SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Abuja

Abuja is the capital city of Nigeria located in the centre of the country within the Federal Capital Territory. It is a planned city and was built in the 1980s, replacing the country's most populous city of Lagos as the capital on 12 December 1991. Abuja's geography is defined by a 400-metre monolith left by water erosion; the Presidential Complex, National Assembly, Supreme Court and much of the city extend to the south of the rock. Zuma Rock, a 792-metre monolith, lies just north of the city on the expressway to Kaduna. At the 2006 census, the city of Abuja had a population of 776,298 making it one of the ten most populous cities in Nigeria. According to the United Nations, Abuja grew by 139.7% between 2000 and 2010, making it the fastest growing city in the world. As of 2015, the city is experiencing an annual growth of at least 35%, retaining its position as the fastest-growing city on the African continent and one of the fastest-growing in the world; as at 2016, the metropolitan area of Abuja is estimated at six million persons, placing it behind only Lagos, as the most populous metro area in Nigeria.

Major religious sites include the Nigerian National Mosque and the Nigerian National Christian Centre. The city is served by the Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport. Abuja is known for being one of the few purpose-built capital cities in Africa, as well as being one of the wealthiest. Abuja is Nigeria's political centre, it is a key capital on the African continent due to Nigeria's geo-political influence in regional affairs. Abuja is a conference centre and hosts various meetings annually, such as the 2003 Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting and the 2014 World Economic Forum meetings. "Abuja" was in the earlier 20th century the name of the nearby town now called Suleja. The indigenous inhabitants of Abuja are the Gbagyi, with the Gbagyi language the major of the region language, others in the area being Bassa, Gade and Koro. In light of the ethnic and religious divisions of Nigeria, plans had been devised since Nigeria's independence to have its capital in a place deemed neutral to all major ethnic parties, in close proximity to all the regions of Nigeria.

The location was designated in the centre of the country in the early 1970s as it signified neutrality and national unity. Another impetus for Abuja came because of Lagos' population boom that made that city overcrowded and conditions squalid; as Lagos was undergoing rapid economic development, the Nigerian regime felt the need to expand the economy towards the inner part of the country, hence decided to move its capital to Abuja. The logic used was similar to the way Brazil planned Brasília; the decision to move to Abuja was made by General Murtala Mohammed in 1976. Construction started in the late 1970s but, due to economic and political instability, the initial stages of the city were not complete until the late 1980s; the master plan for Abuja and the Federal Capital Territory was developed by International Planning Associates, a consortium of three American firms: Planning Research Corporation. The master plan for Abuja defined the general structure and major design elements of the city that are visible in its current form.

More detailed design of the central areas of the capital its monumental core, was accomplished by Japanese architect Kenzo Tange, with his team of city planners at Kenzo Tange and Urtec company. Most countries relocated their embassies to Abuja, many maintain their former embassies as consulates in Lagos, the commercial capital of Nigeria. Abuja is the headquarters of the Economic Community of West African States and the regional headquarters of OPEC. Abuja and the FCT have experienced huge population growth. Squatter settlements and towns have spread in and outside the city limits. Tens of thousands of people have been evicted since former FCT minister Nasir Ahmad el-Rufai started a demolition campaign in 2003. Abuja under Köppen climate classification features a tropical dry climate; the FCT experiences three weather conditions annually. This includes a blistering dry season. In between the two, there is a brief interlude of harmattan occasioned by the northeast trade wind, with the main feature of dust haze and dryness.

The rainy season begins from April and ends in October, when daytime temperatures reach 28 °C to 30 °C and nighttime lows hover around 22 °C to 23 °C. In the dry season, daytime temperatures can soar as high as 40 °C and nighttime temperatures can dip to 12 °C; the chilliest nights can be followed by daytime temperatures well above 30 °C. The high altitudes and undulating terrain of the FCT act as a moderating influence on the weather of the territory; the city's inland location causes the diurnal temperature variation to be much larger than coastal cities with similar climates such as Lagos. Rainfall in the FCT reflects the territory's location on the windward side of the Jos Plateau and the zone of rising air masses with the city receiving frequent rainfall during the rainy season from April to October every year; the FCT falls within the Guinean forest-savanna mosaic zone of the West African sub-region. Patches of rain forest, occur in the Gwagwa plains in the rugged terrain to the southeastern parts of the territory, where a landscape of gullies and rough terrain is found.

