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Acapulco

Acapulco de Juárez called Acapulco, is a city and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, 380 kilometres south of Mexico City. Acapulco is located on a deep, semicircular bay and has been a port since the early colonial period of Mexico's history, it is a port of call for shipping and cruise lines running between Panama and San Francisco, United States. The city of Acapulco is the largest in the state, far larger than the state capital Chilpancingo. Acapulco is Mexico's largest beach and balneario resort city; the city is one of Mexico's oldest beach resorts, which came into prominence in the 1940s through the 1960s as a getaway for Hollywood stars and millionaires. Acapulco was once a popular tourist resort, but due to a massive upsurge in gang violence and murder since 2014 it no longer attracts many foreign tourists, most now only come from Mexico itself, it is the deadliest city in Mexico and the second-deadliest city in the world, the US government has warned its citizens not to travel there.

In 2016 there were 918 murders, the homicide rate was one of the highest in the world: 103 in every 100,000. In September 2018 the city's entire police force was disarmed by the military, due to suspicions that it has been infiltrated by drug gangs; the resort area is divided into three parts: The north end of the bay and beyond is the "traditional" area, which encompasses the area from Parque Papagayo through the Zócalo and onto the beaches of Caleta and Caletilla, the main part of the bay known as "Zona Dorada", where the famous in the mid-20th century vacationed, the south end, "Diamante", dominated by newer luxury high-rise hotels and condominiums. The name "Acapulco" comes from Nahuatl language Aca-pōl-co, means "where the reeds were destroyed or washed away"; the "de Juárez" was added to the official name in 1885 to honor Benito Juárez, former President of Mexico. The seal for the city shows broken reeds or cane; the island and municipality of Capul, in the Philippines, derives its name from Acapulco.

Acapulco was the eastern end of the trans-Pacific sailing route from Acapulco to Manila, in what was a Spanish colony. By the 8th century around the Acapulco Bay area, there was a small culture which would first be dominated by the Olmecs by a number of others during the pre-Hispanic period before it ended in the 1520s. At Acapulco Bay itself, there were two Olmec sites, one by Playa Larga and the other on a hill known as El Guitarrón. Olmec influence caused the small spread-out villages here to coalesce into larger entities and build ceremonial centers. Teotihuacan influence made its way here via Cuernavaca and Chilpancingo. Mayan influence arrived from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and through what is now Oaxaca; this history is known through the archaeological artifacts that have been found here at Playa Hornos, Pie de la Cuesta,and Tambuco. In the 11th century, new waves of migration of Nahuas and Coixas came through here; these people were the antecedents of the Aztecs. In the 15th century, after four years of military struggle, Acapulco became part of the Aztec Empire during the reign of Ahuizotl.

It was annexed to a tributary province named Tepecuacuilco. However, this was only transitory, as the Aztecs could only establish an unorganized military post at the city's outskirts; the city was in territory under control of the Yopes, who continued defending it and living there until the arrival of the Spanish in the 1520s. There are two stories about; the first states that two years after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Hernán Cortés sent explorers west to find gold. The explorers had subdued this area after 1523, Captain Saavedra Cerón was authorized by Cortés to found a settlement here; the other states that the bay was discovered on December 13, 1526 by a small ship named the El Tepache Santiago captained by Santiago Guevara. The first encomendero was established in 1525 at Cacahuatepec, part of the modern Acapulco municipality. In 1531, a number of Spaniards, most notably Juan Rodriguez de Villafuerte, left the Oaxaca coast and founded the village of Villafuerte where the city of Acapulco now stands.

Villafuerte was unable to subdue the local native peoples, this resulted in the Yopa Rebellion in the region of Cuautepec. Hernán Cortés was obligated to send Vasco Porcayo to negotiate with the indigenous people giving concessions; the province of Acapulco became the encomendero of Rodriguez de Villafuerte who received taxes in the form of cocoa and corn. Cortés established Acapulco as a major port by the early 1530s, with the first major road between Mexico City and the port constructed by 1531; the wharf, named Marqués, was constructed by 1533 between Diamond Point. Soon after, the area was made an "alcadia". Spanish trade in the Far East would give Acapulco a prominent position in the economy of New Spain. Galleons started arriving here from Asia by 1550, in that year thirty Spanish families were sent to live here from Mexico City to have a permanent base of European residents. Acapulco would become the second most important port, after Veracruz, due to its direct trade with the Philippines.

This trade would focus on the yearly Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade, the nexus of all kinds of communications between New Spain and Asia. In 1573, the port was granted the monopoly of the Manila trade; the galleon trade made its yearly run from the mid-16th century until the early 19th. The luxury items it brought to New Spain attracted the attention of

Emma Hollis

FBI Special Agent Emma Hollis is a fictional character from the American crime-thriller television series Millennium. Hollis, introduced in the series' third and final season, is a young special agent within the Federal Bureau of Investigation. During the show's final year, she was partnered with offender profiler Frank Black; the character of Hollis was portrayed by Canadian actor Klea Scott. Special agent Hollis made her first appearance in the third season's opening episode "The Innocents", she is the daughter of James Hollis. The character has been met with mixed reactions from critics. Hollis is a young Federal Bureau of Investigation special agent who becomes a protégée to offender profiler Frank Black when he begins working in Virginia, she struggles to understand the criminal mind. She has an estranged half-sister, who has become a heroin addict. Hollis has to deal with her father's bout with an Alzheimer's-like illness, induced by the Millennium Group—a secretive organisation to which Black had belonged, which he now believes to be responsible for bioterrorism.

