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Nigeria

Nigeria the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean; the federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular state. Nigeria has been home to states over the millennia; the modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, took its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914 by Lord Fredrick Lugard. The British set up administrative and legal structures while practicing indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms, Nigeria became a formally independent federation in 1960, it experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It thereafter alternated between democratically elected civilian governments and military dictatorships until it achieved a stable democracy in 1999, with the 2011 presidential election considered the first to be reasonably free and fair.

Nigeria is referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy. With 206 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with more than 90 million of its population under the age of eighteen. Nigeria is the world's 20th largest economy as of 2015, worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity, respectively; the 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent. Nigeria is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by 250 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa and Yoruba; the official language of Nigeria is English, chosen to facilitate linguistic unity at the national level. Nigeria is divided in half between Christians, who live in the southern part of the country, Muslims, who live in the north. A minority of the population practice religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities.

Nigeria is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank. However, its Human Development Index ranks 158th in the world. Nigeria is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are seen as the globe's next "BRIC-like" economies, it is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies set to become among the biggest in the world. Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC; the name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator; the origin of the name Niger, which applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism; the Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between 1,500 BC and AD 200.

It produced life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. And smelted iron by about 550 BC and a few centuries earlier. Evidence of iron smelting has been excavated at sites in the Nsukka region of southeast Nigeria: dating to 2000 BC at the site of Lejja and to 750 BC and at the site of Opi. Further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem–Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa; the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. In West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost-wax process were from Igbo-Ukwu, a city under Nri influence.

The Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, respectively. The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century, its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo; the Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 19th centuries, their dominance reached further. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio directed a successful jihad and created and led the centralised Fulani Empire; the territory controlled by the resultant state included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. For centuries, various peoples in modern-day Nigeria traded overland with traders from North Africa. Cities in t

Miguel (TV series)

Miguel is an Israeli drama television series, first broadcast in Israel on Hot 3 in January 2018. The series was created by Tom Salama and Daphna Levine and stars Ran Danker as a gay man that adopts a child from Guatemala; the story is loosely based on Salama's own experiences, as he travelled to Central America when he was younger to adopt a child. Tom, a gay man is determined to achieve his dream of adopting a child, he travels to Guatemala where he adopts a 5-year-old boy and returns with the boy to Israel. Miguel is stubborn to accept his new life and sixteen years returns to Guatemala in search of his biological mother. Tom, however is determined to shield Miguel from a secret. Ran Danker as Tom, the adopted parent of the titular character Raúl Méndez as Martin, coordinator of Guatemala's adoption office Aviv Karmi as Amira, Tom's friend that accompanies him to Guatemala Omer Ben David as Miguel, Tom's grown-up adopted son Miguelito Sojuel as young Miguel, the child that Tom adopts Adam Karst as Zohar Miguel won the special performance prize for best ensemble cast at Canneseries.

The Financial Times praised the performance of Miguelito Sojuel playing the younger titular character: "Sojuel is outstanding as an orphan who stubbornly refuses to embrace the new life his adoptive father has planned out for him. Clutching a football as if his life depended on it, he dominates the screen with his defiant eyes: proud of who he is and steadfastly unmoved by gift-wrapped blandishments."In Israel the series was positively reviewed by Walla!, describing it as a "strong" series that "pushes all the right buttons." The news outlet continued to praise the performances of the cast and concluded that it is "a touching glimpse of a rough and sensitive human story, full of beautiful moments." Miguel on IMDb

Maniram Dewan

Maniram Dutta Baruah, popularly known as Maniram Dewan, was an Assamese nobleman in British India. He was one of the first people to establish tea gardens in Assam. A loyal ally of the British East India Company in his early years, he was hanged by the British for conspiring against them during the 1857 uprising, he was popular among the people of Upper Assam as "Kalita Raja". Maniram was born into a family, his paternal ancestors held high offices in the Ahom court. The Ahom rule had weakened following the Moamoria rebellion. During the Burmese invasions of Assam, Maniram's family sought asylum in Bengal, under the control of the British East India Company; the family returned to Assam under the British protection, during the early days of the First Anglo-Burmese War. The East India Company defeated the Burmese and gained the control of Assam through the Treaty of Yandabo. Early in his career, Maniram became a loyal associate of the British East India Company administration under David Scott, the Agent of the Governor General in North East India.