These areas of the Federal Capital Territory form one of the few

Ivan Bošković

Ivan Bošković is a Montenegrin professional football player. Born in Podgorica part of SR Montenegro, SFR Yugoslavia, he begin his career in his hometown club FK Iskra Danilovgrad. 1999 he moved to FK Sutjeska Nikšić, a regular top flight side at that time. In summer 2004 he moved to their biggest Montenegrin rivals, FK Budućnost Podgorica playing back in the First League of Serbia and Montenegro. In January 2005, during the winter break, he moved to France and joined Ligue 2 side SCO Angers, where he played the rest of the season before returning to Budućnost in the following summer. In summer 2006 the leagues of Serbia and Montenegro separated and Ivan Bošković left Budućnost and moved to Serbia to play in the SuperLiga, first with FK Vojvodina during the 2006-07 seasons, next with FK Borac Čačak during the 2007-08 season. In summer 2008 he returns to Montenegro and signs with a First League side OFK Grbalj where he will play during the following three seasons and become the league top-scorer in 2010.

In 2011, he joined Nasaf Qarshi. Nickname is - stats until 2003 at Dekisa. Tripod

Diplomatic Protection Service

The Diplomatic Protection Service, sometimes referred to as the Diplomatic Protection Squad, is a branch of the New Zealand Police that provides personal security for both national and visiting diplomats and VIPs. National VIPs that receive constant protection are the prime minister and the governor-general, while ministers, members of Parliament, the judiciary and the leader of the Opposition receive protection as needed. Protection is provided both in abroad. Previous visiting VIPs afforded DPS protection have included Tiger Woods during the 2002 New Zealand Open, FBI Director Robert Mueller; the DPS patrols foreign embassies and high commissions. The squad is based in the capital Wellington. Officers are experienced members of the New Zealand Police, who pass the DPS course at the Royal New Zealand Police College; the course has training on topics such as unarmed combat. Squad members operate in plain clothes, both genders can be squad members; the New Zealand Police established the DPS in the mid-1970s, to meet New Zealand's obligations under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and Consular Relations.

In the 2011-12 financial year the squad spent $5.2 million - $1.1 million over budget. The DPS carry firearms, in contrast to the regular police which do not. A 1993 report for the U. S. World Factbook of Criminal Justice Systems stated DPS officers have access to semi-automatic pistols. In May 2008, the DPS were testing a Holden Captiva SUV, to replace the unmarked Holden sedans in use at the time. 30 June 2000 - Squad members stand guard inside the Turkish consulate in Auckland, following Kurdish protests at the arrest of Abdullah Öcalan. September 2001 - Following the September 11 attacks, members of the DPS, Armed Offenders Squad and the Special Tactics Group were involved in operations for two months at the Embassy of the United States in Wellington, it was the first time armed New Zealand police have been on U. S. Embassy soil. 2002 - Operation Links, 400 police, including members of the DPS, protected players including Tiger Woods during the New Zealand Open. When the Prime Minister travels by road the DPS have a vehicle following behind, closer than is safe, to prevent other vehicles getting in between.

The close proximity of the escort vehicle has caused a few minor nose-to-tail accidents, such as twice in six weeks during 2000, on Ponsonby Road on 9 December 2005. C. 1993 – A DPS officer accidentally discharged his pistol into a briefcase aboard an foreign VIP aircraft, on the ground in Christchurch. Police stated, "The bullet lodged in the battery pack of a police radio in the briefcase." 2000 – Prime Minister Helen Clark criticised the DPS handling of a state visit by Chinese President Jiang Zemin the previous year – the DPS sought to minimise the president's exposure to protesters and save the government any embarrassment, which Clark rebuked by saying it was not in the spirit of democracy. 17 July 2004 – Helen Clark's motorcade travels at speeds of up to 172 km/h, to catch a flight at Christchurch after a flight from Timaru was cancelled. The Timaru District Court acquitted a DPS officer of all six charges relating to dangerous driving, the Police Complaints Authority praised a subsequent review of the Diplomatic Protection Squad standard operating procedures and urgent duty driving.

13 April 2005 – A door blew open on a six-seater charter airplane carrying Prime Minister Helen Clark. DPS officers Constable John Burridge and Senior Constable Dave Reid spent fifteen minutes holding the door closed with the aid of a baton, until the plane landed safely. Both officers received Police silver merit awards for their actions. August 2007 – The DPS are involved in shutting down a boy racer website that contained death threats against MP Clayton Cosgrove. 2007 – Two breaches lead to a review of security at Helen Clark's Mount Eden home, after taggers were able to put graffiti on the house, a man who had robbed a dairy was able to hide in the garden while changing his clothes. November 2008 – New Prime Minister John Key's property in Parnell, Auckland caused some security problems for the DPS due to the large size, the pricing and availability of accommodation for officers. February 2009 – On Waitangi Day, Prime Minister John Key is manhandled by a protester as he walks towards a marae after getting out of his car.

The incident caused speculation about the efficiency of the DPS. December 2017 – Newly-appointed Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern's Auckland property caused some security issues due to the small size of the property and because no close proximity accommodation has been sought yet, so the DPS rotate sittings in un-marked vehicles. Diplomatic Protection Service at the New Zealand Police website