Shelton Jackson "Spike" Lee is an American film director, producer and actor. His production company, 40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks, has produced over 35 films since 1983, he made his directorial debut with She's Gotta Have It, has since directed such films as Do the Right Thing, Jungle Fever, Malcolm X, He Got Game, The Original Kings of Comedy, 25th Hour, Inside Man, Chi-Raq, BlacKkKlansman. Lee had starring roles in ten of his own films. Lee's films have examined race relations, colorism in the black community, the role of media in contemporary life, urban crime and poverty, other political issues, he has won numerous accolades for his work, including an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, a Student Academy Award, a BAFTA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, two Emmy Awards, two Peabody Awards, the Cannes Grand Prix. He has received an Academy Honorary Award, an Honorary BAFTA Award, an Honorary César, the Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize. Lee was born in Atlanta, the son of Jacqueline Carroll, a teacher of arts and black literature, William James Edward Lee III, a jazz musician and composer.
Lee has three younger siblings, Joie and Cinqué, who all worked in many different positions in Lee's films. Director Malcolm D. Lee is his cousin; when he was a child, the family moved to New York. His mother nicknamed him "Spike" during his childhood, he attended John Dewey High School in Brooklyn's Gravesend neighborhood. Lee enrolled in Morehouse College, a black college, where he made his first student film, Last Hustle in Brooklyn, he took film courses at Clark Atlanta University and graduated with a B. A. in mass communication from Morehouse. He did graduate work at New York University's Tisch School of the Arts, where he earned a Master of Fine Arts in film & television. Lee's independent film, Joe's Bed-Stuy Barbershop: We Cut Heads, was the first student film to be showcased in Lincoln Center's New Directors/New Films Festival. In 1985, Lee began work on his first feature film, She's Gotta Have It. With a budget of $175,000, he shot the film in two weeks; when the film was released in 1986, it grossed over $7,000,000 at the U.
S. box office. Lee's 1989 film Do the Right Thing was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay in 1989. Many people, including Hollywood's Kim Basinger, believed that Do the Right Thing deserved a Best Picture nomination. Driving Miss Daisy won Best Picture that year. Lee said in an April 7, 2006, interview with New York magazine that the other film's success, which he thought was based on safe stereotypes, hurt him more than if his film had not been nominated for an award. After the 1990 release of Mo' Better Blues, Lee was accused of antisemitism by the Anti-Defamation League and several film critics, they criticized the characters of the club owners Josh and Moe Flatbush, described as "Shylocks". Lee denied the charge, explaining that he wrote those characters in order to depict how black artists struggled against exploitation. Lee said that Lew Wasserman, Sidney Sheinberg, or Tom Pollock, the Jewish heads of MCA and Universal Studios, were unlikely to allow antisemitic content in a film they produced.
He said he could not make an antisemitic film because Jews run Hollywood, "that's a fact". His 1997 documentary 4 Little Girls, about the children killed in the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Feature Documentary. On May 2, 2007, the 50th San Francisco International Film Festival honored Spike Lee with the San Francisco Film Society's Directing Award. In 2008, he received the Wexner Prize. In 2013, he won The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize, one of the richest prizes in the American arts worth $300,000. In 2015, Lee received an Academy Honorary Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for his contributions to film. Lee directed and produced the MyCareer story mode in the video game NBA 2K16. Lee's film BlacKkKlansman, a drama thriller set in the 1970s, won the Grand Prix at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival, opened the following August, it received nominations for the Academy Award for Best Picture and Best Director, with Lee winning his first competitive Academy Award in the category Best Adapted Screenplay.
In 1991, Lee taught a course at Harvard about filmmaking, in 1993, he began to teach at New York University’s Tisch School of the Arts in the Graduate Film Program. It was there that he received his master of fine arts and was appointed artistic director in 2002, he is now a tenured professor at NYU. In mid-1990, Levi's began producing a series of TV commercials directed by Lee for their 501 button-fly jeans. Marketing executives from Nike offered Lee a job directing commercials for the company, they wanted to pair Lee's character, the Michael Jordan–loving Mars Blackmon, Jordan in a marketing campaign for the Air Jordan line. Lee was called on to comment on the controversy surrounding the inner-city rash of violence involving youths trying to steal Air Jordans from other kids, he said that, rather than blaming manufacturers of apparel that gained popularity, "deal with the conditions that make a kid put so much importance on a pair of sneakers, a jacket and gold". Through the marketing wing of 40 Acres and a Mule, Lee has directed commercials for Converse, Taco Bell, Ben & Jerry's.
