In philosophy, "the Absurd" refers to the conflict between the human tendency to seek inherent value and meaning in life, the human inability to find any in a purposeless, meaningless or chaotic and irrational universe. The universe and the human mind do not each separately cause the Absurd, but rather, the Absurd arises by the contradictory nature of the two existing simultaneously; as a philosophy, absurdism furthermore explores the fundamental nature of the Absurd and how individuals, once becoming conscious of the Absurd, should respond to it. The absurdist philosopher Albert Camus stated that individuals should embrace the absurd condition of human existence, he promotes life rich in wilful experience. Absurdism shares some concepts, a common theoretical template, with existentialism and nihilism, it has its origins in the work of the 19th-century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, who chose to confront the crisis that humans face with the Absurd by developing his own existentialist philosophy.
Absurdism as a belief system was born of the European existentialist movement that ensued when Camus rejected certain aspects of that philosophical line of thought and published his essay The Myth of Sisyphus. The aftermath of World War II provided the social environment that stimulated absurdist views and allowed for their popular development in the devastated country of France. In absurdist philosophy, the Absurd arises out of the fundamental disharmony between the individual's search for meaning and the meaninglessness of the universe; as beings looking for meaning in a meaningless world, humans have three ways of resolving the dilemma. Kierkegaard and Camus describe the solutions in their works, The Sickness Unto Death and The Myth of Sisyphus, respectively: Suicide: a solution in which a person ends one's own life. Both Kierkegaard and Camus dismiss the viability of this option. Camus states. Rather, in the act of ending one's existence, one's existence only becomes more absurd. Religious, spiritual, or abstract belief in a transcendent realm, being, or idea: a solution in which one believes in the existence of a reality, beyond the Absurd, and, as such, has meaning.
Kierkegaard stated that a belief in anything beyond the Absurd requires an irrational but necessary religious "leap" into the intangible and empirically unprovable. However, Camus regarded this solution, others, as "philosophical suicide". Acceptance of the Absurd: a solution in which one accepts the Absurd and continues to live in spite of it. Camus endorsed this solution, believing that by accepting the Absurd, one can achieve the greatest extent of one's freedom. By recognizing no religious or other moral constraints, by rebelling against the Absurd while accepting it as unstoppable, one could find contentment through the transient personal meaning constructed in the process. Kierkegaard, on the other hand, regarded this solution as "demoniac madness": "He rages most of all at the thought that eternity might get it into its head to take his misery from him!" Absurdism originated from the 20th-century strains of nihilism. All three arose from the human experience of anguish and confusion stemming from the Absurd: the apparent meaninglessness in a world in which humans are compelled to find or create meaning.
The three schools of thought diverge from there. Existentialists have advocated the individual's construction of his or her own meaning in life as well as the free will of the individual. Nihilists, on the contrary, contend that "it is futile to seek or to affirm meaning where none can be found." Absurdists, following Camus's formulation, hesitantly allow the possibility for some meaning or value in life, but are neither as certain as existentialists are about the value of one's own constructed meaning nor as nihilists are about the total inability to create meaning. Absurdists following Camus devalue or outright reject free will, encouraging that the individual live defiantly and authentically in spite of the psychological tension of the Absurd. Camus himself passionately worked to counter nihilism, as he explained in his essay "The Rebel," while he categorically rejected the label of "existentialist" in his essay "Enigma" and in the compilation The Lyrical and Critical Essays of Albert Camus, though he was, still is broadly characterized by others as an existentialist.
