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Academy Award for Best Film Editing

The Academy Award for Best Film Editing is one of the annual awards of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Nominations for this award are correlated with the Academy Award for Best Picture. For 33 consecutive years, 1981 to 2013, every Best Picture winner had been nominated for the Film Editing Oscar, about two thirds of the Best Picture winners have won for Film Editing. Only the principal, "above the line" editor as listed in the film's credits are named on the award; the nominations for this Academy Award are determined by a ballot of the voting members of the Editing Branch of the Academy. The members may vote for up to five of the eligible films in the order of their preference; the Academy Award itself is selected from the nominated films by a subsequent ballot of all active and life members of the Academy. This process is the reverse of that of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts; this award was first given for films released in 1934. The name of this award is changed.

Four film editors have won this award three times in their career: Ralph Dawson won for A Midsummer Night's Dream, Anthony Adverse, The Adventures of Robin Hood Daniel Mandell won for The Pride of the Yankees, The Best Years of Our Lives, The Apartment. Michael Kahn won for Raiders of the Lost Ark, Schindler's List, Saving Private Ryan. Thelma Schoonmaker won for Raging Bull, The Aviator, The Departed. To date, two film directors have won this award, James Cameron and Alfonso Cuarón for the films Titanic and Gravity, respectively. Directors David Lean, Steve James, Joel Coen and Ethan Coen, Michel Hazanavicius and Jean-Marc Vallée have been nominated for editing their own films, with Cameron, Cuarón, the Coens each being nominated for the award twice. Additionally, Best Film Editing winner, Walter Murch, although known for film editing and sound, directed the Oscar nominated Return to Oz and is, to date, the only person with Oscars for both sound engineering and film editing, winning them in the same year for his work on The English Patient.

Nominated editors Robert Wise, Francis D. Lyon, who won for Body and Soul and Hal Ashby, who won for In the Heat of the Night, became directors whose films were in turn nominated for Best Film Editing, namely Somebody Up There Likes Me, I Want to Live!, West Side Story, The Sound of Music, The Sand Pebbles and The Andromeda Strain for Wise, Crazylegs for Lyon and Bound for Glory and Coming Home for Ashby. Superlatives taken from a document published by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; these listings are based on the Awards Database maintained by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. The following editors have received multiple nominations for the Academy Award for Best Film Editing; this list is sorted by the number of total awards won. BAFTA Award for Best Editing Academy Award for Best Sound Editing Independent Spirit Award for Best Editing Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Editing American Cinema Editors Award for Best Edited Feature Film – Dramatic American Cinema Editors Award for Best Edited Feature Film – Comedy or Musical

Jim Jenkins (footballer)

James Walter Thomas Jenkins was an Australian rules footballer who played with St Kilda in the Victorian Football League. Jenkins coached Coburg and Brunswick in the Victorian Football Association, he is a ruckman in the Coburg Football Club Team of the Century. Born in Campbell Town, Tasmania on 15 February 1897, Jenkins was one of 12 children, he played his early football with North Launceston in the Northern Tasmanian Football Association. In 1921, at the age of 24, Jenkins joined St Kilda. Jenkins, a follower, played 16 games in each of his first three seasons. Jenkins appeared in the opening round of the season in 1924 left to coach Orbost, he returned to St Kilda for the 1925 VFL season and again played the opening round of the season, which would be his 50th and final appearance for St Kilda. Soon after, Jenkins was granted a permit to join Coburg in the Victorian Football Association. Jenkins was the ruckman in Coburg's 1927 and 1928 premiership teams. A best and fairest winner in 1928, Jenkins was appointed captain-coach the following season.

