The Accelerated Graphics Port was designed as a high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a video card to a computer system to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics. It was designed as a successor to PCI-type connections for video cards. Since 2004, AGP has been progressively phased out in favor of PCI Express; as computers became graphically oriented, successive generations of graphics adapters began to push the limits of PCI, a bus with shared bandwidth. This led to the development of a "bus" dedicated to graphics adapters. AGP is based on PCI, in fact the AGP bus is a superset of the conventional PCI bus, AGP cards must act as PCI cards; the primary advantage of AGP over PCI is that it provides a dedicated pathway between the slot and the processor rather than sharing the PCI bus. In addition to a lack of contention for the bus, the direct connection allows for higher clock speeds; the second major change is that AGP uses split transactions, where the address and data phases of a PCI transaction are separated.
The card may send many address phases, the host processes them in order. This avoids long delays, during read operations. Third, PCI bus handshaking is simplified. Unlike PCI bus transactions whose length is negotiated on a cycle-by-cycle basis using the FRAME# and STOP# signals, AGP transfers are always a multiple of 8 bytes long, the total length is included in the request. Further, rather than using the IRDY# and TRDY# signals for each word, data is transferred in blocks of four clock cycles, pauses are allowed only between blocks. AGP allows sideband addressing, meaning that the address and data buses are separated so the address phase does not use the main address/data lines at all; this is done by adding an extra 8-bit "SideBand Address" bus over which the graphics controller can issue new AGP requests while other AGP data is flowing over the main 32 address/data lines. This results in improved overall AGP data throughput; this great improvement in memory read performance makes it practical for an AGP card to read textures directly from system RAM, while a PCI graphics card must copy it from system RAM to the card's video memory.
System memory is made available using the graphics address remapping table, which apportions main memory as needed for texture storage. The maximum amount of system memory available to AGP is defined as the AGP aperture; the AGP slot first appeared on x86-compatible system boards based on Socket 7 Intel P5 Pentium and Slot 1 P6 Pentium II processors. Intel introduced AGP support with the i440LX Slot 1 chipset on August 26, 1997, a flood of products followed from all the major system board vendors; the first Socket 7 chipsets to support AGP were the VIA Apollo VP3, SiS 5591/5592, the ALI Aladdin V. Intel never released an AGP-equipped Socket 7 chipset. FIC demonstrated the first Socket 7 AGP system board in November 1997 as the FIC PA-2012 based on the VIA Apollo VP3 chipset, followed quickly by the EPoX P55-VP3 based on the VIA VP3 chipset, first to market. Early video chipsets featuring AGP support included the Rendition Vérité V2200, 3dfx Voodoo Banshee, Nvidia RIVA 128, 3Dlabs PERMEDIA 2, Intel i740, ATI Rage series, Matrox Millennium II, S3 ViRGE GX/2.
Some early AGP boards used graphics processors built around PCI and were bridged to AGP. This resulted in the cards benefiting little from the new bus, with the only improvement used being the 66 MHz bus clock, with its resulting doubled bandwidth over PCI, bus exclusivity. Examples of such cards were the Voodoo Banshee, Vérité V2200, Millennium II, S3 ViRGE GX/2. Intel's i740 was explicitly designed to exploit the new AGP feature set. After applying the patch the Windows 95 system became Windows 95 version 4.00.950 B. The first Windows NT-based operating system to receive AGP support was Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 3, introduced in 1997. Linux support for AGP enhanced fast data transfers was first added in 1999 with the implementation of the AGPgart kernel module. Intel released "AGP specification 1.0" in 1997. It specified 1 × and 2 × speeds. Specification 2.0 documented 1.5 V signaling, which could be used at 1×, 2× and the additional 4× speed and 3.0 added 0.8 V signaling, which could be operated at 4× and 8× speeds.