Both existentialism and absurdism entail consideration of the practical applications of becoming conscious of the truth of existential nihilism: i.e. how a driven seeker of meaning should act when confronted with the seeming concealment, or downright absence, of meaning in the universe. Camus's own understanding of the world, every vision he had for its progress, sets him apart from the general existentialist trend; such a chart represents some of the overlap and tensions between existentialist and absurdist approaches to meaning. While absurdism can be seen as a kind of response to existentialism, it can be debated how substantively the two positions differ from each other; the existentialist, after all, doesn't deny the reality of death. But the absurdist seems to reaffirm the way in which death nullifies our meaning-making activities, a conclusion the existentialists seem to resist through various notions of posterity or, in Sartre's case, participation in a grand humanist project. A century be
PMC may refer to: Pacific Microelectronics Centre, acquired by Sierra Semiconductor in 1994 to form PMC-Sierra Parallel model combination, a hidden Markov model-based method for speech recognition PCI Mezzanine Card, a printed circuit board Polymorphic containers, a feature of the Parrot virtual machine Portable Media Center, a hard drive-based portable media player Programmable metallization cell, new memory technology that uses copper nanowires Power Management Controller Patna Municipal Corporation Pune Municipal Corporation Potato Marketing Corporation of Western Australia El Tepual Airport, Chile Palais de la musique et des congrès, a music and convention venue in France Paleozoological Museum of China Palomar Medical Center, United States Parrish Medical Center, United States Pine Manor College, United States Plymouth College, United Kingdom Poonch Medical College, Azad Kashmir Punjab Medical College, Pakistan Panjabi MC, British hip hop DJ Penske Media Corporation, a publishing company Persian Music Channel, a TV network PMC Ltd. a manufacturer of loudspeakers PMC: The Bunker, native title of the South Korean film Take Point Paramyotonia congenita, a genetic disorder PhysMath Central, a defunct journal imprint Pontine micturition center, part of the brainstem Premotor cortex, part of the cerebral cortex Pseudomembranous colitis, a disease of the colon PubMed Central, a collection of journal articles Popular Mobilization Committee Private military company known as a private military contractor President of the Mess Committee Pan-Massachusetts Challenge, a charity bike-a-thon Partially mission capable, a measure of system availability in the military Philippine Marine Corps, part of the Philippine Navy Politico-media complex Polymer matrix composite, a composite material Population Media Center, an organization headquartered in Vermont, United States Precious Metal Clay, a brand of metal clay Presidential Memorial Certificate, United States Pressed Metal Corporation, an Australian automotive manufacturer Professional-managerial class, a social class within capitalism Project management committee Punjab & Maharashtra Co-operative Bank Pyeonghwa Motors Corp. a car manufacturer in North Korea The Professional Monitor Company, a manufacturer of professional and consumer loudspeakers in Great Britain.
Niterói is a municipality of the state of Rio de Janeiro in the southeast region of Brazil. It lies across Guanabara Bay facing the city of Rio de Janeiro and forms part of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area, it was the state capital, as marked by its golden mural crown, from 1834 to 1894 and again from 1903 to 1975. It has an estimated population of 511,786 inhabitants and an area of 129.375 km2, making it the fifth most populous city in the state. It has the highest Human Development Index of the state and the seventh largest among Brazil's municipalities in 2010. Individually, it is the second municipality with the highest average monthly household income per capita in Brazil and appears in 13th place among the municipalities of the country according to social indicators related to education; the city has the nicknames of Nicki City and the Smile City. Studies by the Getulio Vargas Foundation in June 2011 classified Niterói as the richest city of Brazil, with 55.7% of the population included in class A.
Considering the classes A and B, Niterói appears in the first place, with 85.9% of the population in these classes. According to data from the 2010 IBGE, Niterói's nominal gross domestic product was 11.2 billion reais, being the fifth municipality with the highest gross domestic product of the state. The city is the second largest formal employer in the State of Rio de Janeiro, although it occupies the 5th place in terms of the number of inhabitants; the city is one of the main financial and industrial centers of the State of Rio de Janeiro, being the 12th among the 100 best Brazilian cities to do business. Niterói was founded on 22 November 1573 by the Tupi Amerindian chief Araribóia, forcibly converted to Roman Catholicism and given the Christian name of Martim Afonso, after the Portuguese explorer Martim Afonso de Sousa, making it the only Brazilian city to have been founded by a non-Christian, non-assimilated Brazilian Amerindian; the municipality contains part of the 2,400 hectares Serra da Tiririca State Park, created in 1991.