In his three seasons as coach, from 1929 to 1931, Coburg were unable to make the finals. He finished equal third in the 1930 Recorder Cup, but had his best finish in 1932, when he was equal second, one vote behind Northcote player Bob Ross, he left Coburg as the club's games record holder. He captain-coached Brunswick in 1934 and 1935. Jim Jenkins's playing statistics from AFL Tables


WRRE is a Religious radio station licensed in Juncos, Puerto Rico, United States, the station serves the Puerto Rico area. The station is owned through licensee Maranatha Radio Ministries. Hector Delgado, known as Hector "El Father", former Puerto Rican singer of reggaeton and is considered one of the most prominent singers in the history of reggaetón, winner of important awards such as the Billboard. In 2008 he retired from the genre to become to the gospel. WRRE is part of the Maranatha Radio Ministries Network; the station was assigned the WRRE call letters by the Federal Communications Commission on July 15, 1989. In the beginning of the 1960s, the planning and construction of a powerful radio station on the 1460 AM frequency near the city of Juncos that covered the entire island of Puerto Rico with its sister station WFBA in San Sebastian. In 1971 it was called Radio Cid in 1977 changed its name to WFAB "La Fabulosa de Juncos". During the 1980s and 1990s, the station changed to a Christian format under the names of Radio Maranatha WRRE "Radio Redentor del Este", "Radio Emanuel", "Radio Viva" and "Sonido Santidad".

From October 7, 2015, Hector Delgado acquires and relaunches WRRE, in a format of Religious Ministry, with this new format WRRE will initiate its new brand, known as "Maranatha Radio Ministries" transmitting through its YouTube Channel, APP, Web Page, Facebook Live and Internet Television. The Internet application of Maranatha Radio Ministries WRRE 1460 AM reached in the first 6 months the number of more than 50,000 installations in the Google Play Store, an unprecedented number in the Christian radio stations in Puerto Rico. In his most popular program of the morning called "Un Nuevo Despertar", Hector Delgado participates with singer Julio Ramos known as "Julio Voltio". A station born in the heart of God to supply your need, is its slogan. WRRE now issues under the direction of Ángel Figueroa. WRRE official website Query the FCC's AM station database for WRRE Radio-Locator Information on WRRE Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WRRE


In South Africa, ukuthwala is the practice of abducting young girls and forcing them into marriage without the consent of their parents. The practice occurs in rural parts of South Africa, in particular the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal; the Basotho call it Tjhobediso. Among the Xhosa and Zulu people, ukuthwala, or bride abduction, was once an acceptable way for two young people in love to get married when their families opposed the match. Ukuthwala has been abused, however, "to victimize isolated rural women and enrich male relatives."While the practice of marriage by abduction or marriage by capture may be traced back to ancient times, however the abductees are reported to be under-aged girls, including some as young as eight. The practice received negative publicity, with media reporting in 2009 that more than 20 Eastern Cape girls are forced to drop out of school every month because of ukuthwala; the first known example of the practice can be traced to ancient Roman traditions. According to sources, The Rape of the Sabine Women was an incident in Roman history in which the men of Rome committed a mass abduction of young women from neighbouring tribes in the region.

The Rape occurred in the early history of Rome, shortly after its founding by Romulus and his male followers. Seeking wives in order to establish families, the Romans negotiated unsuccessfully with the Sabines, who populated the surrounding area; the Sabines feared the emergence of a rival society and refused to allow their women to marry the Romans. The Romans planned to abduct Sabine women during a festival of Neptune Equester. According to Roman historians such as Livy, many people from Rome's neighboring towns attended, including folk from the Caeninenses and Antemnates, many of the Sabines. At the festival, Romulus gave a signal, at which the Romans grabbed the Sabine women and fought off the Sabine men; the indignant abductees were soon implored by Romulus to accept Roman husbands. Livy claims that no direct sexual assault took place, albeit the fuller evidence, when compared with the history, suggests a seduction based on promises by the Romans and betrayal of those promises. Livy says that Romulus promised civic and property rights to women.

