Hands Across the Saddle in the Big Horn Basin. Brimley's onscreen breakthrough came when he was cast in the popular 1970s television series The Waltons as Walton's Mountain resident Horace Brimley, his first credited feature film performance was in The China Syndrome as Ted Spindler, a friend and coworker of plant shift supervisor Jack Godell. Brimley made a brief, but pivotal, appearance in Absence of Malice as the curmudgeonly, outspoken Assistant U.
S. Attorney James A. Wells, he expanded on this cantankerous persona as Pop Fisher, world-weary manager of a slumping baseball team, in The Natural. Shortly thereafter, Brimley secured his first leading role in Ron Howard's Cocoon, portraying Ben Luckett, leader of a group of geriatrics who encounter a magically reinvigorating swimming pool by their retirement home. Brimley's close friend Robert Duvall was instrumental in securing for him the role of Harry in Tender Mercies. Duvall, who had not been getting along with director Bruce Beresford, wanted "somebody down here that's on my side, somebody that I can relate to." Beresford felt Brimley was too old for the part, but agreed to the casting. Brimley, like Duvall, clashed with the director. Harry's not over there, Harry's not over here; until you fire me or get another actor, I'm Harry, whatever I do is fine'cause I'm Harry."Through these and other early roles, Brimley became known for portraying gruff or stodgy old men, most notably on the 1980s drama series Our House starring Deidre Hall, Chad Allen and Shannen Doherty.
However, he made a change from such "good guy" roles when he played William Devasher, sinister head of security for the Bendini, Lambert & Locke law firm, in the Tom Cruise film The Firm. After portraying the father of Kevin Kline in In & Out, Brimley retreated from Hollywood in favor of involvement in more independent productions, he made an auspicious mainstream comeback with the TNT film Crossfire Trail, co-starring with Tom Selleck. He played an intimidating US Postmaster General in a 1997 episode of Seinfeld, who forces Kramer to end his boycott of the mail service. After several more years of independent film and TV acting, Brimley had a supporting role in Did You Hear About The Morgans?, making witty exchanges with star Hugh Grant. Brimley has appeared in commercials, notably a series of commercials for Quaker Oats Oatmeal throughout the 1980s and 1990s; the Quaker commercials were famous for their slogan: "It's the right thing to do and the tasty way to do it." Brimley is known for appearing in numerous television advertisements for Liberty Medical, a company specializing in home delivery of medical products such as diabetes testing supplies.
He was the voice-over for a Bryan Foods television commercial campaign, created by the New York advertising agency Ally & Gargano, written by A & G group creative director Peter Hoffman, directed by long-time Hollywood director Howard Zieff. Brimley has been described as "a fine singer with a warm, rich voice." In 1993, Brimley sang with the Cal State Northridge Jazz Band for a concert benefiting the college's Jazz Endowment Scholarship Fund. He is an accomplished harmonica player. Susanna" much to the delight, surprise, of Ferguson and the studio audience
In the United States, a district attorney is the chief prosecutor for a local government area a county. The exact name of the office varies by state. Except in the smallest counties, a district attorney leads a staff of prosecutors, who are most known as deputy district attorneys; the Deputy who serves as the supervisor of the office is called the Assistant District Attorney. The majority of prosecutions will be delegated to DDAs, with the district attorney prosecuting the most important cases and having overall responsibility for their agency and its work. Depending upon the system in place, DAs may be appointed by the chief executive of the jurisdiction or elected by local voters; the district attorney, assistant district attorneys under the district attorney’s authority, are the attorneys representing a government body as prosecutors who are responsible for presenting cases against individuals and groups who are suspected of breaking the law and directing further criminal investigations and recommending the sentencing of offenders, are the only attorneys allowed to participate in grand jury proceedings.
The United States Judiciary Act of 1789, Section 35, provided for the appointment of a person in each judicial district to prosecute federal crimes and to represent the United States in all civil actions to which it was a party. There were 13 districts to cover the 11 States that had by that time ratified the constitution; each State was a district, except for Virginia which formed two. Districts were added; the statute did not confer a title upon these local agents of federal authority, but subsequent statutes and court decisions referred to them most as "district attorneys". In 1948, the Judicial Code adopted the term "United States attorneys"; this term for a prosecutor originates with the traditional use of the term "district" for multi-county prosecutorial jurisdictions in several U. S. states. For example, New York appointed prosecutors to multi-county districts prior to 1813. After those states broke up such districts and started appointing or electing prosecutors for individual counties, they continued to use the title "district attorney" for the most senior prosecutor in a county rather than switch to "county attorney".
District attorney and assistant district attorney are the most common titles for state prosecutors, are used by several major jurisdictions within the United States, such as California, Georgia, Nevada, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. In St. Louis, the title is circuit attorney, while in St. Louis County, the title is prosecuting attorney. Alternative titles for the office include commonwealth's attorney, state's attorney, county attorney, circuit solicitor, or county prosecutor. In the United Kingdom, the equivalent position to a district attorney is a chief crown prosecutor, the equivalent to an assistant district attorney is a crown prosecutor; these prosecutors work under the Crown Prosecution Service in England and Wales, the Procurator Fiscal in Scotland, the Director of Public Prosecutions in Northern Ireland. In many other countries, the title of the chief prosecuting officer is Director of Public Prosecutions. In Canada, the equivalent position to a district attorney is a crown attorney, crown counsel or Crown Prosecutor depending on the province, the equivalent to an assistant district attorney is the assistant crown attorney, assistant crown counsel or assistant crown prosecutor respectively.
The assistant district attorney, or state prosecutor, is a law enforcement official who represents the state government on behalf of the district attorney in investigating and prosecuting individuals alleged to have committed a crime. In carrying out their duties to enforce state and local laws, ADAs have the authority to investigate persons, issue subpoenas, file formal criminal charges, plea bargain with defendants, grant immunity to witnesses and accused criminals. Administrative assistant district attorney, executive assistant district attorney, chief assistant district attorney, or first assistant district attorney are some of the titles given to the senior ADA leadership working under the DA; the chief ADA or first ADA, depending on the office, is considered the second-in-command, reports directly to the DA. The exact roles and job assignments for each title vary with each individual office, but include management of the daily activities and supervision of specialized divisions within the office.
A senior ADA may oversee or prosecute some of the larger crimes within the jurisdiction. In some offices, the Exec ADA has the responsibility of hiring lawyers and support staff, as well as supervising press-releases and overseeing the work of the office; some District Attorneys maintain their own law enforcement arm whose members are sworn peace officers. Depending on the jurisdiction, they are referred to as District Attorney Investigators or county detectives. List of district attorneys by county Allegheny County District Attorney Baltimore County State's Attorney Bronx County District Attorney Commonwealth's attorney Cook County State's Attorney Dallas County District Attorney Denver District Attorney's Office District Attorney of Philadelphia Essex County Prosecutor's Office King County Prosecuting Attorney Kings County District Attorney Law and order Los Angeles County District Attorney Milwaukee County District Attorney New York County District Attorney Prosecuting Attorney of Honolulu Queens County District Attorney Richmond County District Attorney San Diego County District Attor
Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay
The Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay is the Academy Award for the best screenplay not based upon published material. It was created in 1940 as a separate writing award from the Academy Award for Best Story. Beginning with the Oscars for 1957, the two categories were combined to honor only the screenplay. In 2002, the name of the award was changed from Writing to Writing. See the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, a similar award for screenplays that are adaptations. Noted novelists and playwrights who have received nominations in this category include: John Steinbeck, Noël Coward, Raymond Chandler, Alain Robbe-Grillet, Edward Bond, Arthur C. Clarke, Lillian Hellman, Neil Simon, Paddy Chayefsky, Kenneth Lonergan, Tom Stoppard, Terence Rattigan and Martin McDonagh. Woody Allen has the most nominations in this category with 16, the most awards with 3, though Paddy Chayefsky won the Best Adapted Screenplay in 1955 for his adaptation of his own teleplay and won for Original Screenplay for The Hospital and Network.
Woody Allen holds the record as the oldest winner. Ben Affleck is the youngest winner, at the age of 25 for Good Will Hunting. Richard Schweizer was the first to win for Marie-Louise. Other winners for a non-English screenplay include Albert Lamorisse, Pietro Germi, Claude Lelouch, Pedro Almodóvar. Lamorisse is additionally the only person to win or be nominated for Best Original Screenplay for a short film. Muriel Box was the first woman to win in this category; the Boxes are the first married couple to win in this category. Only three other married couples won an Oscar in another category—Earl W. Wallace and Pamela Wallace, Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh, Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez. In 1996, Joel Coen and Ethan Coen became the only siblings to win in this category. Francis Ford Coppola and Sofia Coppola are the only father-daughter pair to win. Preston Sturges was nominated for two different films in the same year: Hail the Conquering Hero and The Miracle of Morgan's Creek. Oliver Stone achieved the same distinction for Platoon and Salvador.
Maurice Richlin and Stanley Shapiro were nominated in 1959 for both Operation Petticoat and Pillow Talk and won for the latter. At the 2018 ceremony, Get Out writer-director Jordan Peele became the first African-American to win in this category. Winners are listed first followed by the other nominees. Academy Award for Best Story Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplay Independent Spirit Award for Best Screenplay Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Screenplay List of Big Five Academy Award winners and nominees Writers Guild of America Award for Best Original Screenplay
Richard Warren Schickel was an American film historian, author and film and literary critic. He was a film critic for Time magazine from 1965–2010, wrote for Life magazine and the Los Angeles Times Book Review, his last writings about film were for Truthdig. He was interviewed in For the Love of Movies: The Story of American Film Criticism. In this documentary film he discusses early film critics Frank E. Woods, Robert E. Sherwood, Otis Ferguson, tells of how, in the 1960s, he, Pauline Kael, Andrew Sarris, rejected the moralizing opposition of the older Bosley Crowther of The New York Times who had railed against violent movies such as Bonnie and Clyde. In addition to film, Schickel critiqued and documented cartoons Peanuts. Schickel was born in Milwaukee, the son of Helen and Edward John Schickel. Schickel died on February 18, 2017 in Los Angeles after suffering multiple strokes eight days after his 84th birthday. Schickel received a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1964, he has lectured at Yale University and University of Southern California's School of Film and Television.
The World of Carnegie Hall The Stars The Gentle Knight Movies: The history of an art and an institution The World of Goya, 1746–1828 The Disney Version: The Life, Times and Commerce of Walt Disney. W. Griffith: An American Life. Story, three-part series, PBS Charlie: The Life and Art of Charles Chaplin The Big Red One The Big Trail City for Conquest Dirty Harry La Dolce Vita Double Indemnity East of Eden El Dorado, with actor Edward Asner and author Todd McCarthy Gentleman's Agreement, with actresses Celeste Holm and June Havoc Gilda The Good, the Bad and the Ugly Hangover Square The Hustler, with actor Paul Newman, film historian Jeff Young, other participants Leave Her to Heaven, with actor Darryl Hickman The Mark of Zorro On the Waterfront, with Elia Kazan biographer Jeff Young Once Upon a Time in America Pin Up Girl The Purple Heart Rebecca Rio Bravo, with filmmaker John Carpenter Ryan's Daughter, with director David Lean's wife Lady Sandra Lean, actress Sarah Miles, other participants Side Street Somebody Up There Likes Me, with director Robert Wise, actors Paul Newman and Robert Loggia, filmmaker Martin Scorsese Strangers on a Train, with filmmaker Peter Bogdanovich, Psycho screenwriter Joseph Stefano, Patricia Highsmith biographer Andrew Wilson, other participants Sudden Impact Titanic Unforgiven Whirlpool Walt Disney Official website Richard Schickel on IMDb 1989 audio interview with Richard Schickel at Wired for Books by Don Swaim
Robert Elmer Balaban is an American actor, author and director. He was one of the producers nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture for Gosford Park, in which he appeared. Balaban's other film roles include the drama Midnight Cowboy, science fiction films Close Encounters of the Third Kind and Altered States, the Christopher Guest comedies Waiting for Guffman, Best in Show, A Mighty Wind, For Your Consideration, the dark fantasy film Lady in the Water, the Wes Anderson films Moonrise Kingdom, The Grand Budapest Hotel, Isle of Dogs; as a director, Balaban has directed three feature films, in addition to numerous television episodes and films. He is an author of children's novels, he directed a documentary about Robert Altman. Balaban was born to a Jewish family in Chicago, the son of Eleanor and Elmer Balaban, who owned several movie theatres and was a pioneer in cable television, his mother acted under the name Eleanor Barry. His uncles were dominant forces in the theatre business. Balaban's father and uncle, founded the H & E Balaban Corporation in Chicago, which operated its own movie palaces, including the Esquire Theatre in Chicago.
