Bishop of Hexham
The Bishop of Hexham was an episcopal title which took its name after the market town of Hexham in Northumberland, England. The title was first used by the Anglo-Saxons in the 7th and 9th centuries, by the Roman Catholic Church since the 19th century; the first Diocese of Lindisfarne was merged into the Diocese of York in 664. York diocese was divided in 678 by Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury, forming a bishopric for the country between the Rivers Aln and Tees, with a seat at Hexham; this and erratically merged back into the bishopric of Lindisfarne. Eleven bishops of Hexham followed St. Eata. No successor was appointed in 821, the condition of the country being too unsettled. A period of disorder followed the Danish devastations, after which Hexham monastery was reconstituted in 1113 as a priory of Austin Canons, which flourished until its dissolution under Henry VIII. Meantime the bishopric had been merged in that of Lindisfarne, which latter see was removed to Chester-le-Street in 883, thence to Durham in 995.
Episcopal succession in Anglo-Saxon England
In Christianity, the translation of relics is the removal of holy objects from one locality to another. Translations could be accompanied by many acts, including all-night vigils and processions involving entire communities; the solemn translation of relics is not treated as the outward recognition of sanctity. Rather, miracles confirmed a saint's sanctity, as evinced by the fact that when, in the twelfth century, the Papacy attempted to make sanctification an official process. In the early Middle Ages, solemn translation marked the moment at which, the saint's miracles having been recognized, the relic was moved by a bishop or abbot to a prominent position within the church. Local veneration was permitted; this process is known as local canonization. The date of a translation of a saint's relics was celebrated as a feast day in its own right. For example, on January 27 is celebrated the translation of the relics of St. John Chrysostom from the Armenian village of Comana to Constantinople; the most celebrated feast days, are the dies natales.
Relics sometimes travelled far. The relics of Saint Thyrsus at Sozopolis, Pisidia, in Asia Minor, were brought to Constantinople and to Spain, his cult became popular in the Iberian Peninsula, where he is known as Santo Tirso. Some of his relics were brought to France: Thyrsus is thus the titular saint of the cathedral of Sisteron in the Basses Alpes, the Cathédrale Notre Dame et Saint Thyrse. Thyrsus is thus the patron saint of Sisteron. Liborius of Le Mans became patron saint of Paderborn, in Germany, after his relics were transferred there in 836. In the early church, the disturbance, let alone the division, of the remains of martyrs and other saints, was not of concern or interest, much less practised, it was assumed that they would remain permanently in their unidentified resting places in cemeteries and the catacombs of Rome. Martyriums began to be built over the site of the burial of saints, it came to be considered beneficial to the soul to be buried close to saintly remains, as such, several large "funerary halls" were built over the sites of martyr's graves, the primary example being the Old Saint Peter's Basilica.
The earliest recorded removal of saintly remains was that of Saint Babylas at Antioch in 354. However perhaps because Constantinople lacked the many saintly graves of Rome, translations soon became common in the Eastern Empire though it was still prohibited in the West; the Eastern capital was able to acquire the remains of Saints Timothy and Luke. The division of bodies began. An altar slab dated 357, found in North Africa but now in the Louvre, records the deposit beneath it of relics from several prominent saints. Non-anatomical relics, above all that of the True Cross, were divided and distributed from the 4th century. In the West a decree of Theodosius I only allowed the moving of a whole sarcophagus with its contents, but the upheavals of the barbarian invasions relaxed the rules, as remains needed to be relocated to safer places. In the 4th century, Basil the Great requested of the ruler of Scythia Minor, Junius Soranus, that he should send him the relics of saints of that region. Saran sent the relics of Sabbas the Goth to him in Caesarea, Cappadocia, in 373 or 374 accompanied by a letter, the'Epistle of the Church of God in Gothia to the Church of God located in Cappadocia and to all the Local Churches of the Holy Universal Church'.
The sending of Sabbas' relics and the writing of the actual letter has been attributed to Bretannio. This letter is the oldest known writing to be was written in Greek; the spread of relics all over Europe from the 8th century onward is explained by the fact that after 787, all new Christian churches had to possess a relic before they could be properly consecrated. New churches, situated in areas newly converted to Christianity, needed relics and this encouraged the translation of relics to far-off places. Relics became collectible items, owning them became a symbol of prestige for cities and monarchs, Relics were desirable as they generated income from pilgrims traveling to venerate them. According to one legend concerning Saint Paternian, the inhabitants of Fano competed with those of Cervia for possession of his relics. Cervia would be left with a finger; the translation of relics was a important event. In 1261, the relics of Lucian of Beauvais and his two companions were placed in a new reliquary by William of Grès, the bishop of Beauvais.