The word "Niterói" comes from Tupi and means "water that hides". Spelled Nictheroy or "Nitheroy"), it was the indigenous name of the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro around 1554. In 1834, the old indigenous toponym "Niterói" was adopted, until called "Vila Real da Praia Grande", when it became the capital of the province of Rio de Janeiro. There are several explanations for the meaning of the term in Tupi: "Water that hides". In the year 1555, French navigator Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon allied himself with the Tupinambas Indians who dominated the Guanabara Bay and instituted a French colony in the region, France Antarctique; the region was avoided by the Portuguese because of the hostility of the Tupinamba. The region developed under the command of Villegaignon. After a while, Calvinists who had immigrated from France to the colony returned to France, where they accused Villegaignon of prejudice against Protestants and of maladministration; the French navigator had to return to France to explain himself.
Following the absence of the French leader, the Portuguese crown began noticing that the bay of Rio de Janeiro would make a strategic scale for the Atlantic route of ships from Portugal to its colonies in Africa and Asia, as well an important advanced bridgehead for the defense of South Brazil. Fortresses were built and an alliance was formed with nearby native Tupi-Guaraní tribes to defend the settlement against other European invaders. In 1560, the Portuguese leader Mem de Sá attacked and destroyed the French fort, located in Guanabara Bay, Coligny Fort, however, being able to definitively expel the French from the region. Estácio de Sá, Mem de Sá's nephew, who would continue to command the war, enlisted the help of the head of the Temiminos Indians, Araribóia, who accepted the governor's request to help the Portuguese expel the French from the Guanabara Bay, in the hope to regain the mother island. With the end of the war in 1567, Estácio de Sá invoked Arariboia and the Temininós Indians to occupy the right side of the entrance to the Guanabara Bay, opposite the city of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro founded by Estácio in 1565, as requested by Araribóia a tract of land.
Thus, the entrance to the bay would be protected from intrusion. The place to be occupied by Arariboia was known as "Banda D'Além", in the eastern side of the bay, from River Marui to the Red Barriers between Gragoata and Boa Viagem beaches; this area corresponded to what is nowadays the northwestern part of the municipality of Niterói, which includes the central and northern zones of its urban area. There, in the "Land Beyond", Araribóia founded the Town of Saint Lawrence of the Indians, the embryo for the future city of Niterói, a Tupi name that means "Hidden Waters"; the village was visited by the King of Brazil, John VI, in 1816, who decreed its emancipation from Rio de Janeiro on 10 May 1819 and gave the new-created municipality a new name, Vila Real da Praia Grande. In 1834, the city of Rio de Janeiro, capital of the newly established Empire of Brazil, was detached from the rest of Rio de Janeiro Province. Niterói served the function of capital till the year of 1975 – except for the period between 1894 and 1903 when it was temporarily transferred to
Caravate is a comune in the Province of Varese in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 60 kilometres northwest of Milan and about 15 kilometres northwest of Varese. As of 31 December 2004, it had an area of 5.1 square kilometres. The municipality of Caravate contains the frazioni Stallazzo, San Clemente, Canton d'Oro, Canton Chiedo, Cadè, Castello, Cà Stecco, Monte San Giano, Santa Maria del Sasso and Fornace Farsani. Caravate borders the following municipalities: Besozzo, Gemonio, Laveno-Mombello, Sangiano