Lee's films have examined race relations, colorism in the black community, the role of media in contemporary life, urban crime and poverty, other political issues. His films are noted for their unique stylistic elements, including the use of dolly shots to portray the characters "f
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Mario Gianluigi Puzo was an American author and journalist. He is known for his crime novels about the Italian-American mafia, most notably The Godfather, which he co-adapted into a three-part film saga directed by Francis Ford Coppola, he received the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay for the first film in 1972 and Part II in 1974. Puzo wrote the original screenplay for the 1978 Superman film, his novel The Family was released posthumously in 2001. Puzo was born in the Hell's Kitchen area of New York City into a poor family from Pietradefusi, Province of Avellino, Italy. Many of his books draw on his heritage. After graduating from the City College of New York, he joined the US Army Air Forces in World War II; because of his poor eyesight, he was not allowed to undertake combat duties, but he was made a public relations officer stationed in Germany. Puzo returned to New York where he attended the New School for Social Research Columbia University. In 1950, his first short story, "The Last Christmas," was published in American Vanguard.
After the war, he wrote his first book, The Dark Arena, published in 1955. During the 1950s and the early 1960s, Puzo worked as a writer/editor for publisher Martin Goodman's Magazine Management Company. Puzo, along with other writers like Bruce Jay Friedman, worked for the company line of men's magazines, pulp titles like Male, True Action, Swank. Under the pseudonym Mario Cleri, Puzo wrote World War II adventure features for True Action. Puzo's most famous work, The Godfather, was encouraged by a suggestion of the publisher of his The Fortunate Pilgrim, who thought that if there had been more Mafia in that book, it would have been more successful. A story outline was presented to the publisher, who rejected it. After several publishers were approached, Putnam editors met with him without having read the outline, he told them a few stories, the project was approved. With the advance, he got on with the project, he had heard anecdotes about Mafia organizations during his time in pulp journalism.
He said in an interview with Larry King that the critical reception of his previous two books, without the monetary success to follow, made the issue all the more important in the next work to support his five children on a government clerk's salary. He was looking to write something, he found his audience with the novel, which became the top bestseller for months on the New York Times Best Seller List. The book was developed into the film The Godfather, directed by Francis Ford Coppola; the film received three awards of the eleven Oscar category nominations, including Puzo's Oscar for Best Adapted Screenplay. Coppola and Puzo collaborated on sequels to the original film, The Godfather Part II and The Godfather Part III. Puzo wrote the first draft of the script for the 1974 disaster film Earthquake, but he was unable to continue working on it because of his commitment to The Godfather Part II. Puzo wrote the original screenplay for Richard Donner's Superman, which also included the plot for Superman II, as they were written as one film.
He collaborated on the stories for the 1982 film A Time to Die and the 1984 Francis Ford Coppola film The Cotton Club. In 1991, Puzo's speculative fiction, The Fourth K was published. Puzo never saw the publication of his penultimate book, Omertà, but the manuscript was finished before his death, as was the manuscript for The Family. However, in a review published in the San Francisco Chronicle, Jules Siegel, who had worked with Puzo at Magazine Management Company, speculated that Omertà may have been completed by "some talentless hack." Siegel acknowledged the temptation to "rationalize avoiding what is the correct analysis – that wrote it and it is terrible." Puzo died of heart failure on July 1999 at his home on Manor Lane in West Bay Shore, New York. His family now lives in New York. Fyodor Dostoyevsky was an influence on Puzo, providing several quotations from The Brothers Karamazov, in Puzo's books: The Dark Arena, Fools Die, The Fourth K, The Family; the Corleone family in The Godfather resembles the Karamazov family in The Brothers Karamazov with a powerful father, an impulsive elder son, a philosophical son, a sweet-tempered son, an adopted stepson, maintained as an employee.