The translation took place in the presence of St. Louis IX, the king of France, Theobald II, the king of Navarre, as well as much of the French nobility; the memory of this translation was celebrated in the abbey of Beauvais as the fête des Corps Saints. On February 14, 1277, while work was being done at the church of St. John the Baptist in Cologne, the body of Saint Cordula, one of the companions of Saint Ursula, was discovered, her relics were found to be fragrant and on the forehead of the saint herself were written the words, “Cordula and Virgin.” When Albert the Great
Galloway is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the historic counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire. A native or inhabitant of Galloway is called a Gallovidian; the place name Galloway is derived from the Gaelic i nGall Gaidhealaib. The Gall Gaidheil meaning "Stranger-Gaidheil" referred to a population of mixed Scandinavian and Gaelic ethnicity that inhabited Galloway in the Middle Ages. Galloway is bounded by sea to the west and south, the Galloway Hills to the north, the River Nith to the east; the definition has, fluctuated in size over history. A hardy breed of black, hornless cattle named Galloway cattle is native to the region, in addition to the more distinctive'Belted Galloway' or'Beltie'. Galloway comprises that part of Scotland southwards from the Southern Upland watershed and westward from the River Nith. Traditionally it has been described as stretching from "the braes of Glenapp to the Nith"; the valleys of three rivers, the Urr Water, the Water of Ken and River Dee, the Cree, all running north-south, provide much of the good arable land, although there is some arable land on the coast.
However the landscape is rugged and much of the soil is shallow. The south slope and southern coast make for mild and wet climate, there is a great deal of good pasture; the northern part of Galloway is exceedingly rugged and forms the largest remaining wilderness in Britain south of the Highlands. This area is known as the Galloway Hills. Galloway has been famous both for horses and for cattle rearing, milk and beef production are both still major industries. There is substantial timber production and some fisheries; the combination of hills and high rainfall make Galloway ideal for hydroelectric power production, the Galloway Hydro Power scheme was begun in 1929. Since electricity generation has been a significant industry. More wind turbines have been installed at a number of locations on the watershed, a large offshore wind-power plant is planned, increasing Galloway's'green energy' production; the 2nd century geographer Ptolemy produced a map of Britain in his Geography, in which he describes the landmarks and peoples of the island.
The landmarks were identified long ago, a number of them relate to Galloway:In the west, the city of Rerigonium, shown on Ptolemy's map of the world, is a strong contender for the site of Pen Rhionydd, referred to in the Welsh Triads as one of the'three thrones of Britain' associated with the legendary King Arthur, may have been the caput of the sub-Roman Brythonic kingdom of Rheged. Rerigonium's exact position is uncertain except that it was'on Loch Ryan', close to modern day Stranraer; the earliest inhabitants were Brythonic Celts, recorded by the Romans as the Novantae tribe. According to tradition, before the end of Roman rule in Britain, St. Ninian established a church or monastery at Whithorn, which remained an important place of pilgrimage until the Reformation; the county is rich in prehistoric monuments and relics, amongst the most notable of which are the Drumtroddan Standing Stones, the Torhousekie Stone Circle, both in Wigtownshire and Cairnholy. There is evidence of one of the earliest pit-fall traps in Europe, discovered near Glenluce, Wigtownshire.
A Brythonic speaking kingdom dominated Galloway until the late 7th century when it was taken over by the English kingdom of Bernicia. English dominance was supplanted by Norse-Gaelic peoples between the 11th century; this can be seen in the context of widespread Norse domination of the Irish Sea, including extensive settlement in the Isle of Man and in the now English region of Cumbria south of Galloway. If it had not been for Fergus of Galloway who established himself in Galloway, the region would have been absorbed by Scotland; this did not happen because Fergus, his sons and great-grandson Alan, Lord of Galloway, shifted their allegiance between Scottish and English kings. During a period of Scottish allegiance a Galloway contingent followed David, King of Scots in his invasion of England and led the attack in his defeat at the Battle of the Standard. Alan died in 1234, he had an illegitimate son Thomas. The'Community of Galloway' wanted Thomas as their'king'. Alexander III of Scotland invaded Galloway.