According to Livy, Romulus spoke to them each in person, declaring "that what was done was owing to the pride of their fathers, who had refused to grant the privilege of marriage to their neighbours. In South Africa, the custom originated from the Xhosa people, though the practice has expanded into different ethnic groups; the act of ukuthwala traditionally required the culprit to pay one or more head of cattle to the father or legal guardian of the girl. Unsuspecting girls who had not consented to ukuthwala did not object to its purpose. Sometimes the girl genuinely did not wish to be married, although girls were conditioned from childhood to look forward to the day, to believe that marriage and childbearing are the fulfilment of life. A modern interpretation of this practice encourages men to abduct young girls for the purpose of marriage. In Lusikisiki in 2009, there were instances of young girls, from orphanages, being forced into marriages to older men. There have been instances of young girls being forced into illegal marriages to old widowed men.

The practice of ukuthwalwa has been apologised as a mock abduction or an irregular proposal intended to achieve a traditional law marriage. Though the laws are not stringent enough to curb such a custom, The Parliament of The Republic of South Africa is focusing on preventive measures to empower women to report cases of exploitation and mobilizing community action for such incidents. Rape in South Africa Rape of the Sabine Women Bride kidnapping Child bride kidnapping – Age old custom of Ukuthwalwa The Tale of Ukuthwalwa Cultural heritage in the work of two Xhosa-speaking ceramic artists ANC: Better cadres, sport quotas stay, bride kidnap goes M&G


Faujdar was a term of pre-Mughal origins. Under the Mughals it was an office that combined the functions of a military commander along with judicial and land revenue functions. In pre-Mughal times, the term did not refer to a specific rank. With the administrative reforms performed by Mughal emperor Akbar, this rank was systemised, it constituted an independent administrative unit and its territorial limits varied from place to place and from time to time. A faujadari comprised a number of military outposts. At each of these the number of swears were stationed under a thanadar. Faujdari carried with it a fixed number of sawars and it was up to the faujdar to station soldiers in various thanas under him. In addition in some faujdaris there were a number of thanas described as huzuri mashruti. In these thanas the Thanadars were appointed directly by the central government via royal orders or at the recommendations of the Nazim or Diwan of the province; such thanadars were to a considerable degree independent officers who could receive orders direct from the central government.

They were placed under the overall supervision of the faijdar and were expected to cooperate with him in mainataing law and order. They were created to ensure an efficient check on ambitious faujdars. In any case in an emergency the faujdar of a charge could be called upon to enforce imperial regulations, they were appointed by virtue of a royal order and the appointment bore the seal of the Bakshi ul Mulki. They submitted petitions directly to the court. Transfer was a well established practice, his military and police duties included: Maintaining law and order. Enforcing imperial regulations. Preventing drinking and other verboten activities. Making sure blacksmiths didn't manufacture guns. Apprehending thieves and restoring stolen properties. If he failed to do so, he was responsible. Maintaining law and order and ensuring the safety of roads and highways. Keeping rebel zamindars under check. Making sure his soldiers were well equipped and making necessary arrangements in case a soldier lost his horse for whatever reason.

His judicial functions were: He dispensed justice. Court was attended by him and the Diwan, he presided. Cases regarding Holy Law were decided by him in consultation with judicial officials such as Mufti and Mir Adl. Cases which fell under the purview of revenue and other general imperial regulations, were decided by him with no consultations with anyone else, his revenue administration functions were: Directly associated with the collection go land revenue from zamindars who evaded payment and only paid under the threat of force. Could entrust the collection of land revenue from such zamindars to the Maori or nominate an intermediary and authorise the Maori to collect the land revenue from the latter. Indirectly associated with land revenue as he was required to render necessary assistance in collection of land revenue to the Amil in Khalsa or jagir lands on a written request from the latter. Couldn't pillage a village until a written request was forthcoming from the Amil. On receipt of such a written request he was required to get hold of a few Muqaddams and persuade them to be obideient.

