Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay

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Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay
Country United States
Presented by Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS)
First awarded 1929
Currently held by James Ivory
Call Me by Your Name (2017)

The Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay is one of the Academy Awards, the most prominent film awards in the United States. It is awarded each year to the writer of a screenplay adapted from another source (usually a novel, play, short story, or TV series but sometimes another film). All sequels are automatically considered adaptations by this standard (since the sequel must be based on the original story).

See also the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay, a similar award for screenplays that are not adaptations.


The first person to win twice in this category is Joseph L. Mankiewicz, who won the award in two consecutive years, 1949 and 1950. Others to win twice in this category include: George Seaton, Robert Bolt (who also won in consecutive years), Francis Ford Coppola, Mario Puzo, Alvin Sargent, Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, Alexander Payne and Michael Wilson. Payne won both awards as part of a writing duo, with Jim Taylor, and writing trio, with Jim Rash and Nat Faxon. Michael Wilson was blacklisted at the time of his second Oscar, so the award was given to a front (novelist Pierre Boulle). However, the Academy officially recognized him as the winner several years later.[1]

Frances Marion was the first woman to win in this category, in 1930.

Pierre Collings and Sheridan Gibney were the first to win for adapting their own work, for The Story of Louis Pasteur.

Philip G. Epstein and Julius J. Epstein are the first siblings to win in this category, for Casablanca. James Goldman and William Goldman are the first to win for separate films. Joel Coen and Ethan Coen are the third winning siblings, for No Country for Old Men.

Mario Puzo is the one of two writers whose work has been adapted and resulted in two wins. Puzo's novel The Godfather resulted in wins in 1972 and 1974. The other is E. M. Forster, whose novels A Room with a View and Howards End resulted in wins for Ruth Prawer Jhabvala.

Larry McMurtry is the only person who has won (for Brokeback Mountain) for adapting someone else's work and whose work has been adapted by someone else resulting in a win, Terms of Endearment.

Emma Thompson is the only winner who has also won for acting.[2] Winners Billy Bob Thornton and John Huston have only received nominations (not wins) in the acting categories.

Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh are the only married couple to win, for The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King.

Geoffrey S. Fletcher (for Precious: Based on the Novel 'Push' by Sapphire), John Ridley (for 12 Years a Slave), and Barry Jenkins and Tarell Alvin McCraney (both for Moonlight) are the only African-Americans to win in this category; Fletcher is also the first African-American to win in any writing category.

Billy Wilder, Charles Brackett, Paddy Chayefsky, Francis Ford Coppola, Horton Foote, William Goldman, Robert Benton, Bo Goldman, and the Coen brothers have won Oscars for both original and adapted screenplays.

James Ivory is the oldest person to receive the award, having been 89 years old when he won for Call Me by Your Name.

Notable nominees[edit]

Noted novelists and playwrights nominated in this category include: George Bernard Shaw (who shared an award for an adaptation of his play Pygmalion), Graham Greene, Tennessee Williams, Vladimir Nabokov, James Hilton, Dashiell Hammett, Raymond Chandler, Lillian Hellman, Irwin Shaw, James Agee, Norman Corwin, S. J. Perelman, Terence Rattigan, John Osborne, Robert Bolt, Harold Pinter, David Mamet, Larry McMurtry, Arthur Miller, John Irving, David Hare, Tony Kushner, and August Wilson.

Scott Frank, James Mangold, and Michael Green, writers of Logan, are the first to be nominated for a film based on superhero comic books (the X-Men).

Winners and nominees[edit]

Winners are listed first in colored row, followed by the other nominees.


Year Film Nominees Source Material
[note 1]
7th Heaven Benjamin Glazer The play Seventh Heaven by Austin Strong
Glorious Betsy Anthony Coldeway The play Glorious Betsy by Rida Johnson Young
The Jazz Singer Alfred A. Cohn The play The Jazz Singer by Samson Raphaelson, from his story "The Day of Atonement"
[note 2]
The Patriot Hanns Kräly Ashley Dukes' translation of the play Der Patriot by Alfred Neumann & the story Paul I by Dmitry Merezhkovsky
The Cop Elliott J. Clawson (original)
In Old Arizona Tom Barry The story The Caballero's Way by O. Henry
The Last of Mrs. Cheyney Kräly The play The Last of Mrs. Cheyney by Frederick Lonsdale
The Leatherneck Clawson (original)
Our Dancing Daughters Josephine Lovett (original)
Sal of Singapore Clawson The story The Sentimentalists by Dale Collins
Skyscraper A story by Dudley Murphy
The Valiant Barry The play The Valiant by Halworthy Hall & Robert Middlemass
A Woman of Affairs Bess Meredyth The novel The Green Hat by Michael Arlen
Wonder of Women The novel Die Frau des Steffen Tromholt by Hermann Sudermann