They owned a powerful group of television stations and cable television franchises. His uncle Barney Balaban was president of Paramount Pictures for nearly 30 years from 1936-64, his maternal grandmother's second husband, Sam Katz, was a vice president at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer beginning in 1936. Sam had been an early partner of Bob's uncles Abe, Barney and Max in forming Balaban and Katz. Sam served as President of the Publix theatre division of Paramount Pictures. Balaban began his college career at Colgate University where he joined Phi Kappa Tau Fraternity and transferred to New York University, he studied acting at HB Studio under Uta Hagen He lives on the Upper West Side of Manhattan with his family. His paternal grandparents emigrated from Russia to Chicago, while his mother's family was from Germany and Romania, he is married to Lynn Grossman. One of his earliest appearances in film was in Midnight Cowboy. Prior to that, he filled the role of "Linus" in the original off-Broadway production of You're A Good Man, Charlie Brown in 1967.
Among his early roles in the 1970s were those of Grady Garrett on an episode of Room 222, Orr in Catch-22, Elliot the Organizer in The Strawberry Statement, the interpreter David Laughlin in the 1977 Steven Spielberg science fiction film Close Encounters of the Third Kind. In 1979 he received a Tony Award nomination for his role in The Inspector General. During the 1980s he appeared in films such as Altered States and 2010, he directed the Randy Quaid horror comedy film Parents, the Armin Mueller-Stahl drama film The Last Good Time. He played supporting roles in films such as Absence of Malice, Bob Roberts, Deconstructing Harry, Ghost World, The Majestic, Lady in the Water, Christopher Guest's Waiting for Guffman, Best in Show, A Mighty Wind, For Your Consideration. Balaban appeared in Miami Vice as reporter Ira Stone. In the 1990s, Balaban had a recurring role on the fourth season of Seinfeld as Russell Dalrymple, the fictional president of NBC, he played Warren Littlefield, a real-world NBC executive, in The Late Shift, about the battle between Jay Leno and David Letterman for NBC's The Tonight Show.
His tie to Littlefield continued in 2012 when he read the audiobook of Littlefield's autobiography, Top of the Rock: Inside the Rise and Fall of Must See TV. In 1999, Balaban made a guest appearance in the sitcom Friends as Phoebe Buffay's father Frank in "The One With Joey's Bag". In 2010, Balaban appeared as Judge Clayton Horn, the real-life judge who presided over the obscenity trial of Lawrence Ferlinghetti and City Lights Bookstore in the movie Howl. In 2001, Balaban produced Gosford Park, for which he received an Academy Award nomination for Best Picture, he appeared in the movie as Morris Weissman, a Hollywood producer. He appeared in an episode of Entourage as a doctor known for writing prescriptions for medical marijuana, he directed starring Susan Sarandon. He has directed several episodes of the Showtime series Nurse Jackie. In September 2011, he was featured with Morgan Freeman and John Lithgow in the Broadway debut of the play,'8' — a staged reenactment of the federal trial that overturned California's Prop 8 ban on same-sex marriage — as Judge Vaughn Walker.