Group member Peter Watts uses Hollis' father's illness as leverage to coerce her into cooperating with the Millennium Group. Hollis is much aware of Black's reputation and eager to prove her worth as an investigator. Intrigued by Frank's abilities as an investigator, she strives to learn as much from him as she can, while Frank learns to recognize her strengths as an FBI agent; the respected, ambitious young Bureau Agent formed a close relationship with Frank Black—and turned her back on him to join the Millennium Group, which had agreed to cure her father of Alzheimer's. When ending the second season, the producers and crew thought. However, to their surprise Millennium was renewed for a third season. Many of the cliffhanger plot threads from the season finale were written off as the hallucinations of Frank Black; when creating the third season, they wanted to go back to the stand alone storytelling format used in the first season. Regarding Hollis, producer Michael Duggan said "she's not a rookie... but she's young enough to be in awe of Frank Black's rep as a legendary crime solver".

The producers were looking for a white actress to play the part. Klea Scott's agent thought, he went down to the producers for the show and campaigned for her and guaranteed them if she did not fit for the role, he would never send another actor to the casting director of the show. Scott auditioned with four other actresses to get the part. Scott won the role, but producer Chip Johannessen recalled that "she wasn't what the network were looking, they wanted Heather Locklear or something to come; that was kind of how that went down". Fox backed down, Scott got the role. Scott had been living in Los Angeles, but relocated to the series' filming location in Vancouver when she joined the cast. Scott had little input in her character's development, admitted feeling "a little hurt" to find that Hollis had joined the Millennium Group by the end of the series. Scott's first day on set was during the filming of the final scene of "The Innocents", the third season's opening episode; the actress found it difficult to adjust to the series' heavy workload, but found it enjoyable to work with co-star Lance Henriksen.

Although the character of Emma Hollis has been met with mixed reception, Scott's acting has been seen in a positive light. Entertainment Weekly writer Ken Tucker said Scott's presence as Hollis was "bracing", finding that she "captures the way young adepts try to soak up everything about their heroes". Allan Johnson of the Chicago Tribune felt that the character made the third season of Millennium "a much more watchable series than in its previous two seasons", offering a "different perspective" on the series' dark subject matter. Rob Owen, of the Chicago Sun-Times, has noted that Hollis' involvement in the "a tug of war between Frank and Millennium Group" gave Millennium's third season "a more personal take" on its central conflicts. Robert Shearman and Lars Pearson, in their book Wanting to Believe: A Critical Guide to The X-Files, Millennium & The Lone Gunmen, have been critical of the character of Emma Hollis, finding that she has been written in a manner that "pass emotional baggage off as character development".

However and Pearson were less critical of Scott's performance, noting that the character was "played well" and that Scott "works hard to mine some sort of truth" out of Hollis' character. Randy Miller, writing for DVD Talk, noted that Hollis' introduction left Millennium feeling "more of a curious sister to The X-Files rather than its own entity", likening Hollis and Black to the latter series' Fox Mulder and Dana Scully. Shearman, Robert. Wanting to Believe: A Critical Guide to The X-Files, Millennium & The Lone Gunmen. Mad Norwegian Press. ISBN 097594469X

Benin–Niger border

The Benin–Niger border is 277 km in length and runs from the tripoint with Burkina Faso in the west to the tripoint with Nigeria in the east. The starts at the tripoint with Burkina Faso in the Mékrou River, following this river in a north-eastwards direction before reaching the Niger river; the border follows the Niger down to Nigerian tripoint. The entire Mékrou river section of the boundary falls within the trans-border W National Park, home to numerous species such as hippos and elephants. Furthermore, the Nigerien side of the Niger river section is protected as the Dosso Reserve, which protects one of the last remaining populations of West African giraffe; the 1880s saw an intense competition between the European powers for territories in Africa, a process known as the Scramble for Africa. This culminated in the Berlin Conference of 1884, in which the European nations concerned agreed upon their respective territorial claims and the rules of engagements going forward; as a result of this France gained control of the upper valley of the Niger River.

France began occupying the area of modern Benin from 1893 naming it Dahomey. Both areas came the control of the federal colony of French West Africa; the rivers Niger and Mékrou were confirmed as forming the boundary between Niger and Dahomey in a French statute of 27 October 1938. As the movement for decolonisation grew in the post-Second World War era, France granted more political rights and representation for its African colonies, culminating in the granting of broad internal autonomy to each colony in 1958 within the framework of the French Community. In August 1960 both Niger and Dahomey gained full independence, their mutual frontier became an international one between two sovereign states. Since independence there were a number of disputes over the precise allocation of 24 riverine islands, most notably Lété Island, none of, covered by the colonial-era boundary agreement; the two states forwarded the case to the International Court of Justice in 2001. Pékinga Compa Karimama Malanville Mandécali Koulou Sia Tenda Tara Gaya The main border crossing is located at Malanville -Gaya.

It is possible to travel via the W National Park, where the border itself is open. Benin-Niger relations