Year Film Nominees Source Material
[note 3]
The Big House Frances Marion (original)
All Quiet on the Western Front Maxwell Anderson (adaptation/dialogue), George Abbott (screenplay), Del Andrews (adaptation) The novel All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque
Disraeli Julien Josephson The play Disraeli by Louis N. Parker
The Divorcee John Meehan The novel Ex-Wife by Ursula Parrott
Street of Chance Howard Estabrook A story by Oliver H. P. Garrett
[note 1]
Cimarron Howard Estabrook The novel Cimarron by Edna Ferber
The Criminal Code Seton I. Miller & Fred Niblo Jr. The play The Criminal Code by Martin Flavin
Holiday Horace Jackson The play Holiday by Philip Barry
Little Caesar Francis Edward Faragoh (screen version/dialogue) & Robert N. Lee (continuity) The novel Little Caesar by W. R. Burnett
Skippy Joseph L. Mankiewicz & Sam Mintz The comic strip Skippy by Percy Crosby
[note 1]
Bad Girl Edwin J. Burke The novel Bad Girl and Bad Girl (play) by Viña Delmar
Arrowsmith Sidney Howard The novel Arrowsmith by Sinclair Lewis
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Percy Heath & Samuel Hoffenstein The novel Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson
[note 1]
Little Women Victor Heerman & Sarah Y. Mason The novel Little Women by Louisa May Alcott
Lady for a Day Robert Riskin The story Madame la Gimp by Damon Runyon
State Fair Paul Green & Sonya Levien The novel State Fair by Phil Stong
[note 1]
It Happened One Night Robert Riskin The story Night Bus by Samuel Hopkins Adams
The Thin Man Albert Hackett & Frances Goodrich The novel The Thin Man by Dashiell Hammett
Viva Villa! Ben Hecht The book Viva Villa! by Edgecumb Pinchon and O. B. Stade
(8th) [note 4]
[note 5]
The Informer Dudley Nichols [note 6][3] The novel The Informer by Liam O'Flaherty
The Lives of a Bengal Lancer Waldemar Young, John L. Balderston & Achmed Abdullah (screenplay); Grover Jones & William Slavens McNutt (adaptation) The novel The Lives of a Bengal Lancer by Francis Yeats-Brown
Mutiny on the Bounty Talbot Jennings, Jules Furthman & Carey Wilson The novel Mutiny on the Bounty by Charles Nordhoff & James Norman Hall
The Story of Louis Pasteur Pierre Collings & Sheridan Gibney (original)
After the Thin Man Frances Goodrich & Albert Hackett A story by Dashiell Hammett
Dodsworth Sidney Howard The play Dodsworth by Sidney Howard & the novel by Sinclair Lewis
Mr. Deeds Goes to Town Robert Riskin The story Opera Hat by Clarence Budington Kelland
My Man Godfrey Morrie Ryskind & Eric S. Hatch The story 1101 Park Avenue by Hatch
The Life of Emile Zola Heinz Herald, Geza Herczeg & Norman Reilly Raine The book Zola and His Time by Matthew Josephson
The Awful Truth Viña Delmar The play The Awful Truth by Arthur Richman
Captains Courageous Marc Connelly, John Lee Mahin & Dale Van Every The novel Captains Courageous by Rudyard Kipling
Stage Door Morrie Ryskind & Anthony Veiller The play Stage Door by Edna Ferber & George S. Kaufman
A Star Is Born Dorothy Parker, Alan Campbell & Robert Carson A story by William A. Wellman & Carson
Pygmalion George Bernard Shaw (screenplay and dialogue); Ian Dalrymple, Cecil Arthur Lewis & W. P. Lipscomb (adaptation) The play Pygmalion by Shaw
Boys Town John Meehan & Dore Schary A story by Schary & Eleanore Griffin
The Citadel Ian Dalrymple, Frank Wead & Elizabeth Hill The novel The Citadel by A. J. Cronin
Four Daughters Lenore Coffee & Julius J. Epstein The short story Sister Act by Fannie Hurst
You Can't Take It with You Robert Riskin The play You Can't Take It with You by George S. Kaufman & Moss Hart
Gone with the Wind Sidney Howard (posthumously) The novel Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell
Goodbye, Mr. Chips R. C. Sherriff, Claudine West & Eric Maschwitz The novel Goodbye, Mr. Chips by James Hilton
Mr. Smith Goes to Washington Sidney Buchman A story by Lewis R. Foster
Ninotchka Charles Brackett, Billy Wilder & Walter Reisch A story by Melchior Lengyel
Wuthering Heights Charles MacArthur & Ben Hecht The novel Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë


Year Film Nominees Source Material
The Philadelphia Story Donald Ogden Stewart The play The Philadelphia Story by Philip Barry
The Grapes of Wrath Nunnally Johnson The novel The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck
Kitty Foyle Dalton Trumbo The novel Kitty Foyle by Christopher Morley
The Long Voyage Home Dudley Nichols The short plays The Moon of the Caribees, In the Zone, Bound East for Cardiff & The Long Voyage Home by Eugene O'Neill
Rebecca Robert E. Sherwood & Joan Harrison The novel Rebecca by Daphne du Maurier
Here Comes Mr. Jordan Sidney Buchman & Seton I. Miller The play Heaven Can Wait by Harry Segall
Hold Back the Dawn Charles Brackett & Billy Wilder The story Memo to a Movie Producer by Ketti Frings
How Green Was My Valley Philip Dunne The novel How Green Was My Valley by Richard Llewellyn
The Little Foxes Lillian Hellman The play The Little Foxes by Hellman
The Maltese Falcon John Huston The novel The Maltese Falcon by Dashiell Hammett
Mrs. Miniver George Froeschel, James Hilton, Claudine West & Arthur Wimperis The character Mrs. Miniver from the newspaper columns by Jan Struther
The Invaders Rodney Ackland & Emeric Pressburger A story by Pressburger
The Pride of the Yankees Herman J. Mankiewicz & Jo Swerling A story by Paul Gallico
Random Harvest Froeschel, West & Wimperis The novel Random Harvest by Hilton
The Talk of the Town Sidney Buchman & Irwin Shaw A story by Sidney Harmon
Casablanca Philip G. Epstein, Julius J. Epstein & Howard E. Koch The play Everybody Comes to Rick's by Murray Burnett & Joan Alison
Holy Matrimony Nunnally Johnson The novel Buried Alive by Arnold Bennett
The More the Merrier Richard Flournoy, Lewis R. Foster, Frank Ross & Robert W. Russell A story by Ross & Russell
The Song of Bernadette George Seaton The novel The Song of Bernadette by Franz Werfel
Watch on the Rhine Dashiell Hammett The play Watch on the Rhine by Lillian Hellman
Going My Way Frank Butler & Frank Cavett A story by Leo McCarey
Double Indemnity Billy Wilder & Raymond Chandler The novel Double Indemnity in Three of a Kind by James M. Cain
Gaslight John Van Druten, Walter Reisch & John L. Balderston The play Angel Street by Patrick Hamilton
Laura Jay Dratler, Samuel Hoffenstein & Betty Reinhardt The novel Laura by Vera Caspary
Meet Me in St. Louis Irving Brecher & Fred F. Finklehoffe The novel Meet Me in St. Louis by Sally Benson
The Lost Weekend Charles Brackett & Billy Wilder The novel The Lost Weekend by Charles R. Jackson
G. I. Joe Leopold Atlas, Guy Endore & Philip Stevenson The books Brave Men & Here Is Your War by Ernie Pyle
Mildred Pierce Ranald MacDougall The novel Mildred Pierce by James M. Cain
Pride of the Marines Albert Maltz The book Al Schmid, Marine by Roger Butterfield
A Tree Grows in Brooklyn Frank Davis & Tess Slesinger (posthumously) The novel A Tree Grows in Brooklyn by Betty Smith
The Best Years of Our Lives Robert E. Sherwood The novel Glory for Me by MacKinlay Kantor
Anna and the King of Siam Sally Benson & Talbot Jennings The novel Anna and the King of Siam by Margaret Landon
Brief Encounter Anthony Havelock-Allan, David Lean & Ronald Neame The play Still Life by Noël Coward
The Killers Anthony Veiller The short story The Killers by Ernest Hemingway
Rome, Open City Sergio Amidei & Federico Fellini A story by Amidei & Alberto Consiglio
Miracle on 34th Street George Seaton A story by Valentine Davies
Boomerang Richard Murphy The Reader's Digest article by Anthony Abbot
Crossfire John Paxton The novel The Brick Foxhole by Richard Brooks
Gentleman's Agreement Moss Hart The novel Gentleman's Agreement by Laura Z. Hobson
Great Expectations David Lean, Ronald Neame & Anthony Havelock-Allan The novel Great Expectations by Charles Dickens
The Treasure of the Sierra Madre John Huston The novel The Treasure of the Sierra Madre by B. Traven
A Foreign Affair Charles Brackett, Billy Wilder & Richard L. Breen A story by David Shaw
Johnny Belinda Irma von Cube & Allen Vincent The play Johnny Belinda by Elmer Blaney Harris
The Search Richard Schweizer & David Wechsler (original screenplay)
The Snake Pit Frank Partos & Millen Brand The novel The Snake Pit by Mary Jane Ward
A Letter to Three Wives Joseph L. Mankiewicz The novel Letter to Five Wives by John Klempner
All the King's Men Robert Rossen The novel All the King's Men by Robert Penn Warren
The Bicycle Thief Cesare Zavattini The novel Bicycle Thief by Luigi Bartolini
Champion Carl Foreman The short story Champion by Ring Lardner
The Fallen Idol Graham Greene The short story The Basement Room by Greene


Year Film Nominees Source Material
All About Eve Joseph L. Mankiewicz The short story The Wisdom of Eve by Mary Orr
The Asphalt Jungle Ben Maddow & John Huston The novel The Asphalt Jungle by W. R. Burnett
Born Yesterday Albert Mannheimer The play Born Yesterday by Garson Kanin
Broken Arrow Albert Maltz [note 7] The novel Blood Brother by Elliott Arnold
Father of the Bride Frances Goodrich & Albert Hackett The novel Father of the Bride by Edward Streeter
A Place in the Sun Harry Brown & Michael Wilson The novel An American Tragedy by Theodore Dreiser & play of the same name by Patrick Kearney
The African Queen James Agee & John Huston The novel The African Queen by C. S. Forester
Detective Story Robert Wyler & Philip Yordan The play Detective Story by Sidney Kingsley
La Ronde Jacques Natanson & Max Ophüls The play Reigen by Arthur Schnitzler
A Streetcar Named Desire Tennessee Williams The play A Streetcar Named Desire by Williams
The Bad and the Beautiful Charles Schnee The story Tribute to a Badman by George Bradshaw
5 Fingers Michael Wilson The novel Operation Cicero by Ludwig Carl Moyzisch
High Noon Carl Foreman The story The Tin Star by John W. Cunningham
The Man in the White Suit John Dighton, Roger MacDougall & Alexander Mackendrick The play The Man in the White Suit by Roger MacDougall
The Quiet Man Frank Nugent The story Green Rushes by Maurice Walsh
From Here to Eternity Daniel Taradash The novel From Here to Eternity by James Jones
The Cruel Sea Eric Ambler The novel The Cruel Sea by Nicholas Monsarrat
Lili Helen Deutsch The story Love of Seven Dolls by Paul Gallico
Roman Holiday Ian McLellan Hunter & John Dighton A story by Dalton Trumbo (front: Ian McLellan Hunter)
Shane A. B. Guthrie Jr. The novel Shane by Jack Schaefer
The Country Girl George Seaton The play The Country Girl by Clifford Odets
The Caine Mutiny Stanley Roberts The novel The Caine Mutiny by Herman Wouk
Rear Window John Michael Hayes The story It Had to Be Murder by Cornell Woolrich
Sabrina Billy Wilder, Samuel A. Taylor & Ernest Lehman The novel Sabrina Fair by Taylor
Seven Brides for Seven Brothers Albert Hackett, Frances Goodrich & Dorothy Kingsley The story The Sobbin' Women by Stephen Vincent Benét
Marty Paddy Chayefsky The teleplay Marty by Chayefsky
Bad Day at Black Rock Millard Kaufman The short story Bad Time at Honda by Howard Breslin
Blackboard Jungle Richard Brooks The novel Blackboard Jungle by Evan Hunter
East of Eden Paul Osborn The novel East of Eden by John Steinbeck
Love Me or Leave Me Daniel Fuchs & Isobel Lennart A story by Fuchs
Around the World in 80 Days John Farrow, S. J. Perelman & James Poe The novel Around the World in Eighty Days by Jules Verne
Baby Doll Tennessee Williams The short plays 27 Wagons Full of Cotton & The Unsatisfactory Supper by Williams
Friendly Persuasion Michael Wilson [note 8] The novel The Friendly Persuasion by Jessamyn West
Giant Fred Guiol and Ivan Moffat The novel Giant by Edna Ferber
Lust for Life Norman Corwin The novel Lust for Life by Irving Stone
The Bridge on the River Kwai Carl Foreman, Michael Wilson & Pierre Boulle [note 9] The novel The Bridge over the River Kwai by Boulle
Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison John Huston & John Lee Mahin The novel Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison by Charles Shaw
Peyton Place John Michael Hayes The novel Peyton Place by Grace Metalious
Sayonara Paul Osborn The novel Sayonara by James A. Michener
12 Angry Men Reginald Rose The teleplay Twelve Angry Men by Rose
Gigi Alan Jay Lerner The novella Gigi by Colette
Cat on a Hot Tin Roof Richard Brooks & James Poe The play Cat on a Hot Tin Roof by Tennessee Williams
The Horse's Mouth Alec Guinness The novel The Horse's Mouth by Joyce Cary
I Want to Live! Nelson Gidding & Don Mankiewicz Articles by Edward S. Montgomery & letters by Barbara Graham
Separate Tables John Gay & Terence Rattigan The play Separate Tables by Rattigan
Room at the Top Neil Paterson The novel Room at the Top by John Braine
Anatomy of a Murder Wendell Mayes The novel Anatomy of a Murder by John D. Voelker
Ben-Hur Karl Tunberg The novel Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ by Lew Wallace
The Nun's Story Robert Anderson The novel The Nun's Story by Kathryn Hulme
Some Like It Hot Billy Wilder & I. A. L. Diamond A story suggested by Robert Thoeren & M. Logan


Year Film Nominees Source Material
Elmer Gantry Richard Brooks The novel Elmer Gantry by Sinclair Lewis
Inherit the Wind Nedrick Young [note 10] & Harold Jacob Smith The play Inherit the Wind by Jerome Lawrence & Robert E. Lee
Sons and Lovers Gavin Lambert & T. E. B. Clarke The novel Sons and Lovers by D. H. Lawrence
The Sundowners Isobel Lennart The novel The Sundowners by Jon Cleary
Tunes of Glory James Kennaway The novel Tunes of Glory by Kennaway
Judgment at Nuremberg Abby Mann The teleplay Judgment at Nuremberg by Mann
Breakfast at Tiffany's George Axelrod The novella Breakfast at Tiffany's by Truman Capote
The Guns of Navarone Carl Foreman The novel The Guns of Navarone by Alistair MacLean
The Hustler Sidney Carroll & Robert Rossen The novel The Hustler by Walter Tevis
West Side Story Ernest Lehman The play West Side Story, book by Arthur Laurents
To Kill a Mockingbird Horton Foote The novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee
David and Lisa Eleanor Perry The story Lisa and David by Theodore Isaac Rubin
Lawrence of Arabia Robert Bolt & Michael Wilson [note 11] The writings of T. E. Lawrence
Lolita Vladimir Nabokov The novel Lolita by Nabokov
The Miracle Worker William Gibson The play and teleplay The Miracle Worker by Gibson
Tom Jones John Osborne The novel The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling by Henry Fielding
Captain Newman, M.D. Richard L. Breen, Henry Ephron & Phoebe Ephron The novel Captain Newman, M.D. by Leo Rosten
Hud Irving Ravetch & Harriet Frank Jr. The novel Horseman, Pass By by Larry McMurtry
Lilies of the Field James Poe The novel Lilies of the Field by William Edmund Barrett
Sundays and Cybele Serge Bourguignon (scenario/dialogue) & Antoine Tudal (scenario) The novel Les Dimanches de Ville d'Avray by Bernard Eschassériaux
Becket Edward Anhalt The play Becket by Jean Anouilh
Dr. Strangelove Stanley Kubrick, Terry Southern & Peter George The novel Red Alert by George
Mary Poppins Bill Walsh & Don DaGradi The Mary Poppins series by P. L. Travers
My Fair Lady Alan Jay Lerner The musical My Fair Lady, book by Lerner
Zorba the Greek Michael Cacoyannis The novel The Life of Alexis Zorba by Nikos Kazantzakis
Doctor Zhivago Robert Bolt The novel Doctor Zhivago by Boris Pasternak
Cat Ballou Walter Newman & Frank Pierson The novel The Ballad of Cat Ballou by Roy Chanslor
The Collector Stanley Mann & John Kohn The novel The Collector by John Fowles
Ship of Fools Abby Mann The novel Ship of Fools by Katherine Anne Porter
A Thousand Clowns Herb Gardner The play A Thousand Clowns by Gardner
A Man for All Seasons Robert Bolt The play A Man for All Seasons by Bolt
Alfie Bill Naughton The play Alfie by Naughton
The Professionals Richard Brooks The novel A Mule for the Marquesa by Frank O'Rourke
The Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming William Rose The novel Off-Islanders by Nathaniel Benchley
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Ernest Lehman The play Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? by Edward Albee
In the Heat of the Night Stirling Silliphant The novel In the Heat of the Night by John Ball
Cool Hand Luke Donn Pearce & Frank Pierson The novel Cool Hand Luke by Donn Pearce
The Graduate Calder Willingham & Buck Henry The novel The Graduate by Charles Webb
In Cold Blood Richard Brooks The novel In Cold Blood by Truman Capote
Ulysses Joseph Strick & Fred Haines The novel Ulysses by James Joyce
The Lion in Winter James Goldman The play The Lion in Winter by Goldman
The Odd Couple Neil Simon The play The Odd Couple by Simon
Oliver! Vernon Harris The musical Oliver!, book by Lionel Bart
Rachel, Rachel Stewart Stern The novel A Jest of God by Margaret Laurence
Rosemary's Baby Roman Polanski The novel Rosemary's Baby by Ira Levin
Midnight Cowboy Waldo Salt The novel Midnight Cowboy by James Leo Herlihy
Anne of the Thousand Days John Hale & Bridget Boland (screenplay); Richard Sokolove (adaptation) The play Anne of the Thousand Days by Maxwell Anderson
Goodbye, Columbus Arnold Schulman The novel Goodbye, Columbus by Philip Roth
They Shoot Horses, Don't They? James Poe and Robert E. Thompson The novel They Shoot Horses, Don't They? by Horace McCoy
Z Jorge Semprún & Costa-Gavras The novel Z by Vassilis Vassilikos


Year Film Nominees Source Material
M*A*S*H Ring Lardner Jr. The novel MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors by Richard Hooker
Airport George Seaton The novel Airport by Arthur Hailey
I Never Sang for My Father Robert Anderson The play I Never Sang for My Father by Anderson
Lovers and Other Strangers Joseph Bologna, David Zelag Goodman & Renée Taylor The play Lovers and Other Strangers by Bologna & Taylor
Women in Love Larry Kramer The novel Women in Love by D. H. Lawrence
The French Connection Ernest Tidyman The book The French Connection: A True Account of Cops, Narcotics, and International Conspiracy by Robin Moore
A Clockwork Orange Stanley Kubrick The novel A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess
The Conformist Bernardo Bertolucci The novel Il Conformista by Alberto Moravia
The Garden of the Finzi-Continis Ugo Pirro & Vittorio Bonicelli The novel The Garden of the Finzi-Continis by Giorgio Bassani
The Last Picture Show Larry McMurtry & Peter Bogdanovich The novel The Last Picture Show by Larry McMurtry
The Godfather Mario Puzo & Francis Ford Coppola The novel The Godfather by Puzo
Cabaret Jay Presson Allen The musical Cabaret, book by Joe Masteroff
The Emigrants Bengt Forslund & Jan Troell The novels The Emigrants & Unto a Good Land by Vilhelm Moberg
Pete 'n' Tillie Julius J. Epstein The story Witch's Milk by Peter De Vries
Sounder Lonne Elder III The novel Sounder by William H. Armstrong
The Exorcist William Peter Blatty The novel The Exorcist by Blatty
The Last Detail Robert Towne The novel The Last Detail by Darryl Ponicsan
The Paper Chase James Bridges The novel The Paper Chase by John Jay Osborn, Jr.
Paper Moon Alvin Sargent The novel Addie Pray by Joe David Brown
Serpico Waldo Salt & Norman Wexler The book Serpico by Peter Maas
The Godfather Part II Francis Ford Coppola & Mario Puzo The novel The Godfather by Puzo
The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz Mordecai Richler (screenplay) & Lionel Chetwynd (adaptation) The novel The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz by Mordecai Richler
Lenny Julian Barry The play Lenny by Julian Barry
Murder on the Orient Express Paul Dehn The novel Murder on the Orient Express by Agatha Christie
Young Frankenstein Gene Wilder & Mel Brooks The novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest Bo Goldman & Lawrence Hauben The novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey
Barry Lyndon Stanley Kubrick The novel The Memoirs of Barry Lyndon, Esq. by William Makepeace Thackeray
The Man Who Would Be King John Huston & Gladys Hill The story The Man Who Would Be King by Rudyard Kipling
Profumo di donna Ruggero Maccari & Dino Risi The novel The Scent of a Woman by Giovanni Arpino
The Sunshine Boys Neil Simon The play The Sunshine Boys by Simon
All the President's Men William Goldman The book All the President's Men by Carl Bernstein & Bob Woodward
Bound for Glory Robert Getchell The book Bound for Glory by Woody Guthrie
Fellini's Casanova Federico Fellini & Bernardino Zapponi The autobiography Histoire de ma vie by Giacomo Casanova
The Seven-Per-Cent Solution Nicholas Meyer The novel The Seven-Per-Cent Solution by Nicholas Meyer
Voyage of the Damned David Butler & Steve Shagan The book Voyage of the Damned by Gordon Thomas & Max Morgan-Witts
Julia Alvin Sargent The novel Pentimento by Lillian Hellman
Equus Peter Shaffer The play Equus by Shaffer
I Never Promised You a Rose Garden Gavin Lambert & Lewis John Carlino The novel I Never Promised You a Rose Garden by Joanne Greenberg
Oh, God! Larry Gelbart The novel Oh, God! by Avery Corman
That Obscure Object of Desire Luis Buñuel (scenario) & Jean-Claude Carrière (collaboration) The novel The Woman and the Puppet by Pierre Louÿs
Midnight Express Oliver Stone The book Midnight Express by Billy Hayes & William Hoffer
Bloodbrothers Walter Newman The novel Bloodbrothers by Richard Price
California Suite Neil Simon The play California Suite by Simon
Heaven Can Wait Elaine May & Warren Beatty The play Heaven Can Wait by Harry Segall
Same Time, Next Year Bernard Slade The play Same Time, Next Year by Bernard Slade
Kramer vs. Kramer Robert Benton The novel Kramer vs. Kramer by Avery Corman
Apocalypse Now John Milius & Francis Ford Coppola The novel Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad
La Cage aux folles Marcello Danon, Édouard Molinaro, Jean Poiret & Francis Veber The play La Cage aux Folles by Poiret
A Little Romance Allan Burns The novel E=MC2 Mon Amour by Patrick Cauvin
Norma Rae Harriet Frank Jr. & Irving Ravetch The book Crystal Lee, a Woman of Inheritance by Hank Leiferman


Year Film Nominees Source Material
Ordinary People Alvin Sargent The novel Ordinary People by Judith Guest
Breaker Morant Jonathan Hardy, David Stevens & Bruce Beresford The play Breaker Morant by Kenneth G. Ross
Coal Miner's Daughter Thomas Rickman The book Coal Miner's Daughter by Loretta Lynn & George Vecsey
The Elephant Man Christopher De Vore, Eric Bergren & David Lynch The books The Elephant Man and Other Reminiscences by Sir Frederick Treves & The Elephant Man: A Study in Human Dignity by Ashley Montagu
The Stunt Man Lawrence B. Marcus (screenplay) & Richard Rush (adaptation) The novel The Stunt Man by Paul Brodeur
On Golden Pond Ernest Thompson The play On Golden Pond by Thompson
The French Lieutenant's Woman Harold Pinter The novel The French Lieutenant's Woman by John Fowles
Pennies from Heaven Dennis Potter The television miniseries Pennies from Heaven written by Potter
Prince of the City Jay Presson Allen & Sidney Lumet The book Prince of the City: The True Story of a Cop Who Knew Too Much by Robert Daley
Ragtime Michael Weller The novel Ragtime by E. L. Doctorow
Missing Costa-Gavras & Donald E. Stewart The book The Execution of Charles Horman: An American Sacrifice by Thomas Hauser
Das Boot Wolfgang Petersen The novel Das Boot by Lothar-Günther Buchheim
Sophie's Choice Alan J. Pakula The novel Sophie's Choice by William Styron
The Verdict David Mamet The novel The Verdict by Barry Reed
Victor/Victoria Blake Edwards The film Viktor und Viktoria written by Reinhold Schünzel
Terms of Endearment James L. Brooks The novel Terms of Endearment by Larry McMurtry
Betrayal Harold Pinter The play Betrayal by Pinter
The Dresser Ronald Harwood The play The Dresser by Harwood
Educating Rita Willy Russell The play Educating Rita by Russell
Reuben, Reuben Julius J. Epstein The play Spofford by Herman Shumlin
Amadeus Peter Shaffer The play Amadeus by Shaffer
Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes Robert Towne & Michael Austin [note 12][5] The novel Tarzan of the Apes by Edgar Rice Burroughs
The Killing Fields Bruce Robinson The article The Death and Life of Dith Pran by Sydney Schanberg
A Passage to India David Lean The novel A Passage to India by E. M. Forster
A Soldier's Story Charles Fuller The play A Soldier's Play by Fuller
Out of Africa Kurt Luedtke The memoir Out of Africa by Karen Blixen & the books Silence Will Speak by Errol Trzebinski & Isak Dinesen: The Life of a Storyteller by Judith Thurman
The Color Purple Menno Meyjes The novel The Color Purple by Alice Walker
Kiss of the Spider Woman Leonard Schrader The novel Kiss of the Spider Woman by Manuel Puig
Prizzi's Honor Richard Condon & Janet Roach The novel Prizzi's Honor by Condon
The Trip to Bountiful Horton Foote The play and teleplay The Trip to Bountiful by Foote
A Room with a View Ruth Prawer Jhabvala The novel A Room with a View by E. M. Forster
Children of a Lesser God Hesper Anderson & Mark Medoff The play Children of a Lesser God by Medoff
The Color of Money Richard Price The novel The Color of Money by Walter Tevis
Crimes of the Heart Beth Henley The play Crimes of the Heart by Henley
Stand by Me Raynold Gideon & Bruce A. Evans The novella The Body by Stephen King
The Last Emperor Bernardo Bertolucci & Mark Peploe The autobiography From Emperor to Citizen: The Autobiography of Aisin-Gioro Pu Yi by Puyi
The Dead Tony Huston The short story The Dead by James Joyce
Fatal Attraction James Dearden The teleplay Diversion by Dearden
Full Metal Jacket Gustav Hasford, Michael Herr & Stanley Kubrick The novel The Short-Timers by Hasford
My Life as a Dog Brasse Brännström, Per Berglund, Lasse Hallström & Reidar Jönsson The novel Mitt liv som hund by Jönsson
Dangerous Liaisons Christopher Hampton The play Les Liaisons Dangereuses by Hampton & the novel by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos
The Accidental Tourist Frank Galati & Lawrence Kasdan The novel The Accidental Tourist by Anne Tyler
Gorillas in the Mist Anna Hamilton Phelan (story/screenplay) & Tab Murphy (story) An article by Harold Hayes
Little Dorrit Christine Edzard The novel Little Dorrit by Charles Dickens
The Unbearable Lightness of Being Jean-Claude Carrière & Philip Kaufman The novel The Unbearable Lightness of Being by Milan Kundera
Driving Miss Daisy Alfred Uhry The play Driving Miss Daisy by Uhry
Born on the Fourth of July Ron Kovic & Oliver Stone The book Born on the Fourth of July by Kovic
Enemies, A Love Story Paul Mazursky & Roger L. Simon The novel Enemies, a Love Story by Isaac Bashevis Singer
Field of Dreams Phil Alden Robinson The novel Shoeless Joe by W. P. Kinsella
My Left Foot Shane Connaughton & Jim Sheridan The book My Left Foot by Christy Brown