The production was held at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre to raise money for the American Foundation for Equal Rights. In January 2016, Balaban appeared in the short play Milton Bradley by Peter Sagal, for Playing On Air, a non-profit organization that “records short plays written by top playwrights and performed by outstanding actors.” Balaban wrote a series of six children's novels featuring a bionic dog named McGrowl. He co-authored Spielberg, Truffaut & Me: An Actor's Diary with Steven Spielberg and The Creature from the Seventh Grade: Sink or Swim which Andy Rash illustrated. Balaban, David; the Chicago Movie Palaces of Balaban and Katz, Arcadia Publishing, 2006 Balaban, Bob. Spielberg, Truffaut & Me: An Actor's Diary, Titan Books, 1978 Bob Balaban on IMDb Bob Balaban at AllMovie Bob Balaban at the Internet Broadway Database Bob Balaban at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Bob Balaban interview on AMC-TV's Sci-Fi Department web show Bob Balaban
Sydney Irwin Pollack was an American film director and actor. Pollack directed more than 20 films and 10 television shows, acted in over 30 movies or shows and produced over 44 films, his 1985 film Out of Africa won him Academy Awards for producing. He was nominated for Best Director Oscars for They Shoot Horses, Don't They? and Tootsie in which he appeared. Some of his other best known works include Jeremiah Johnson, The Way We Were, Three Days of the Condor and Absence of Malice, his subsequent films included Havana, The Firm, The Interpreter, he produced and acted in Michael Clayton. Pollack is best known to television viewers for his recurring role playing Will Truman's father on the NBC sitcom Will & Grace. Sydney Pollack was born in Lafayette, Indiana, to a family of Russian-Jewish immigrants, the son of Rebecca and David Pollack, a semi-professional boxer and pharmacist; the family relocated to South Bend and his parents divorced. His mother, who suffered from alcoholism and emotional problems, died at the age of 37 while Pollack was a student.
Despite earlier plans to attend college and medical school, Pollack left Indiana for New York City soon after finishing high school at age 17. Pollack studied acting with Sanford Meisner at the Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre from 1952–54, working on a lumber truck between terms. After two years army service, ending in 1958, he returned to the Playhouse at Meisner’s invitation to become his assistant. In 1960, John Frankenheimer, a friend of Pollack, asked him to come to Los Angeles in order to work as a dialogue coach for the child actors on Frankenheimer's first big picture, The Young Savages, it was during this time that Pollack met Burt Lancaster who encouraged the young actor to try directing. Pollack played a director in The Twilight Zone episode "The Trouble with Templeton" in 1961, but he found his real success in television in the 1960s by directing episodes of series, such as The Fugitive and The Alfred Hitchcock Hour. After doing TV he made the jump into film with a string of movies.
His film-directing debut was The Slender Thread. Over time, Pollack's films received a total of 48 Academy Award nominations, his first Oscar nomination was for his 1969 film They Shoot Horses, Don't They?, his second in 1982 for Tootsie. For his 1985 film Out of Africa starring Meryl Streep and Robert Redford, Pollack won Academy Awards for directing and producing. During his career, he directed 12 different actors in Oscar-nominated performances: Jane Fonda, Gig Young, Susannah York, Barbra Streisand, Paul Newman, Melinda Dillon, Jessica Lange, Dustin Hoffman, Teri Garr, Meryl Streep, Klaus Maria Brandauer and Holly Hunter. Young and Lange won Oscars for their performances in Pollack's films, his disputes with Hoffman during the filming of Tootsie became well known. Hoffman began pushing the idea that Pollack play the role of his agent and Pollack reluctantly agreed despite not having any film roles in 20 years, their off-screen relationship added authenticity to their scenes in the movie, most of which feature them arguing.
Pollack subsequently took on more acting roles in addition to directing. He appeared as himself in the documentary One Six Right, describing his joy in owning and piloting his Cessna Citation X jet aircraft. One of a select group of non- and/or former actors awarded membership in The Actors Studio, Pollack resumed acting in the 1990s with appearances in such films as The Player and Eyes Wide Shut playing corrupt or morally conflicted power figures; as a character actor, Pollack appeared in films such as A Civil Action, Changing Lanes, as well as his own, including Random Hearts and The Interpreter. He appeared in Woody Allen's Husbands and Wives as a New York lawyer undergoing a midlife crisis, in Robert Zemeckis's Death Becomes Her as an emergency room doctor, his last role was as Patrick Dempsey's father in the 2008 romantic comedy Made of Honor, playing in theaters at the time of his death. He was a recurring guest star on the NBC sitcom Will & Grace, playing Will Truman's unfaithful but loving father, George Truman.
In addition to earlier appearances on NBC's Just Shoot Me and Mad About You, in 2007, Pollack made guest appearances on the HBO TV series The Sopranos and Entourage. Pollack received the first annual Extraordinary Contribution to Filmmaking award from the Austin Film Festival on October 21, 2006; as a producer he helped to guide many films that were successful with both critics and movie audiences, such as The Fabulous Baker Boys, The Talented Mr. Ripley, Michael Clayton, a film in which he starred opposite George Clooney and for which he received his sixth Academy Award nomination, in the Best Picture category, he formed a production company called Mirage Enterprises' with the English director Anthony Minghella. The last film they produced together, The Reader, earned them both posthumous Oscar nominations for Best Picture. Besides his many feature film laurels, Pollack was nominated for five Primetime Emmys, earning two: one for directing in 1966 and another for producing, given four months after his death in 2008.