In 1828, the 22-year-old Maniram was appointed as a tehsildar and a sheristadar of Rangpur under Scott's deputy Captain John Bryan Neufville. Maniram was made a borbhandar by Purandar Singha, the titular ruler of Assam during 1833–1838, he continued to be an associate of Purandar's son Kamaleswar Singha and grandsom Kandarpeswar Singha. Maniram became a loyal confidante of Purandar Singha, resigned from the posts of sheristadar and tehsildar, when the king was deposed by the British, it was Maniram who informed the British about the Assam tea grown by the Singpho people, hitherto unknown to the rest of the world. In the early 1820s, he directed the cultivators Major Robert Bruce and his brother Charles Alexander Bruce to the local Singpho chief Bessa Gaum. Charles Bruce collected the tea plants from the Singphos and took them to the Company administration. However, Dr. Nathaniel Wallich, the superintendent of the Calcutta Botanical Garden declared that these samples were not same species as the tea plants of China.

In 1833, after its monopoly on the Chinese tea trade ended, the East India Company decided to establish major tea plantations in India. Lord William Bentinck established the Tea Committee on 1 February 1834 towards achieving this goal; the committee sent out circulars asking about the suitable places for tea cultivation, to which Captain F. Jenkins responded, suggesting Assam; the tea plant samples collected by his assistant Lieutenant Charlton were acknowledged by Dr. Wallich as genuine tea; when the Tea Committee visited Assam to study the feasibility of tea cultivation, Maniram met Dr. Wallich as a representative of Purandar Singha, highlighted the region's prospects for tea cultivation. In 1839, Maniram became the Dewan of the Assam Tea Company at Nazira, drawing a salary of 200 rupees per month. In the mid-1840s, he quit his job due to differences of opinion with the company officers. By this time, Maniram had acquired tea cultivation expertise, he established his own Cinnamara tea garden at Cinnamara in Jorhat, thus becoming the first Indian Tea Planter to grow tea commercially in Assam.

Jorhat and part of it at Tocklai world's first tea research laboratory established in 1911 as Tocklai Experimental Station. He established another plantation at Selung in Sibsagar. Apart from the tea industry, Maniram ventured into iron smelting, gold procuring and salt production, he was involved in the manufacturing of goods like matchlocks and cutlery. His other business activities included handloom, boat making, brick making, dyeing, ivory work, coal supply, elephant trade, construction of buildings for military headquarters and agricultural products; some of the markets established by him include the Garohat in Kamrup, Nagahat near Sivasagar, Borhat in Dibrugarh, Sissihat in Dhemaji and Darangia Haat in Darramg. By the 1850s, Maniram had become hostile to the British, he had faced numerous administrative obstacles in establishing private tea plantations, due to opposition from the competing European tea planters. In 1851, captain Charles Holroyd, the chief officer of Sibsagar seized all the facilities provided to him due to a tea garden dispute.

Maniram, whose family consisted of 185 people, had to face economic hardship. In 1852, Maniram presented a petition to A. G. Moffat Mills, the judge of the Sadar Court, Calcutta, he wrote that the people of Assam had been "reduced to the most abject and hopeless state of misery from the loss of their fame, rank, employment etc." He pointed out that the British policies were aimed at recovering the expenses incurred in conquering the Assam province from the Burmese, resulting in exploitation of the local economy. He protested against the waste of money on frivolous court cases, the unjust taxation system, the unfair pension system and the introduction of opium cultivation, he criticized the discontinuation of the puja at the Kamakhya Temple, which according to him resulted in calamities. Maniram further wrote that the "objectionable treatment" of the Hill Tribes was resulting in constant warfare leading to mutual loss of life and money, he complained against the desecration of the Ahom royal tombs and looting of wealth from these relics.

He disapproved of the appointment of the Marwaris and the Bengalis as Mouzadars, when a number of Assamese people remained unemployed. As a solution to all these issues, Maniram proposed that the former native administration of the Ahom kings be reintroduced; the judge Mills dismissed the petition as a "curi