Year Film Nominees Source Material
Dances with Wolves Michael Blake The novel Dances with Wolves by Blake
Awakenings Steven Zaillian The book Awakenings by Oliver Sacks
Goodfellas Nicholas Pileggi & Martin Scorsese The book Wiseguy by Pileggi
The Grifters Donald E. Westlake The novel The Grifters by Jim Thompson
Reversal of Fortune Nicholas Kazan The book Reversal of Fortune: Inside the von Bülow Case by Alan Dershowitz
The Silence of the Lambs Ted Tally The novel The Silence of the Lambs by Thomas Harris
Europa Europa Agnieszka Holland The book I Was Hitler Youth Salomon by Solomon Perel
Fried Green Tomatoes Fannie Flagg & Carol Sobieski (posthumously) The novel Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe by Flagg
JFK Oliver Stone & Zachary Sklar The books Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy by Jim Marrs & On the Trail of the Assassins by Jim Garrison
The Prince of Tides Pat Conroy & Becky Johnston The novel The Prince of Tides by Conroy
Howards End Ruth Prawer Jhabvala The novel Howards End by E. M. Forster
Enchanted April Peter Barnes The novel The Enchanted April by Elizabeth von Arnim
The Player Michael Tolkin The novel The Player by Tolkin
A River Runs Through It Richard Friedenberg The short story A River Runs Through It by Norman Maclean
Scent of a Woman Bo Goldman The novel Il Buio E Il Miele by Giovanni Arpino & the film Profumo di Donna written by Ruggero Maccari and Dino Risi
Schindler's List Steven Zaillian The novel Schindler's Ark by Thomas Keneally
The Age of Innocence Jay Cocks & Martin Scorsese The novel The Age of Innocence by Edith Wharton
In the Name of the Father Terry George & Jim Sheridan The book Proved Innocent by Gerry Conlon
The Remains of the Day Ruth Prawer Jhabvala The novel The Remains of the Day by Kazuo Ishiguro
Shadowlands William Nicholson The play and teleplay Shadowlands by Nicholson
Forrest Gump Eric Roth The novel Forrest Gump by Winston Groom
The Madness of King George Alan Bennett The play The Madness of George III by Bennett
Nobody's Fool Robert Benton The novel Nobody's Fool by Richard Russo
Quiz Show Paul Attanasio The book Remembering America: A Voice from the Sixties by Richard N. Goodwin
The Shawshank Redemption Frank Darabont The short story Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption by Stephen King
Sense and Sensibility Emma Thompson The novel Sense and Sensibility by Jane Austen
Apollo 13 William Broyles Jr. and Al Reinert The book Lost Moon by Jim Lovell & Jeffrey Kluger
Babe George Miller & Chris Noonan The novel The Sheep-Pig by Dick King-Smith
Leaving Las Vegas Mike Figgis The novel Leaving Las Vegas by John O'Brien
Il Postino: The Postman Anna Pavignano, Michael Radford & Massimo Troisi (posthumously) (screenplay) ; Furio Scarpelli & Giacomo Scarpelli (story/screenplay) The novel Ardiente Paciencia by Antonio Skármeta
Sling Blade Billy Bob Thornton The short film Some Folks Call It a Sling Blade written by Thornton
The Crucible Arthur Miller The play The Crucible by Miller
The English Patient Anthony Minghella The novel The English Patient by Michael Ondaatje
Hamlet Kenneth Branagh The play Hamlet by William Shakespeare
Trainspotting John Hodge The novel Trainspotting by Irvine Welsh
L.A. Confidential Curtis Hanson & Brian Helgeland The novel L.A. Confidential by James Ellroy
Donnie Brasco Paul Attanasio The book Donnie Brasco: My Undercover Life in the Mafia by Joseph D. Pistone & Richard Woodley
The Sweet Hereafter Atom Egoyan The novel The Sweet Hereafter by Russell Banks
Wag the Dog Hilary Henkin & David Mamet The novel American Hero by Larry Beinhart
The Wings of the Dove Hossein Amini The novel The Wings of the Dove by Henry James
Gods and Monsters Bill Condon The novel Father of Frankenstein by Christopher Bram
Out of Sight Scott Frank The novel Out of Sight by Elmore Leonard
Primary Colors Elaine May The novel Primary Colors by Joe Klein
A Simple Plan Scott Smith The novel A Simple Plan by Smith
The Thin Red Line Terrence Malick The novel The Thin Red Line by James Jones
The Cider House Rules John Irving The novel The Cider House Rules by Irving
Election Alexander Payne & Jim Taylor The novel Election by Tom Perrotta
The Green Mile Frank Darabont The novel The Green Mile by Stephen King
The Insider Michael Mann & Eric Roth The article The Man Who Knew Too Much by Marie Brenner
The Talented Mr. Ripley Anthony Minghella The novel The Talented Mr. Ripley by Patricia Highsmith