The moving image collection of Sydney Pollack is housed at the Academy Film Archive. In the 2002 Sight and Sound Directors' Poll, Pollack revealed his top ten films: Casablanca, Citizen Kane, The Conformist, The Godfather Part II, Grand Illusion, The Leopard, Once Upon a Time in America, Raging Bull, The Seventh Seal, Sunset Boulevard. Pollack's brother, Bernie, is a costume desig
A trade union called a labour union or labor union, is an association of workers in a particular trade, industry, or company created for the purpose of securing improvement in pay, working conditions or social and political status through collective bargaining and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by creation of a monopoly of the workers. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with employers; the most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment". This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring and promotion of workers, workplace safety and policies. Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers, a cross-section of workers from various trades, or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry; the agreements negotiated by a union are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers.
Trade unions traditionally have a constitution which details the governance of their bargaining unit and have governance at various levels of government depending on the industry that binds them to their negotiations and functioning. Originating in Great Britain, trade unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution. Trade unions may be composed of individual workers, past workers, apprentices or the unemployed. Trade union density, or the percentage of workers belonging to a trade union, is highest in the Nordic countries. Since the publication of the History of Trade Unionism by Sidney and Beatrice Webb, the predominant historical view is that a trade union "is a continuous association on wage earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment." Karl Marx described trade unions thus: "The value of labour-power constitutes the conscious and explicit foundation of the trade unions, whose importance for the working class can scarcely be overestimated.
The trade unions aim at nothing less than to prevent the reduction of wages below the level, traditionally maintained in the various branches of industry. That is to say, they wish to prevent the price of labour-power from falling below its value". A modern definition by the Australian Bureau of Statistics states that a trade union is "an organization consisting predominantly of employees, the principal activities of which include the negotiation of rates of pay and conditions of employment for its members."Yet historian R. A. Leeson, in United we Stand, said: Two conflicting views of the trade-union movement strove for ascendancy in the nineteenth century: one the defensive-restrictive guild-craft tradition passed down through journeymen's clubs and friendly societies... the other the aggressive-expansionist drive to unite all'labouring men and women' for a'different order of things'. Recent historical research by Bob James in Craft, Trade or Mystery puts forward the view that trade unions are part of a broader movement of benefit societies, which includes medieval guilds, Oddfellows, friendly societies, other fraternal organizations.
The 18th century economist Adam Smith noted the imbalance in the rights of workers in regards to owners. In The Wealth of Nations, Book I, chapter 8, Smith wrote: We hear, it has been said, of the combination of masters, though of those of workmen, but whoever imagines, upon this account, that masters combine, is as ignorant of the world as of the subject. Masters are always and everywhere in a sort of tacit, but constant and uniform combination, not to raise the wages of labor above their actual rate When workers combine, masters... never cease to call aloud for the assistance of the civil magistrate, the rigorous execution of those laws which have been enacted with so much severity against the combination of servants and journeymen. As Smith noted, unions were illegal for many years in most countries, although Smith argued that it should remain illegal to fix wages or prices by employees or employers. There were severe penalties for including execution. Despite this, unions were formed and began to acquire political power resulting in a body of labour law that not only legalized organizing efforts, but codified the relationship between employers and those employees organized into unions.
The origins of trade unions can be traced back to 18th century Britain, where the rapid expansion of industrial society taking place drew women, rural workers and immigrants into the work force in large numbers and in new roles. They encountered a large hostility in their early existence from employers and government groups; this pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labour spontaneously organized in fits and starts throughout its beginnings, would be an important arena for the development of trade unions. Trade unions have sometimes been seen as successors to the guilds of medieval Europe, though the relationship between the two is disputed, as the masters of the guilds employed workers who were not allowed to organize. Trade unions and collective bargaining were outlawed from no than the middle of the 14th century when the Ordinance of Labourers was enacted in the Kingdom of England but their way of thinking was the one that endured dur