The Community of Galloway was defeated, Galloway divided up between Alan's daughters, thus bringing Galloway's independent existence to an end. Alan's eldest daughter, married John de Balliol, their son became one of the candidates for the Scottish Crown. Scotland's Wars of Independence were disproportionately fought in Galloway. There were a large number of new Gaelic placenames being coined post 1320, because Galloway retained a substantial Gaelic speaking population for several centuries more. Following the Wars of Independence, Galloway became the fief of Archibald the Grim, Earl of Douglas and his heirs. Whithorn remained an important cultural centre, all the medieval Kings of Scots made pilgrimages there. Galwegian Gaelic seems to have lasted longer than Gaelic in other parts of Lowland Scotland, Margaret McMurray of Carrick appears to have been the last recorded speaker. In the years after the Union
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
In Catholicism, the cantor, sometimes called the precentor or the protopsaltes is the chief singer, instructor, employed at a church, a cathedral or monastery with responsibilities for the ecclesiastical choir and the preparation of liturgy. The cantor's duties and qualifications have varied according to time and rite, its prestige was so high that it came close to the highest offices in the ecclesiastical hierarchy, for instance monastic cantors promoted to the office of an abbot or abbess. Sometimes the office was connected with administrative and governmental duties with those of a schoolteacher, as in case of the Thomaskantor in charge of the Thomasschule zu Leipzig, educating a boys' choir that served four churches. A cantor must be competent to choose and to conduct the vocals for the choir, to start any chant on demand, to be able to identify and correct the missteps of singers placed under him, he may be held accountable for the immediate rendering of the music, showing the course of the melody by movements of the hand, similar to a conductor.
In the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Catholic Churches, a cantor called a chanter, is a monk or a lay person in minor orders who chants responses and hymns in the services of the church. There are several titles for the psaltes, which depend on the recognition of his capabilities as a chanter, sometimes connected with an employment, by the local or Ecumenical Patriarchate. In some smaller communities it is possible, that the community sings within an oral tradition and without any instruction by a protopsaltes, in other Orthodox Rites, there are various hierarchical offices, which can be passed during a long career, connected with a lifelong process of learning. In the Byzantine tradition, the cantor in charge of doing the music for a service is referred to as the protopsaltes, a term which may refer to an office within a diocese or whole jurisdiction, but this title was not used before the 12th century; the cantor or chanters sing the many hymns called for during the Divine Services and the Divine Liturgy.
A chanter must be knowledgeable about the ecclesiastical modes as well as the complex structure of the services. At Constantinople the charge of a protopsaltes was connected with Byzantine offices. In the tradition of the cathedral rite at Hagia Sophia, there was a distinction between the leader of the right choir and the leader of the left choir. Still during the last centuries, the usual career was to start as the "Second Domestikos of the Great Church" who assisted the first to proceed in the office of the teacher, even to the Lampadarios, who replaced the left choir as a soloist called "monophonares", this career was sometimes continued by the promotion to the "Protopsaltes or Archon Psaltes of the Great Church" of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. In the Greek tradition, a chanter will wear the exorason, a black outer cassock with angel-wing sleeves; the Slavic tradition—which tends more to use a choir rather than a cantor—assigns no specific vestment to the chanters, unless an individual has been ordained a Reader, in which case he would wear only the inner cassock and put on the sticharion when he receives Holy Communion.
In the Greek tradition, the chanters are stationed at a psalterion, a chanting podium positioned to the south and sometimes to the north side of the sanctuary. In the Slavic tradition, the chanters are positioned, the area is referred to as the kliros. Before and after the Second Vatican Council, in the Roman Catholic Church a cantor was the leading singer of the choir, a bona fide clerical role; the medieval cantor of the papal Schola Cantorum was called Prior scholae or Primicerius. In medieval cathedrals, the cantor or precentor directed the music and chant, was one of the ranking dignitaries of the chapter. During the 14th century in many churches, the cantor began to delegate his instruction of the singers to a master of music. After the introduction of harmonized music, some duties fell to the conductor or choirmaster. Today, the cantor is a role. In parishes without a choir, the cantor serves to lead the responsorial singing with the congregation; the cantor's locality in the church is most to the right of the choir, directly to his left is his assistant called the succentor.
