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Academy of the Hebrew Language

The Academy of the Hebrew Language was established by the Israeli government in 1953 as the "supreme institution for scholarship on the Hebrew language in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem of Givat Ram campus." The Academy replaced the Hebrew Language Committee established in 1890 by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, its first president. As Hebrew became the spoken language in Palestine and was adopted by the educational system, the Hebrew Language Committee published bulletins and dictionaries, it coined thousands of words. Its successor, the Academy of the Hebrew Language, has continued this mission of creating new Hebrew words to keep up modern usage. Although the academy's business is creating new words from Hebrew roots and structures to replace loanwords derived from other languages, its own name is a loanword, "akademya." It addresses this irony on its English website. The Academy's mission, as defined in its constitution, is "to direct the development of Hebrew in light of its nature"; the Academy sets standards for modern Hebrew grammar, orthography and punctuation based on the historical development of the language.

It writes a Hebrew Historical Dictionary. The plenum consists of 23 members. In addition, the academy employs 15 academic advisors, among them respected scholars of language, Judaic studies, Bible; the Academy's decisions are binding on all governmental agencies, including the Israel Broadcasting Authority. Study of the Hebrew language List of language regulators Revival of the Hebrew language Historical Dictionary Project of the Hebrew Language Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino, a language regulator for Ladino YIVO, a language regulator for Yiddish Academy of the Arabic Language in Israel Academy of the Hebrew Language - Official Website Rothberg International School The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

New York State Route 31A

New York State Route 31A is an east–west state highway located in the western part of New York in the United States. It serves as a southerly alternate route of NY 31 from the western part of Orleans County to the far western part of Monroe County, it diverges from NY 31 south of the village of Medina and parallels NY 31 eastward until it reconnects to its parent route southwest of the village of Brockport. While NY 31 passes through the villages of Medina and Holley, NY 31A bypasses all three, serving sparsely populated areas to their south instead; the route intersects NY 98 south of NY 237 in Clarendon. The origins of NY 31A date back to the 1930 renumbering of state highways in New York when the section of modern NY 31 between Middleport and Medina was designated as NY 3A, it was renumbered to NY 3B c. 1932 and extended northeastward to Knowlesville via Millville by 1932 before becoming NY 31A c. 1935. NY 31A was cut back to its current western terminus in 1949 and extended eastward to NY 19 and NY 31 in Brockport c.

1963, replacing New York State Route 31D, a spur route linking NY 31 to the Monroe–Orleans county line. The route was truncated to its current eastern terminus in the early 1980s after NY 31 was altered to bypass Brockport to the southwest. NY 31A begins at a four-way intersection in the southern portion of the village of Medina. At this junction, NY 31 travels to the west and to the north, NY 63 travels to the north and to the south, NY 31A travels to the east as Maple Ridge Road, it leaves the village shortly afterward, entering a rural area of Orleans County dominated by open fields. The route heads due east to Millville, a small hamlet situated at the junction of NY 31A and East Shelby Road in northeastern Shelby. At the eastern edge of the community, NY 31A meets West County House Road, the former routing of NY 31A toward Knowlesville. Past Millville, NY 31A becomes West Lee Road and heads southeastward through farmland to the Barre town line, at which point the route turns back to the east and follows a northeasterly alignment for 5 miles into the town of Albion.

Here, NY 31A passes the Benjamin Franklin Gates House, situated on the north side of the route near a junction with Mix Road. Not far to the east, the highway meets NY 98 at a rural junction 3 miles south of the village of Albion and 50 yards north of the Albion town line. NY 31A, now East Lee Road, continues on a northeasterly line for another 2.5 miles before curving southward for 1 mile to avoid a marshy area near the eastern town line. The route reenters Barre along this stretch, heading south and east across the town's northeastern corner on its way into the town of Clarendon; the highway retains an east–west alignment for 2 miles to the outskirts of the hamlet of Clarendon, the largest community on the route since Medina. At this point, NY 31A turns southeast to serve Clarendon, where NY 31A intersects NY 237 in the center of the hamlet. Upon crossing NY 237, NY 31A changes names for the final time; the rural surroundings return outside of Clarendon hamlet as a mix of woodlands and fields, which NY 31A progresses northeasterly through to the hamlet of Bennetts Corners.