Available versions are listed in the adjacent table. AGP version 3.5 is only publicly mentioned by Microsoft under Universal Accelerated Graphics Port, which specifies mandatory supports of extra registers once marked optional under AGP 3.0. Upgraded registers include PCISTS, CAPPTR, NCAPID, AGPSTAT, AGPCMD, NISTAT, NICMD. New required registers include APBASELO, APBASEHI, AGPCTRL, APSIZE, NEPG, GARTLO, GARTHI. There are various physical interfaces. An official extension for cards that required more electrical power, with a longer slot with additional pins for that purpose. AGP Pro cards were workstation-class cards used to accelerate professional computer-aided design applications employed in the fields of architecture, engineering, simulations, an
Kotofuji Takaya is a former sumo wrestler from Chiba City, Japan. His highest rank was sekiwake. In 1991 he won a top division tournament championship from the maegashira ranks. Kotofuji made his professional debut in March 1980, he had a long apprenticeship in the junior ranks, not breaking through to the jūryō division until November 1986. He had an awkward build for sumo, as his long legs meant his hips were high and therefore his centre of gravity was much higher than the ideal. During the short stay of Canadian wrestler Kototenzan at Sadogatake stable, Kotofuji was one of the few wrestlers who attempted to communicate with him in English, he reached the top makuuchi division in September 1988, scoring 11 wins in his top division debut and receiving a share of the Fighting Spirit prize. He held the rank for only one tournament, he earned his first gold star in January 1991 with a win over Ōnokuni. Kotofuji is best remembered for his extraordinary performance in the Nagoya tournament of July 1991, where he became the first maegashira to win the tournament championship in nearly six years.
After a poor 5-10 record at maegashira 7 the previous tournament he was ranked at maegashira 13, fought only his fellow maegashira for the first nine days. Winning all those bouts, he was paired against ōzeki Kirishima, yokozuna Asahifuji and ōzeki Konishiki on days 10 to 12 - and won all of those matches too, it was the first time he had defeated either Konishiki. His yūshō was confirmed the following day when he defeated sekiwake Takatōriki to go to 13–0, with no else scoring better than ten, he became the first wrestler ranked below ōzeki to win the championship by Day 13 since the introduction of 15-day tournaments. Although he was beaten by Takahanada on Day 14, he defeated Akebono on the final day to finish with an outstanding 14–1 record, two wins clear of runner-up Konishiki on 12–3. Both yokozuna and Hokutoumi had poor tournaments, turning in scores of 8-7 and 9–6, the worst for a tournament with two yokozuna. Kotofuji received his second Fighting Spirit prize as well as the Emperor's Cup.
He was as surprised as anyone else at his win, telling an interviewer for Channel 4 that he had just wanted the tournament to be over as soon as possible as he felt sure he wouldn't make it. Kotofuji never approached anything like those heights again, he never made san ` yaku again. After a series of poor results he was demoted to the second jūryō division in 1994 and announced his retirement from sumo in September 1995, he became an elder of the Japan Sumo Association, under the name of Kumegawa Oyakata, but he had to leave the sumo world in July 1999 when his toshiyori name was needed by his retiring former stablemate Kotoinazuma. Because his career as an oyakata had lasted less than four years, he was not entitled to any retirement money. Kotofuji launched a new career as a television personality, doing reporting and sportscasting, he was a member of Konishiki's talent agency. He worked as a manager of one of ex-sekiwake Takatoriki's yakiniku restaurants. In February 2014 he was arrested for engaging in a fake marriage to a Korean national so she could receive permanent resident status.
Kotofuji was a yotsu-sumo wrestler. His most common winning kimarite was yori-kiri, a straightforward force out, which accounted for half his victories at sekitori level, but he was fond of using his right hand grip to win by uwatenage, or overarm throw, his height of 192 cm made him amongst the tallest wrestlers but his weight of 145 kg was not much more than most of his competitors. Glossary of sumo terms List of sumo tournament top division champions List of past sumo wrestlers List of sekiwake Kotofuji's tournament results
The BMW 328 is a sports car made by BMW between 1936 and 1940, with the body design credited to Peter Szymanowski, who became BMW chief of design after World War II. In 1999 the BMW 328 was named one of 25 finalists for Car of the Century by a worldwide panel of automotive journalists; the 328 was introduced at the Eifelrennen race at the Nürburgring in 1936, where Ernst Henne drove it to win the 2.0-litre class. The 328 had more than 100 class wins in 1937, including the RAC Tourist Trophy, the Österreichische Alpenfahrt, the La Turbie hillclimb. In 1938, the 328 won its class at the RAC Tourist Trophy, the Alpine Rally, the Mille Miglia; the 328 won the RAC Rally in 1939 and came in fifth overall and first in class in the 1939 24 Hours of Le Mans. Frank Pratt won the 1948 Australian Grand Prix driving a 328. In 1938, BMW 328 became a class winner in Mille Miglia. In 1940, the Mille Miglia Touring Coupe won the Mille Miglia with an average speed of 166.7 km/h. In 2004, the BMW 328 Mille Miglia Touring Coupe became the first car to win both the Mille Miglia and the modern-day classical version of the race.
After the Second World War, the manufacturing plant in Eisenach where the 328 had been built found itself in the Soviet occupation zone, automobile manufacturing in Eisenach would follow a state-directed path until German Reunification in 1989. One of the Mille Miglia 328s and BMW's technical plans for the car were taken from the bombed BMW factory by English representatives from the Bristol Aeroplane Company and Frazer Nash companies. Fiedler, the BMW engineer, was persuaded to come, too. Bristol Cars was set up to build complete cars, called Bristols, would supply engines to Frazer Nash for all their post-war cars; the first Bristol car, the 400, was based on the BMW plans. This Bristol engine was an option in AC cars, before the Cobra. Simons, Rainer. BMW 328: From roadster to legend. Bentley Publications. ISBN 0-8376-1231-4. Norbye, Jan P.. BMW - Bavaria's Driving Machines. Skokie, IL: Publications International. ISBN 0-517-42464-9. Noakes, Andrew; the Ultimate History of BMW. Bath, UK: Parragon Publishing.
ISBN 1-4054-5316-8. "BMW 328 - the legendary roadster". Bmwccn.no. Archived from the original on 2010-01-03. Retrieved 2008-08-30. BMW 328 specifications Jalopnik BMW 328 Carsguide - 75th Anniversary of BMW Roadsters - Gallery
Phyla lanceolata is a species of flowering plant in the verbena family known by the common name lanceleaf frogfruit or frogfruit. It is native to the southern half of North America, including much of the United States except for the northwestern quadrant, much of Mexico, it is resident in many types of moist and wet habitat, including disturbed areas, such as irrigation ditches. It is a perennial herb growing decumbent in a matlike form with spreading, trailing stems up to half a meter long, sometimes rooting at nodes; the lance-shaped or nearly oval leaves are up to 6 centimeters long and have toothed or toothed edges. The inflorescence, arising on a peduncle several centimeters tall, is a spherical spike of flowers which elongates into a cylindrical form as the fruits develop; the tiny, densely packed flowers are white, sometimes tinged with purple. It is similar to the related species Phyla nodiflora, but differs in having much longer and more pointed leaves. Both species are common in the ornamental environment.
Jepson Manual Treatment Kansas Wildflowers
The Atlantic silverside known as spearing in the north east of the United States, is a small species of fish from the West Atlantic, ranging from the Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada to northeastern Florida in USA, it is one of the most common fish in the Barnegat Bay. They are a common subject of scientific research because of their sensitivity to environmental changes; the fish is about 15 cm long silver and white. It eats smaller animals and plants – small crustaceans, annelid worms, zooplankton, amphipods and insects; the Atlantic silverside's predators are larger predatory fish – striped bass, blue fish, Atlantic mackerel – and many shore birds, including egrets, terns and gulls. The abiotic factors the Atlantic silverside needs to survive varies for populations of fish based on their geographical location. A rule of thumb for the species includes an average temperature of 70 °F, a salt content of the water ranging from 0 to 37ppt, a well-mixed body of water to prevent hypoxic conditions; the Atlantic silverside's habitat is near the water's edge.
They are found swimming in brackish waters, such as in the mouths of rivers and streams that connect to the ocean. These small schooling fish have been seen to gather in seagrass beds, which can harbor the nearly defenseless fish some form of shelter from predation as well as provide safe haven for spawning. During winter, most Atlantic silversides swim in deeper water to avoid cold/low temperature. During the summer, most are found in the shallows along the shoreline; the Atlantic silverside's defense is to hide in seagrass beds. They are quick swimmers and their coloration of silver and a little white makes it confusing to predators to determine the direction the fish are heading; the silverside's strongest form of defense is the strength-in-numbers strategy, where fish will school in large numbers to diminish their chances of being the one picked off by a predator. Tagatz, M. E. and D. L. Dudley. 1961. Seasonal occurrence of marine fishes in four shore habitats near Beaufort, North Carolina, 1957-1960.
U. S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Spec. Sci. Rep. Fish. 390. 19 pp. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates: Atlantic Silverside Further information Inland Silverside, Menidia beryllina and Information at MBL Aquaculture
The Field of Fight: How We Can Win the Global War Against Radical Islam and its Allies is a book on United States national security strategy coauthored by Michael T. Flynn and Michael Ledeen. Published by Macmillan's imprint St. Martin's Press in 2016, it argues that the United States is engaged in a religious world war against what the authors call "Radical Islam"—defined as a violent "tribal cult" emanating from a "failed civilization"—but has so far been hampered in its response by political correctness; the authors claim that the United States and its allies face "an international alliance of evil countries and movements, working to destroy us" and advocate a combination of increased military action and ideological warfare in response. They identify a range of enemies of which Iran is the foremost, advocate a strategy of regime change aimed at overthrowing the Iranian government as a key step towards defeating "Radical Islam"; the book entered the US bestseller chart but received a mixed critical response.
Its assertions and proposed solutions were criticized by reviewers on both sides of the political divide, though some conservative reviewers praised the book's qualities. Michael T. Flynn, in whose voice the book is written, is a retired lieutenant general of the United States Army. After having been involved in counter-terrorist operations at the Joint Special Operations Command, he became head of the Defense Intelligence Agency in 2012 but was removed from his position in 2014, ending a thirty-year military career, he subsequently became a strident critic of the Barack Obama administration and a key adviser to Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump. Following the 2016 United States presidential election, he was named National Security Advisor by the victorious Trump, his co-author Michael Ledeen is a neoconservative historian, the "Freedom Scholar" at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies. He is well known in security circles as a long-standing opponent of Iran, advocating regime change there and supporting the 2003 Iraq War.
The Field of Fight emerged from an op-ed that Flynn co-wrote with Republican presidential candidate Carly Fiorina. St Martin's Press announced in December 2015 that it would be publishing the book the following July. In a press release, Flynn said: "I am writing this book for two reasons: first, to show that the war is being waged against us by enemies this administration has forbidden us to describe: radical Islamists. Second, to lay out a winning strategy, not passively relying on technology and drone attacks to do the job. We could lose this war; the Field of Fight will give my view on how to win."After its publication on July 1, 2016, The Field of Fight entered the Publishers Weekly bestseller list for the week ending July 17. It fell out of the top 10 the following week. After a short autobiographical account of Flynn's career, The Field of Fight paints a gloomy picture of the current state of the struggle against terrorism. Flynn says that he is "totally convinced that without a proper sense of urgency, we will be defeated and likely destroyed".
As a result, the United States is in danger of being "ruled by men who eagerly drink the blood of their dying enemies". He warns that "radical Islamists" are intent on "creating an Islamic state right here at home" in the United States by imposing Sharia law, forcing Americans to "live the way the unfortunate residents of the ‘caliphate’ or the oppressed citizens of the Islamic Republic of Iran live today, in a totalitarian state under the dictates of the most rigid version of Sharia." The book argues that the US government is hampered by a lack of intelligence-gathering against its enemies and pays insufficient attention to their ideological motivations. Flynn asserts that the US faces "a working coalition that extends from North Korea and China to Russia, Syria, Bolivia and Nicaragua. We are under attack, not only from nation-states directly, but from al Qaeda, Hezbollah, ISIS, countless other terrorist groups." He describes this as "an alliance between radical Islamists and regimes in Havana, Pyongyang and Beijing.
Both believe that history, and/or Allah, blesses their efforts, so both want to ensure that this glorious story is told." Flynn argues that this alliance is based on a shared hatred for the United States and "a contempt for democracy and an agreement—by all the members of the enemy alliance — that dictatorship is a superior way to run a country, an empire, or a caliphate". He acknowledges that the idea of an alliance between communist China, North Korea and ISIS/al Qaeda may seem strange, but does not go into detail other than asserting that it exists. Flynn identifies Iran as the "linchpin" of the alliance, he asserts that events such as the 1979 seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca by Sunni extremists and the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Africa—also carried out by Sunni extremists, in this case Al-Qaeda—were instigated by Shia Iran. Iran's on-and-off support for al Qaeda is cited as evidence of an alliance between the two. Flynn calls for the United States to "remov the sickening chokehold of tyranny and Radical Islamist regimes", which he says has endangered the United States in recent decades.
However, he makes a distinction between friendly and unfriendly dictatorships, categorised by their opposition to "Radical Islam". Thus, dictators such as Egypt's president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, the former Tunisian president Zine Ben Ali and Saddam Hussein should have been