A common custom for cantors was the bearing of the staff, the mark of his dignity and a visual representative of his sacred role inside the church. This custom still survives in some places. In Protestant churches the role of the cantor can be pastoral. In Northern European cities in Germany, the title of Cantor or Kantor survived the Reformation, referred to a musician who supervised the music in several principal churches, taught in the boys' secondary school, provided music for civic functions. Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Philipp Telemann were among the famous musicians employed under this system. In cathedral churches in the Anglican Communion, the precentor or head cantor is a member of the governing chapter, second in rank to the dean, his stall is opposite the dean's and the two sides of the divided choir are accordingly known as "decani" and "cantori
Aelred of Rievaulx
Aelred of Rievaulx. He is regarded by Anglicans and other Christians as a saint. Aelred was born in Hexham, Northumbria, in 1110, one of three sons of Eilaf, priest of St Andrew's at Hexham, himself a son of another Eilaf, treasurer of Durham. In 1095, the Council of Claremont had forbidden the ordination of the sons of priests; this was done in part to end the inheritance of benefices. He may have been educated by Lawrence of Durham, who sent him a hagiography of Saint Brigid. Aelred's early education was at the cathedral school at Durham, it was here that Aelred was influenced early on by Cicero's Laelius de Amicitia, but modified his interpretation upon reading Augustine of Hippo's Confessions. Aelred spent several years at the court of King David I of Scotland in Roxburgh from the age of 14, rising to the rank of echonomus before leaving the court at age twenty-four to enter the Cistercian abbey of Rievaulx in Yorkshire. In 1138, when Rievaulx's patron, Walter Espec, was to surrender his castle at Wark to King David of Scotland, Aelred accompanied Abbot William of Rievaulx to the Scottish border to negotiate the transfer.
He saw that his reluctance to part from his friends at court, delayed his adopting his monastic calling. For Aelred, the source and object of true friendship is Christ. In 1142 Aelred traveled to Rome, alongside Walter of London, Archdeacon of York, to represent before Pope Innocent II the northern prelates who opposed the election of Henry de Sully, nephew of King Stephen as archbishop of York; the result of the journey was that Aelred brought back a letter from Pope Innocent summoning the superiors whom Aelred represented to appear in Rome the following March to make their deposition in the required canonical form. The resulting negotiations dragged on for many years. Upon his return from Rome, Aelred became novice master at Rievaulx. In 1143, he was appointed abbot of the new Revesby Abbey, a daughter house of Rievaulx in Lincolnshire. In 1147, he was elected abbot of Rievaulx itself, a position he was to hold until his death. Under his administration, the abbey is said to have grown to some 140 monks and 500 conversi and laymen.
His role as abbot required him to travel. Cistercian abbots were expected to make annual visitations to daughter-houses, Rievaulx had five in England and Scotland by the time Aelred held office. Moreover, Aelred had to make the long sea journey to the annual general chapter of the Order at Cîteaux in France. Alongside his role as a monk and abbot, Aelred was involved throughout his life in political affairs; the fourteenth-century version of the Peterborough Chronicle states that Aelred's efforts during the twelfth-century papal schism brought about Henry II's decisive support for the Cistercian candidate, resulting in 1161 in the formal recognition of Pope Alexander III. Aelred wrote several influential books on spirituality, among them Speculum caritatis and De spiritali amicitia. In De spirituali amicitiâ, Aelred adopted Cicero's dialogue format; the Prologue begins with the speaker describing his time at school, where "the charm of my companions gave me the greatest pleasure. Among the usual faults that endanger youth, my mind surrendered wholly to affection and became devoted to love.
Nothing seemed sweeter to me, nothing more pleasant, nothing more valuable than to be loved and to love." In this, Aelred mirrors Augustine's description of his own early adolescence. "For I burnt in my youth heretofore, to be satiated in things below. And what was it that I delighted in, but to love, be loved?"He wrote seven works of history, addressing three of them to Henry II of England, advising him how to be a good king and declaring him to be the true descendant of Anglo-Saxon kings. In his years, he is thought to have suffered from the kidney stones and arthritis. Walter reports that in 1157 the Cistercian General Council allowed him to sleep and eat in Rievaulx's infirmary. Aelred died in the winter of 1166–7 on 12 January 1167 at Rievaulx. Aelred was never formally canonised in the manner, established, but he became the center of a cult in the north of England, recognized by Cistercians in 1476; as such, he was venerated with his body kept at Rievaulx. In the sixteenth century, before the dissolution of the monastery, John Leland, claims he saw Aelred's shrine at Rievaulx containing Aelred's body glittering with gold and silver.
Today, Aelred of Rievaulx is listed as a saint on 12 January, the traditional date of his death, in the latest official edition of the Roman Martyrology, which expresses the official position of the Roman Catholic Church. He appears in the calendars of various other Christian denominations. Much of Aelred's history is known because of the Life written about him by Walter Daniel shortly after his death; until the twentieth century, Aelred was known as a historian rather than as a spiritual writer. Most historians now accept that Aelred was homosexual, drawing upon his work, private letters, Vita by Walter Daniel. Boswell says there is no doubt he was gay and in pa