Forgotten Anthology is the sixth album by recording artist Ron "Bumblefoot" Thal released in April 2003. It is a compilation CD consisting of unreleased tracks recorded between 1995 - 2002; the CD includes songs intended to be included on Thal's 2002 studio album release Uncool as well as alternate versions of songs from the 2000 French only release. Thal mentioned "Heart Attack" as being one of his favorite songs he's written; the song "Bagged a Big 1" was written after Thal was arrested for the second time at age 26. The song "Day To Remember" is used as the theme song for That Metal Show. 1995 – "Old", "Thought I Could Fly", "Apathy", "Shell" 1998 – "Meat", "Day To Remember", "Bagged A Big 1", "Mine", "Heart Attack", "Girl Like You" 1999 – "Crunch", "Maricona", "She Knows", "Myth" 2000 – "A Way Out", "Wasted Away" 2002 – "Mafalda"
The HTC Touch family is a family of Pocket PCs designed and manufactured by HTC Corporation. This family is in the process of being built up, its slogan is Discover Touchnology; the members of the family, in order of release, are: HTC Touch, the first member of the family, featuring EDGE, a 2.0-megapixel camera and the first version of TouchFLO. HTC Touch Dual similar to the original Touch, with the addition of a dial keypad and HSDPA, 2.8in screen. But removing support for wi-fi. HTC Touch Cruise, an improved handset supporting 3.5G and having GPS capabilities. HTC Touch Diamond, a significant re-design featuring HSDPA, 4 GB internal storage, a 3.2-megapixel camera, the first member of the family to feature TouchFLO 3D. HTC Touch Pro similar to the Touch Diamond, with the addition of a keyboard, a microSD slot, a camera flash and more ROM and RAM, but removing the 4 GB internal storage. HTC Touch HD, a device with a much larger screen than its predecessors. HTC Touch Viva, an update to the original Touch HTC Touch 3G, similar to Viva, but with 3G connection capabilities HTC MAX 4G, a device that has integrated GSM/WiMAX capability created for the Russian market.
HTC Touch Cruise, upgrade to the 2008 model featuring HTC Footprints, which lets you geotag and add text and sound recordings to photos to create a scrapbook of places visited. HTC Touch Diamond2, an update to the Touch Diamond, featuring people-centric communication. HTC Touch Pro2, an update to the Touch Pro, featuring people-centric communication and upgrades focused on conference-calling capabilities. HTC Touch2, an update to the Touch, Touch Viva and Touch 3G - one of the first devices to be released with Windows Mobile 6.5. HTC Firestone, a model, planned to be released in Q3 2009, it was first leaked in July 2009, was rumoured to have a 600 MHz processor, capacitive screen, externally hot-swappable microSD card and large speakers in the front and rear for music playback. Leaks revealed specs that would make it into the HD2. No further leaks occurred after the announcement of the then-Leo, it is possible that the Firestone evolved into the HD2, with a different design, but retaining the same specs.
HTC HD2, an update to the Touch HD, with the largest screen so far in the family despite being the thinnest member so far of the family. Powered by a Qualcomm Snapdragon, it is the first Windows Phone to feature HTC Sense. HTC HD Mini, A smaller version of the HD2, it is the second Windows Mobile phone with a capacitive touch display and the first to use an HVGA screen. HTC HD7, The third version of the HD series and the successor of the HTC HD2; this Device is one of the first for Microsoft's new mobile OS Windows Phone 7. The hardware is vastly similar to the HD2. HTC 7 Pro, an update to the Touch Pro2; this Device is one of the first for Microsoft's new mobile OS Windows Phone. The HTC Touch sold 1 million units by October 2007 and HTC expected to sell 1.5 to 1.8 million units by the end of 2007. Over 1 million HTC Touch Diamonds were shipped in 6 weeks, compared to the HTC Touch, which took 5 months to reach the same milestone. HTC raised its sales projection for 2008 from 2 to 3 million units.
When the HTC HD2 was launched in the UK, Vodafone sold all of its stock and developed a backlog of orders, O2 delayed putting the HD2 on its website so that it could fulfil all orders. In the US, the HTC HD2 sold out in most T-Mobile stores within 4 hours and T-Mobile struggled to keep it in stock for several weeks. TouchFLO TouchFLO 3D HTC Sense Video featuring the first three members of the Touch Family Picture featuring the first 5 members of the Touch Family