Year Film Nominees Source Material
Traffic Stephen Gaghan The teleplay Traffik by Simon Moore
Chocolat Robert Nelson Jacobs The novel Chocolat by Joanne Harris
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon Wang Hui-ling, James Schamus Kuo Jung Tsai The novel Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon by Wang Dulu
O Brother, Where Art Thou? Ethan Coen & Joel Coen The epic poem The Odyssey by Homer
Wonder Boys Steve Kloves The book Wonder Boys by Michael Chabon
A Beautiful Mind Akiva Goldsman The book A Beautiful Mind by Sylvia Nasar
Ghost World Daniel Clowes & Terry Zwigoff The graphic novel Ghost World by Daniel Clowes
In the Bedroom Todd Field & Rob Festinger The short story Killings by Andre Dubus
The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens & Peter Jackson The novel The Fellowship of the Ring by J. R. R. Tolkien
Shrek Ted Elliott, Terry Rossio, Joe Stillman & Roger S. H. Schulman The picture book Shrek! by William Steig
The Pianist Ronald Harwood The memoir The Pianist by Władysław Szpilman
About a Boy Peter Hedges, Chris Weitz & Paul Weitz The novel About a Boy by Nick Hornby
Adaptation Charlie Kaufman & Donald Kaufman [note 13][5] The book The Orchid Thief by Susan Orlean
Chicago Bill Condon The musical play Chicago, book by Bob Fosse & Fred Ebb
The Hours David Hare The novel The Hours by Michael Cunningham
The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens & Peter Jackson The novel The Return of the King by J. R. R. Tolkien
American Splendor Shari Springer Berman and Robert Pulcini The comic book series American Splendor by Harvey Pekar & Our Cancer Year by Joyce Brabner
City of God Bráulio Mantovani The novel City of God by Paulo Lins
Mystic River Brian Helgeland The novel Mystic River by Dennis Lehane
Seabiscuit Gary Ross The book Seabiscuit: An American Legend by Laura Hillenbrand
Sideways Alexander Payne & Jim Taylor The novel Sideways by Rex Pickett
Before Sunset Richard Linklater (story/screenplay); Kim Krizan (story); Julie Delpy & Ethan Hawke (screenplay) Characters from the film Before Sunrise created by Linklater & Krizan
Finding Neverland David Magee The play The Man Who Was Peter Pan by Allan Knee
Million Dollar Baby Paul Haggis The book Rope Burns: Stories from the Corner by F.X. Toole
The Motorcycle Diaries José Rivera The books Con el Che por America Latina by Alberto Granado & The Motorcycle Diaries by Che Guevara
Brokeback Mountain Larry McMurtry & Diana Ossana The short story Brokeback Mountain by Annie Proulx
Capote Dan Futterman The book Capote by Gerald Clarke
The Constant Gardener Jeffrey Caine The novel The Constant Gardener by John le Carré
A History of Violence Josh Olson The graphic novel A History of Violence by John Wagner & Vince Locke
Munich Tony Kushner & Eric Roth The book Vengeance by George Jonas
The Departed William Monahan The film Infernal Affairs written by Alan Mak & Felix Chong
Borat Sacha Baron Cohen, Peter Baynham & Anthony Hines (story/screenplay); Dan Mazer (screenplay); Todd Phillips (story) The character Borat Sagdiyev, from the television series Da Ali G Show created by Baron Cohen
Children of Men Alfonso Cuarón, Timothy J. Sexton, David Arata, Mark Fergus & Hawk Ostby The novel The Children of Men by P. D. James
Little Children Todd Field & Tom Perrotta The novel Little Children by Perrotta
Notes on a Scandal Patrick Marber The novel Notes on a Scandal by Zoë Heller
No Country for Old Men Joel Coen & Ethan Coen The novel No Country for Old Men by Cormac McCarthy
Atonement Christopher Hampton The novel Atonement by Ian McEwan
Away from Her Sarah Polley The short story "The Bear Went Over the Mountain" by Alice Munro
The Diving Bell and the Butterfly Ronald Harwood The book The Diving Bell and the Butterfly by Jean-Dominique Bauby
There Will Be Blood Paul Thomas Anderson The novel Oil! by Upton Sinclair
Slumdog Millionaire Simon Beaufoy The novel Q & A by Vikas Swarup
The Curious Case of Benjamin Button Eric Roth (story/screenplay) & Robin Swicord (story) The short story "The Curious Case of Benjamin Button" by F. Scott Fitzgerald
Doubt John Patrick Shanley The play Doubt: A Parable by Shanley
Frost/Nixon Peter Morgan The play Frost/Nixon by Morgan
The Reader David Hare The novel The Reader by Bernhard Schlink
Precious: Based on the Novel 'Push' by Sapphire Geoffrey S. Fletcher The novel Push by Sapphire
District 9 Neill Blomkamp
Terri Tatchell
The short film Alive in Joburg written by Blomkamp
An Education Nick Hornby The book An Education by Lynn Barber
In the Loop Jesse Armstrong, Simon Blackwell, Armando Iannucci & Tony Roche The character Malcolm Tucker, from the television series The Thick of It created by Armando Iannucci
Up in the Air Jason Reitman & Sheldon Turner The novel Up in the Air by Walter Kirn