Here, the amount of development along the route begins to increase, a change ushered in by a pair of large housing tracts in the eastern part of the community. East of Bennetts Corners, the route takes on a more easterly alignment as it crosses into Monroe County, which contains just 1.5 miles of the 23-mile NY 31A. In Monroe County, the highway passes through a more populated area on its way to a junction with NY 31 and NY 19 Truck southwest of the village of Brockport. Both NY 19 Truck and NY 31 enter the intersection from the north on Redman Road and turn east at Fourth Section Road, following the right-of-way of NY 31A eastward toward Brockport's business district; the junction completes the alternate loop of NY 31, which follows a parallel but more northerly routing between Medina and Brockport that takes it through the villages of Medina and Holley. Along the way, NY 31 passes the campus of SUNY Brockport, situated 0.5 miles northeast of NY 31A's eastern terminus. Most of modern NY 31 west of Rochester—including the section between Gasport and the outskirts of Brockport—was designated as part of NY 3 when the first set of posted routes in New York were assigned in 1924.

In the 1930 renumbering of state highways in New York, NY 3 was realigned between Middleport and Medina to follow what is now NY 31E. NY 3's former routing between the two villages was designated as NY 3A. NY 3A was redesignated as NY 3B c. 1932 as part of a renumbering of NY 3's suffixed routes. NY 3B was extended eastward along Maple Ridge, County House, Taylor Hill Roads to meet NY 31 at Knowlesville Station by this time; the route was renumbered again c. 1935, becoming NY 31A after NY 3 was replaced with a realigned NY 31 west of Rochester. Farther east, the segment of modern NY 31A from Clarendon to Brockport and what is now NY 31 from NY 31A to NY 19 became NY 3B in the 1930 renumbering. Like NY 3A, NY 3B was renumbered to NY 3C c. 1932. The route now began at the Monroe–Orleans county line, where state maintenance of Fourth Section Road began, ended at the junction of NY 63 and NY 3 south of Brockport. NY 3C was redesignated as NY 31D c. 1935 following NY 31's supplantation of NY 3 west of Rochester.

On January 1, 1949, NY 31 was rerouted between Middleport and Medina to use NY 31A between the two locations. NY 31A was truncated to its current western terminus in Medina as a result, it wa

(5407) 1992 AX

1992 AX, provisional designation 1992 AX, is a stony asteroid and a synchronous binary Mars-crosser from the innermost region of the asteroid belt 3.6 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 4 January 1992, by Japanese astronomers Seiji Ueda and Hiroshi Kaneda at the Kushiro Observatory on Hokkaidō, Japan; the S-type asteroid has a short rotation period of 2.5 hours. Its sub-kilometer satellite was discovered in 1997; as of 2018, the binary system has not been named. 1992 AX a member of the Mars-crossing asteroids, a dynamically unstable group between the main belt and the near-Earth populations, crossing the orbit of Mars at 1.66 AU. It orbits the Sun at a distance of 1.3 -- 2.3 AU once 6 months. Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.28 and an inclination of 11° with respect to the ecliptic. The asteroid makes occasional close approaches to Mars, its next close approach, on 22 January 2027, will bring it 11,260,000 km from Mars. The body's observation arc begins with a precovery taken at Palomar Observatory in November 1951, or more than 40 years prior to its official discovery observation at Kushiro.

This minor planet was numbered by the Minor Planet Center on 9 December 1992. As of 2018, it has not been named. 1992 AX has been characterized as a stony S-type asteroid. In the SMASS taxonomy, it is an Sk-subtype, that transitions between the K-type asteroids; the body's color indices of 0.690, 0.500 and 0.840 were determined. Since 1997, several rotational lightcurves of 1992 AX have been obtained from photometric observations by Petr Pravec and collaborating astronomers. Best-rated lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 2.5488 hours with a consolidated brightness amplitude between 0.10 and 0.12 magnitude. The results supersedes a tentative period determination of 3.6 hours by Marc Buie. During the observations in January 1997, it was revealed that 1992 AX is a synchronous binary asteroid with a minor-planet moon in its orbit; the satellite measures 780 meters in diameter, or about 20% of its primary, has an orbital period of 13.52 hours with an estimated semi-major axis of 5.8 kilometers for its circular orbit.

Observations by Pravec in January and February 2012 confirmed the binary nature of this asteroid, as well as its rotational and orbital periods. The satellite's provisional designation is S/1997 1. According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite, the Spitzer Space Telescope and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, 1992 AX measures between 2.78 and 4.18 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.199 and 0.40. In 2017, a study by WISE dedicated to Mars-crossing asteroids determined a diameter of 3.60 kilometers with a high albedo of 0.376. The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes an albedo of 0.20 and derives a diameter of 3.79 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 14.47. The Johnston's archive gives an effective diameter of 3.98 kilometers with 3.9 and 0.78 kilometers for is primary and secondary body, respectively. Asteroids with Satellites, Robert Johnston, johnstonsarchive.net Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 1992 AX at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 1992 AX at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters