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Expansion card

In computing, the expansion card, expansion board, adapter card or accessory card is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an electrical connector, or expansion slot, on a computer motherboard, backplane or riser card to add functionality to a computer system via the expansion bus. An expansion bus is a computer bus which moves information between the internal hardware of a computer system and peripheral devices, it is a collection of protocols that allows for the expansion of a computer. Vacuum-tube based computers had modular construction, but individual functions for peripheral devices filled a cabinet, not just a printed circuit board. Processor, memory and I/O cards became feasible with the development of integrated circuits. Expansion cards allowed a processor system to be adapted to the needs of the user, allowing variations in the type of devices connected, additions to memory, or optional features to the central processor. Minicomputers, starting with the PDP-8, were made of multiple cards, all powered by and communicating through a passive backplane.

The first commercial microcomputer to feature expansion slots was the Micral N, in 1973. The first company to establish a de facto standard was Altair with the Altair 8800, developed 1974-1975, which became a multi-manufacturer standard, the S-100 bus. Many of these computers were passive backplane designs, where all elements of the computer, plugged into a card cage which passively distributed signals and power between the cards. Proprietary bus implementations for systems such as the Apple II co-existed with multi-manufacturer standards. IBM introduced what would retroactively be called the Industry Standard Architecture bus with the IBM PC in 1981. At that time, the technology was called the PC bus; the IBM XT, introduced in 1983, used the same bus. The 8-bit PC and XT bus was extended with the introduction of the IBM AT in 1984; this used a second connector for extending the address and data bus over the XT, but was backward compatible. Industry Standard Architecture became the designation for the IBM AT bus after other types were developed.

Users of the ISA bus had to have in-depth knowledge of the hardware they were adding to properly connect the devices, since memory addresses, I/O port addresses, DMA channels had to be configured by switches or jumpers on the card to match the settings in driver software. IBM's MCA bus, developed for the PS/2 in 1987, was a competitor to ISA their design, but fell out of favor due to the ISA's industry-wide acceptance and IBM's licensing of MCA. EISA, the 32-bit extended version of ISA championed by Compaq, was used on some PC motherboards until 1997, when Microsoft declared it a "legacy" subsystem in the PC 97 industry white-paper. Proprietary local buses and the VESA Local Bus Standard, were late 1980s expansion buses that were tied but not exclusive to the 80386 and 80486 CPU bus; the PC/104 bus is an embedded bus. Intel launched their PCI bus chipsets along with the P5-based Pentium CPUs in 1993; the PCI bus was introduced in 1991 as a replacement for ISA. The standard is found on PC motherboards to this day.

The PCI standard supports bus bridging: as many as ten daisy chained PCI buses have been tested. Cardbus, using the PCMCIA connector, is a PCI format that attaches peripherals to the Host PCI Bus via PCI to PCI Bridge. Cardbus is being supplanted by ExpressCard format. Intel introduced the AGP bus in 1997 as a dedicated video acceleration solution. AGP devices are logically attached to the PCI bus over a PCI-to-PCI bridge. Though termed a bus, AGP supports only a single card at a time. From 2005 PCI-Express has been replacing both PCI and AGP; this standard, approved in 2004, implements the logical PCI protocol over a serial communication interface. PC/104 or Mini PCI are added for expansion on small form factor boards such as Mini-ITX. For their 1000 EX and 1000 HX models, Tandy Computer designed the PLUS expansion interface, an adaptation of the XT-bus supporting cards of a smaller form factor; because it is electrically compatible with the XT bus, a passive adapter can be made to connect XT cards to a PLUS expansion connector.