Year Film Nominees Source Material
The Social Network Aaron Sorkin The book The Accidental Billionaires by Ben Mezrich
127 Hours Danny Boyle & Simon Beaufoy The book Between a Rock and a Hard Place by Aron Ralston
Toy Story 3 Michael Arndt (screenplay); John Lasseter, Andrew Stanton & Lee Unkrich (story) Characters from the films Toy Story and Toy Story 2 created by Lasseter, Pete Docter, Stanton, et al.
True Grit Joel Coen & Ethan Coen The novel True Grit by Charles Portis
Winter's Bone Debra Granik & Anne Rosellini The novel Winter's Bone by Daniel Woodrell
The Descendants Alexander Payne, Nat Faxon & Jim Rash The novel The Descendants by Kaui Hart Hemmings
Hugo John Logan The novel The Invention of Hugo Cabret by Brian Selznick
The Ides of March George Clooney, Grant Heslov & Beau Willimon The play Farragut North by Willimon
Moneyball Steven Zaillian & Aaron Sorkin (screenplay); Stan Chervin (story) The book Moneyball by Michael Lewis
Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy Bridget O'Connor (posthumously) & Peter Straughan The novel Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy by John le Carré
Argo Chris Terrio The book The Master of Disguise by Tony Mendez & the article The Great Escape by Joshuah Bearman
Beasts of the Southern Wild Lucy Alibar & Benh Zeitlin The play Juicy and Delicious by Alibar
Life of Pi David Magee The novel Life of Pi by Yann Martel
Lincoln Tony Kushner The book Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln by Doris Kearns Goodwin
Silver Linings Playbook David O. Russell The novel The Silver Linings Playbook by Matthew Quick
12 Years a Slave John Ridley The memoir Twelve Years a Slave by Solomon Northup
Before Midnight Richard Linklater, Julie Delpy & Ethan Hawke Characters from the film Before Sunrise created by Linklater & Kim Krizan
Captain Phillips Billy Ray The book A Captain's Duty by Richard Phillips & Stephan Talty
Philomena Steve Coogan & Jeff Pope The book The Lost Child of Philomena Lee by Martin Sixsmith
The Wolf of Wall Street Terence Winter The memoir The Wolf of Wall Street by Jordan Belfort
The Imitation Game Graham Moore The book Alan Turing: The Enigma by Andrew Hodges
American Sniper Jason Hall The autobiography American Sniper: The Autobiography of the Most Lethal Sniper in U.S. Military History by Chris Kyle, Scott McEwan & Jim DeFelice
Inherent Vice Paul Thomas Anderson The novel Inherent Vice by Thomas Pynchon
The Theory of Everything Anthony McCarten The book Travelling to Infinity: My Life with Stephen Hawking by Jane Hawking
Whiplash Damien Chazelle The short film Whiplash written by Chazelle
The Big Short Adam McKay & Charles Randolph The book The Big Short by Michael Lewis
Brooklyn Nick Hornby The novel Brooklyn by Colm Tóibín
Carol Phyllis Nagy The novel The Price of Salt by Patricia Highsmith
The Martian Drew Goddard The novel The Martian by Andy Weir
Room Emma Donoghue The novel Room by Donoghue
Moonlight Barry Jenkins (screenplay) & Tarell Alvin McCraney (story) The play In Moonlight Black Boys Look Blue by McCraney
Arrival Eric Heisserer The short story Story of Your Life by Ted Chiang
Fences August Wilson (posthumously) The play Fences by Wilson
Hidden Figures Theodore Melfi & Allison Schroeder The book Hidden Figures by Margot Lee Shetterly
Lion Luke Davies The memoir A Long Way Home by Saroo Brierley & Larry Buttrose
Call Me by Your Name James Ivory The novel Call Me by Your Name by André Aciman
The Disaster Artist Scott Neustadter & Michael H. Weber The book The Disaster Artist by Greg Sestero & Tom Bissell
Logan Scott Frank, James Mangold (screenplay and story) & Michael Green Characters from the X-Men comic books & theatrical motion pictures
Molly's Game Aaron Sorkin The memoir Molly's Game by Molly Bloom
Mudbound Virgil Williams & Dee Rees The novel Mudbound by Hillary Jordan

Age superlatives[edit]

Record Writer Film Age (in years) Ref.
Oldest winner James Ivory Call Me by Your Name 89
Oldest nominee [8]
Youngest winner Ernest Thompson On Golden Pond 32
Youngest nominee

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e During these years, the award was bestowed as Best Writing, Adaptation.
  2. ^ The 2nd Academy Awards is unique in being the only occasion where there were no official nominees. Subsequent research by AMPAS has resulted in a list of unofficial or de facto nominees, based on records of which films were evaluated by the judges.
  3. ^ During this year, the award was bestowed as Best Writing and included original and adapted screenplays.
  4. ^ From 1935 until 1955, the award was bestowed as Best Writing, Screenplay.
  5. ^ Captain Blood, written by Casey Robinson from the novel of the same name by Rafael Sabatini, was not officially nominated for this award, but appears in Academy records because it placed third in voting as a write-in candidate in 1935.
  6. ^ Dudley Nichols refused to accept the award, but was in possession of it by 1949 according to Academy records.
  7. ^ Michael Blankfort was originally nominated as the screenwriter of Broken Arrow. In 1991, research proved blacklisted Albert Maltz was the screenwriter and his credit was restored. Blankfort was removed from the nomination and it was given to Maltz.
  8. ^ Michael Wilson was originally credited as the screenwriter of Friendly Persuasion, but Allied Artists, acting in agreement with the Screen Writers Guild, removed his credit because he was blacklisted. Early in 1957, the Academy revised its bylaws so the film would be eligible for a writing nomination without naming Wilson as a nominee. Friendly Persuasion was initially announced a nominee without a writer's name attached. The Academy's Board of Governors voted to strike the nomination altogether and it was not included on the final ballot. The Board of Governors, however, reinstated the nomination with Wilson's name attached in 2002.
  9. ^ Pierre Boulle was credited as the screenwriter of The Bridge on the River Kwai and ultimately won the award. Blacklisted writers Michael Wilson and Carl Foreman, who actually wrote the screenplay, were awarded posthumous Oscars by the Academy's Board of Governors in 1984.
  10. ^ Due to blacklisting, Young wrote under the pseudonym Nathan E. Douglas.
  11. ^ In 1995, research proved blacklisted Michael Wilson was also a screenwriter of Lawrence of Arabia. He was added as a nominee by the Academy's Board of Governors.
  12. ^ Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes was initially adapted by screenwriter Robert Towne, but he removed his name from the credits because he was unhappy with co-writer Michael Austin's alterations and the finished film itself. He instead used the pseudonym P.H. Vazak, the name of his late Hungarian sheepdog.
  13. ^ Screenwriter Charlie Kaufman is a character in his own script for Adaptation, as is his fictional twin brother Donald. The nonexistent Donald was credited as a screenwriter and was nominated for an Academy Award. The film's end credits claimed he had died during preproduction.