The Dark Arena The Fortunate Pilgrim The Runaway Summer of Davie Shaw Six Graves to Munich, as Mario Cleri The Godfather Fools Die The Sicilian The Fourth K The Last Don Omertà The Family "Test Yourself: Are You Heading for a Nervous Breakdown?" as Mario Cleri The Godfather Papers and Other Confessions Inside Las Vegas All short stories, except "The Last Christmas", were written under the pseudonym Mario Cleri. "The Last Christmas" "John'Red' Marston's Island of Delight" "Big Mike's Wild Young Sister-in-law" "The Six Million Killer Sharks That Terrorize Our Shores" "Trapped Girls in the Riviera's Flesh Casino" "The Unkillable Six" "Girls of Pleasure Penthouse" "Order Lucy For Tonight" "12 Barracks of Wild Blondes" "Charlie Reese's Amazing Escape from a Russian Death Camp" The Godfather The Godfather Part II Earthquake Superman Superman II A Time to Die The Cotton Club The Sicilian The Fortunate Pilgrim The Godfather Part III Christopher Columbus: The Disco
Frances Marion was an American screenwriter, journalist and film director cited as one of the most renowned female screenwriter of the 20th century alongside June Mathis and Anita Loos. She was the first writer to win two Academy Awards. Marion began her film career working for filmmaker Lois Weber, she wrote numerous silent film scenarios for actress Mary Pickford, before transitioning to writing sound films. Marion was born Marion Benson Owens in San Francisco, California, to Len D. Minnie Benson, she had an older sister, a younger brother, Len. Her parents divorced when she was 10, she lived with her mother, she dropped out of school at age 12, after having been caught drawing a cartoon strip of her teacher. She transferred to a school in San Mateo and to the Mark Hopkins Art Institute in San Francisco when she was 16 years old. Marion attended this school from 1904 until the school was destroyed by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. While in San Francisco, Marion worked as a photographer's assistant to Arnold Genthe and experimented with photographic layouts and color film.
She worked for Western Pacific Railroads as a commercial artist as a reporter for the San Francisco Examiner. After moving to Los Angeles, Marion worked as a poster artist for the Morosco Theater as well as an advertising firm doing commercial layouts. In the summer of 1914 she was hired as a writing assistant, an actress and general assistant by Lois Weber Productions, a film company owned and operated by pioneer female film director Lois Weber, she could have been preferred work behind the camera. She learned screenwriting from Weber; when Lois Weber went to work for Universal, she offered to bring Marion with her. Marion decided not to take Weber up on the offer. Soon after, close friend Mary Pickford offered Marion a job at Famous Players-Lasky. Marion accepted, began working on scenarios for films like Fanchon the Cricket, Little Pal, Rags. Marion was cast alongside Pickford in A Girl of Yesterday. At the same time, she worked on an original scenario for Pickford to star in, The Foundling. Marion sold the script to Adolph Zukor for $125.
The film was shot in New York, Moving Picture World gave it a positive pre-release review. But the film negative was destroyed in a laboratory fire. Marion, having traveled from Los Angeles to New York for The Foundling's premiere, applied for work as a writer at World Films and was hired for an unpaid two-week trial. For her first project, she decided to try recutting existing films, shelved as unreleasable. Marion wrote a new prologue and epilogue for a film starring Alice Brady, daughter of World Films boss William Brady; the new portions turned the film from a laughable melodrama into a comedy. The revised film sold for distribution for $9,000, Brady gave Marion a $200/week contract for her writing services. Soon Marion became head of the writing department at World Films, where she was credited with writing 50 films, she left in 1917 when, following the success of The Poor Little Rich Girl, Famous Players-Lasky signed her to a $50,000 a year contract as Mary Pickford's official scenarioist.
Marion was reported at this time to be "one of the highest paid script writers in the business." Her first project under the contract was an adaptation of Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm. Marion worked as a journalist and served overseas as a combat correspondent during World War I, she documented women's contribution to the war effort on the front lines, became the first woman to cross the Rhine after the armistice. Upon Marion's return from Europe in 1919, William Randolph Hearst offered her $2,000 a week to write scenarios for his Cosmopolitan Productions. Marion shared a house with fellow screenwriter Anita Loos on Long Island. While at Cosmopolitan, Marion wrote an adaptation of Fannie Hurst's Humoresque, her success in adapting the novel and her friendship with Hurst contributed to her decision to adapt another Hurst story, "Superman," for her directorial debut. The resulting film, Just Around the Corner, was a best-seller for the studio. Marion directed The Love Light, starring Mary Pickford.