If they responded favourably at this stage the Faujdar was required to obtain written consent from the Amil. If the Muqaddams refused to submit, he was to chastise the rebels; the ryots shouldn't be harmed. The booty acquired was to be handed over to the Amil. Kotwal Kiladar Castellan

National Digital Preservation Program

Keeping the foresight of changing technologies and rampant digital obsolescence, in 2008, the R & D in IT Group, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India envisaged to evolve Indian digital preservation initiative. In order to learn from the experience of developed nations, during March 24–25, 2009, an Indo-US Workshop on International Trends in Digital Preservation was organized by C-DAC, Pune with sponsorship from Indo-US Science & Technology Forum, which lead to more constructive developments towards formulation of the national program. During April 2010, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India entrusted the responsibility of preparing National Study Report on Digital Preservation Requirements of India with Human-Centred Design & Computing Group, C-DAC, active in the thematic area of heritage computing; the objective of this project was to present a comprehensive study of current situation in India versus the international trends of digital preservation along with the recommendations for undertaking the National Digital Preservation Program by involving all stakeholder organizations.

Technical experts from around 24 organizations representing diverse domains such as e-governance and state archives, audio and film archives, cultural heritage repositories, health and education, insurance and banking, etc. were included in the national expert group. Major institutions represented in the expert group were Centre for Development of Advance Computing, National Informatics Centre, Unique Identity Program, National Archives of India, National Film Archive of India, Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts and Broadcasting, National Remote Sensing Center / ISRO, Controller of Certifying Authorities, National e-Governance Division, Life Insurance Corporation, Reserve Bank of India, National Institute of Oceanography, Indian Institute of Public Administration, Defense Scientific Information & Documentation Centre and several other organizations; the expert group members were asked to submit position papers highlighting the short term and long term plans for digital preservation with respect to their domain.

The study report was presented before Government of India in two volumes as under - Volume –I Recommendations for National Digital Preservation Program of India Volume-II Position Papers by the National Expert Group MembersThe report included an overview of international digital preservation projects, study of legal imperatives, study of technical challenges and standards, consolidated recommendations given by the national expert group for the National Digital Preservation Program. One of the key recommendations given in this report was to harmonize Public Records Act, Right to Information Act, Indian Evidence Act, Copyright Act and other related Acts with the Information Technology Act in order to address the digital preservation needs; the foresight of this recommendation has proved right, as in 2018, the Indian judiciary has initiated the drafting of electronic evidence rules to be introduced under the Indian Evidence Act. In this context, the Joint Committee of High Court Judges visited C-DAC, Pune on 10 March 2018 to examine the technical aspects of the proposed electronic evidence rules in terms of extraction, preservation and authentication of e-evidence in the court of law.

As recommended in the national study report, during April 2011, Centre of Excellence for Digital Preservation was launched as the flagship project under the National Digital Preservation Program, funded by Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India. The project was awarded to C-DAC Pune, India; the objectives of Centre of Excellence were as under: Conduct research and development in digital preservation to produce the required tools, technologies and best practices. Develop the pilot digital preservation repositories and provide help in nurturing the network of Trustworthy Digital Repositories as a long-term goal Define the digital preservation standards by involving the experts from stakeholder organizations and disseminate the digital preservation best practices generated through various projects under National Digital Preservation Program, being the nodal point for pan-India digital preservation initiatives. Provide inputs to Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology in the formation of National Digital Preservation Policy Spread awareness about the potential threats and risks due to digital obsolescence and the digital preservation best practices.

The major outcomes of this project are summarised hereafter. Digital preservation standard and guidelines are developed in order to help local data intensive projects in preparing for demanding standards such as ISO 16363 for Audit and Certification of Trusted Digital Repositories; the standard is duly notified by Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India Vide Notification No. 1/2010-EG-II dated December 13, 2013 for all e-governance applications in India. E-Governance standard for Preservation Information Documentation of Electronic RecordsThe eGOV-PID provides standard metadata dictionary and schema for automatically capturing the preservation metadata in terms of cataloging information, enclosure information, provenance information, fixity information, representation information, digital signature information and access rights information after an electronic record is produced by e-governance system, it helps in producing an acceptable Submission Information