She won the Academy Award for Writing in 1931 for the film The Big House, she received the Academy Award for Best Story for The Champ in 1932, both featuring Wallace Beery, co-wrote Min and Bill starring her friend Marie Dressler and Beery in 1930. She was credited over 130 produced films. On October 23, 1915, Marion participated in a parade of more than thirty thousand supporters of women's suffrage in New York City. After her success in Hollywood, Marion visited Aetna Springs Resort in Aetna Springs, using it as a personal retreat and bringing several film-industry colleagues with her on vacations; the resort, in fact, was directly connected to her own family's history, for Marion's father had built the resort in the 1870s. Marion was married four times, first to Wesley de Lappe and to Robert Pike, both prior to changing her name. In 1919, she wed Fred Thomson, who co-starred with Mary Pickford in The Love Light in 1921, she was such close friends with Mary Pickford that they honeymooned together when Mary married Douglas Fairbanks and Frances married Fred.
After Thomson's unexpected death from a leg wound in 1928, she married director George W. Hill in 1930, but that marriage ended in divorce in 1933, she had two sons -- Richard Thomson. Frederick earned a PhD in English at Yale, taught there and joined the faculty of the University of North Carolina, he became an editor of the writings of George Eliot, publishing editions of Felix Holt, the Radical in 1980 and later. For many yea
Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay
The Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay is the Academy Award for the best screenplay not based upon published material. It was created in 1940 as a separate writing award from the Academy Award for Best Story. Beginning with the Oscars for 1957, the two categories were combined to honor only the screenplay. In 2002, the name of the award was changed from Writing to Writing. See the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, a similar award for screenplays that are adaptations. Noted novelists and playwrights who have received nominations in this category include: John Steinbeck, Noël Coward, Raymond Chandler, Alain Robbe-Grillet, Edward Bond, Arthur C. Clarke, Lillian Hellman, Neil Simon, Paddy Chayefsky, Kenneth Lonergan, Tom Stoppard, Terence Rattigan and Martin McDonagh. Woody Allen has the most nominations in this category with 16, the most awards with 3, though Paddy Chayefsky won the Best Adapted Screenplay in 1955 for his adaptation of his own teleplay and won for Original Screenplay for The Hospital and Network.
Woody Allen holds the record as the oldest winner. Ben Affleck is the youngest winner, at the age of 25 for Good Will Hunting. Richard Schweizer was the first to win for Marie-Louise. Other winners for a non-English screenplay include Albert Lamorisse, Pietro Germi, Claude Lelouch, Pedro Almodóvar. Lamorisse is additionally the only person to win or be nominated for Best Original Screenplay for a short film. Muriel Box was the first woman to win in this category; the Boxes are the first married couple to win in this category. Only three other married couples won an Oscar in another category—Earl W. Wallace and Pamela Wallace, Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh, Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez. In 1996, Joel Coen and Ethan Coen became the only siblings to win in this category. Francis Ford Coppola and Sofia Coppola are the only father-daughter pair to win. Preston Sturges was nominated for two different films in the same year: Hail the Conquering Hero and The Miracle of Morgan's Creek. Oliver Stone achieved the same distinction for Platoon and Salvador.
Maurice Richlin and Stanley Shapiro were nominated in 1959 for both Operation Petticoat and Pillow Talk and won for the latter. At the 2018 ceremony, Get Out writer-director Jordan Peele became the first African-American to win in this category. Winners are listed first followed by the other nominees. Academy Award for Best Story Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplay Independent Spirit Award for Best Screenplay Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Screenplay List of Big Five Academy Award winners and nominees Writers Guild of America Award for Best Original Screenplay
Billy Wilder was an Austrian-born American filmmaker, producer and journalist whose career spanned more than five decades. He is regarded as one of the most brilliant and versatile filmmakers of the Hollywood Golden Age of cinema. With The Apartment, Wilder became the first person to win Academy Awards as producer and screenwriter for the same film. Wilder became a screenwriter in the late 1920s while living in Berlin. After the rise of the Nazi Party, he left for Paris, he moved to Hollywood in 1933, in 1939 he had a hit when he co-wrote the screenplay for the romantic comedy Ninotchka, starring Greta Garbo. Wilder established his directorial reputation with an adaption of James M. Cain's Double Indemnity, a film noir. Wilder co-wrote the screenplay with crime novelist Raymond Chandler. Wilder earned the Best Director and Best Screenplay Academy Awards for the adaptation of a Charles R. Jackson story The Lost Weekend, about alcoholism. In 1950, Wilder co-wrote and directed the critically acclaimed Sunset Boulevard, as well as Stalag 17 in 1953.
From the mid-1950s on, Wilder made comedies. Among the classics Wilder created in this period are the farces The Seven Year Itch and Some Like It Hot, satires such as The Apartment, he directed fourteen different actors in Oscar-nominated performances. Wilder was recognized with the American Film Institute Life Achievement Award in 1986. In 1988, Wilder was awarded the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award. In 1993, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts. Samuel Wilder was born on June 1906 to a family of Austrian Jews in Sucha Beskidzka, his parents were Max Wilder. He was nicknamed "Billie" by his mother, he had an elder brother, William Lee Wilder, who became a screenwriter, film producer and director. His parents had a successful and well-known cake shop in Sucha's train station and unsuccessfully tried to persuade their son to join the family business. Soon the family moved to Vienna. Instead of attending the University of Vienna, Wilder became a journalist. To advance his career, Wilder decided to move to Berlin, before achieving success as a writer, he worked as a taxi dancer.
After writing crime and sports stories as a stringer for local newspapers, he was offered a regular job at a Berlin tabloid. Developing an interest in film, he began working as a screenwriter, he collaborated with several other novices on the 1929 feature People on Sunday. He wrote the screenplay for the 1931 film adaptation of a novel by Erich Kästner and the Detectives. After the rise of Adolf Hitler, Jewish, left for Paris, where he made his directorial debut with the 1934 film Mauvaise Graine, he relocated to Hollywood prior to its release. Wilder's mother and stepfather all died in the Holocaust. For decades it was assumed that it happened at Auschwitz, but while researching Polish and Israeli archives, his Austrian biographer Andreas Hutter discovered in 2011 that they were murdered in different locations: his mother, Eugenia "Gitla" Siedlisker - in 1943 at Plaszow. After arriving in Hollywood in 1933, Wilder continued his career as a screenwriter, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1939, having spent time in Mexico waiting for the US government after his six-month visa had expired in 1934, an episode reflected in his 1941 Hold Back the Dawn.
Wilder's first significant success was Ninotchka in 1939, a collaboration with fellow German immigrant Ernst Lubitsch. This romantic comedy starred Greta Garbo, was popularly and critically acclaimed. With the byline, "Garbo Laughs!", it took Garbo's career in a new direction. The film marked Wilder's first Academy Award nomination, which he shared with co-writer Charles Brackett. For twelve years Wilder co-wrote many of his films with Brackett, from 1938 through 1950, he followed Ninotchka with a series of box office hits in 1942, including his Hold Back the Dawn and Ball of Fire, as well as his directorial feature debut, The Major and the Minor. His third film as director, Double Indemnity was a major hit. A film noir, nominated for Best Director and Screenplay, it was co-written with mystery novelist Raymond Chandler, although the two men did not get along. Double Indemnity not only set conventions for the noir genre, but was a landmark in the battle against Hollywood censorship; the original James M. Cain novel Double Indemnity featured two love triangles and a murder plotted for insurance money.
While the book was popular with the reading public, it had been considered unfilmable under the Hays Code, because adultery was central to its plot. Double Indemnity is credited by some as the first true film noir, combining the stylistic elements of Citizen Kane with the narrative elements of The Maltese Falcon. During the liberation of concentration camps in 1945, the Psychological Warfare Department of the United States Department of War produced an American propaganda documentary film directed by Billy Wilder; the film known as Death Mills, or Die Todesmühlen, was intended for German audiences to educate them about the atrocities committed by the Nazi regime. For the German version, Die Todesm
Dame Emma Thompson is a British actress, activist and comedian. One of the UK's most acclaimed actresses, she is known for her portrayals of enigmatic women in period dramas and literary adaptations, playing matronly characters with a sense of wit, she is the recipient of various accolades, including two Academy Awards, a Primetime Emmy Award, three BAFTA Awards, two Golden Globe Awards. Born in London to English actor Eric Thompson and Scottish actress Phyllida Law, Thompson was educated at Newnham College, University of Cambridge, where she became a member of the Footlights troupe. After appearing in several comedy programmes, she first came to prominence in 1987 in two BBC TV series, Tutti Frutti and Fortunes of War, winning the BAFTA TV Award for Best Actress for her work in both series, her first film role was in the 1989 romantic comedy The Tall Guy, in the early 1990s, she collaborated with her husband and director Kenneth Branagh. The pair became popular in the British media and co-starred in several films, including Dead Again and Much Ado About Nothing.
In 1992, Thompson won an Academy Award and a BAFTA Award for Best Actress for the period drama Howards End. In 1993, she garnered dual Academy Award nominations for her roles in The Remains of the Day as the housekeeper of a grand household and In the Name of the Father as a lawyer. Thompson scripted and starred in Sense and Sensibility, which earned her numerous awards, including an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, which makes her the only person to receive Academy Awards for both acting and writing, a BAFTA Award for Best Actress. Other notable film and television credits include the Harry Potter film series, Love Actually, Angels in America, Nanny McPhee, Stranger than Fiction, Last Chance Harvey, Men in Black 3, Beauty and the Beast. In 2013, she received acclaim and several award nominations for her portrayal of P. L. Travers in Saving Mr. Banks. Thompson is married to actor Greg Wise, they have one son. She is an activist in the areas of human rights and environmentalism and has received criticism for her outspokenness.
She has written two books adapted from The Tale of Peter Rabbit. She was appointed a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2018 Birthday Honours by Elizabeth II for her services to drama. Thompson was born in Paddington, London, on 15 April 1959, her mother is the Scottish actress Phyllida Law, while her English father, Eric Thompson, was involved in theatre, was the writer–narrator of the popular children's television series The Magic Roundabout. Her godfather was writer Ronald Eyre, she has one sister, Sophie Thompson, who works as an actress. The family lived in West Hampstead in north London, Thompson was educated at Camden School for Girls, she spent much time in Scotland during her childhood and visited Ardentinny, where her grandparents and uncle lived. In her youth, Thompson was intrigued by language and literature, a trait which she attributes to her father, who shared her love of words. After taking A levels in English and Latin, securing a scholarship, she began studying for an English degree at Newnham College, arriving in 1977.
Thompson believes that it was inevitable that she would become an actress, commenting that she was "surrounded by creative people and I don't think it would have gone any other way, really". While there, she had a "seminal moment" that turned her to feminism and inspired her to take up performing, she explained in an interview in 2007 how she discovered the book The Madwoman in the Attic, "which is about Victorian female writers and the disguises they took on in order to express what they wanted to express. That changed my life." She became a self-professed "punk rocker", with short red hair and a motorbike, aspired to be a comedian like Lily Tomlin. At Cambridge, Thompson was invited into Footlights, the university's prestigious sketch comedy troupe, by its president, Martin Bergman, becoming its first female member. In the troupe were fellow actors Stephen Fry and Hugh Laurie, she had a romantic relationship with the latter. Fry recalled. Our nickname for her was Emma Talented." In 1980, Thompson served as the Vice President of Footlights, co-directed the troupe's first all-female revue, Woman's Hour.
The following year and her Footlights team won the Perrier Award at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe for their sketch show The Cellar Tapes. Scholastically, Thompson graduated with upper second-class honours. In 1982, Thompson's father died as a result of circulatory problems at the age of 52; the actress has commented that this "tore to pieces", "I can't begin to tell you how much I regret his not being around". She added, "At the same time, it's possible that were he still alive I might never have had the space or courage to do what I've done... I have a definite feeling of inheriting space, and power." Thompson had her first professional role in 1982, touring in a stage version of Not the Nine O'Clock News. She turned to television, where much of her early work came with her Footlights co-stars Hugh Laurie and Stephen Fry; the regional ITV comedy series There's Nothing To Worry About! was their first outing, followed by the one-off BBC show The Crystal Cube. There's Nothing to Worry About! Later returned as the networked sketch show Alfresco, which ran for two series with Thompson, Laurie, Ben Elton, Robbie Coltrane.
She collaborated again with Fry and Laurie on the accla