Another feature of PLUS cards is. Another bus that offered stackable expansion modules was the "sidecar" bus used by the IBM PCjr; this may have been electrically comparable to the XT bus. Again, PCjr sidecars are not technically expansion cards, but expansion modules, with the only difference being that the sidecar is an expansion card enclosed in a plastic box. Most other computer lines, including those from Apple Inc. Tandy, Commodore and Atari, offered their own expansion buses; the Amiga used Zorro II. Apple used a proprietary system with seven 50-pin-slots for Apple II peripheral cards later used the NuBus for its Macintosh series until 1995, when they switched to a PCI Bus. PCI expansion cards will function on any CPU platform if there is a software driver for that type. PCI video cards and other cards that contain a BIOS are problematic, although video cards conforming to VESA Standards may be used for secondary monitors. DEC Alpha, IBM PowerPC, NEC MIPS workstations used PCI bus co

Flaxman Charles John Spurrell

Flaxman Charles John Spurrell was a British archaeologist and photographer who worked in Kent and East Anglia. He was a noted egyptologist, working with Flinders Petrie. Born at Mile End in Stepney, Spurrell was the eldest son of Dr. Flaxman and Ann Spurrell and a descendant of the Spurrell family of Norfolk, he was a nephew of the Rev. Frederick Spurrell, a fellow archaeologist, an uncle of the biologist and author Herbert George Flaxman Spurrell. Not long after his birth, the family settled at Bexley in Kent, living for many years at The Priory, Picardy Road, Belvedere. Spurrell was educated at Epsom College and went on to study medicine, although he never completed his studies. By the late 1850s Spurrell had developed an interest in archaeology and geology in the North Kent area and was encouraged to pursue his interest by his father, a founding member of both the Kent Archaeological Society and the West Kent Natural History and Photographic Society, he began to examine flint implements in and around Crayford and was, according to Nesta Caiger, “the first archaeologist to study the many deneholes which were dug in Kent and Essex”, many of which he descended into and photographed.

He visited and investigated dozens of other sites, including prehistoric and Roman sites on both sides of the Thames estuary. He published his findings in the periodicals of the Kent Archaeological Society, the Essex Archaeological Society and the Royal Archaeological Society, as well as those of other societies and groups. In the 1870s Spurrell met Flinders Petrie, becoming a trusted friend and collaborator.. Over the following decades his attention turned to egyptology. While Petrie was unable to convince Spurrell to travel to Egypt with him, the objects that Petrie sent back to England were careful studied and catalogued by Spurrell, including important items discovered at Naqada and Tell el-Amarna. In 1895 he presented a number of prehistoric artefacts to the Natural History Museum in London and donated material from his personal collection to the museum at Norwich Castle; some of his photographic images are now held by the Historic England Archive. Shortly after his mother’s death in 1896, Spurrell retired to Norfolk, where he resided first with his uncle Daniel Spurrell at the Manor House in Bessingham and at The Den, another house on the estate.

Despite what Petrie called “the entreaties of his friends”, he left Norfolk and his self-imposed retirement. On 27 March 1912 he married his cousin Katherine Anne Spurrell, a daughter of Daniel Spurrell and a noted daffodil breeder whose cultivars had won the Award of Merit from the Royal Horticultural Society. Spurrell was a Fellow of the Geological Society from 1868 to 1905 and a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries from 1899 to about 1910; when a housing estate was built at Joyden's Wood in Bexley in the 1950s, one of the roads was named Spurrell Avenue in his honour. The following papers were published by F. C. J. Spurrell in the Royal Archaeological Society's Archaeological Journal: Implements and Chips from the floor of a Palaeolithic Workshop, Vol. XXXVII Deneholes and Artificial Caves with Vertical Entrances, Vol. XXXVIII Shallow Pits in Norfolk and Elsewhere, Vol. XL Early Sites and Embankments on the margins of the Thames Estuary, Vol. XLII The First Passage of the Thames by Aulus Plautius, Vol. XLVII Shoebury Camp, Vol. XLVII Notes on a Boat found at Albert Dock, Vol. XLVII Rude Implements from the North Downs, Vol. XLVIII Some Flints from Egypt of the IVth Dynasty, Vol. XLIX Notes on Early Sickles, Vol. XLIX On Remedies in the Sloane Collections, on Alchemical Symbols, Vol. LI Notes on Egyptian Colours, Vol. LII On Some Flint Implements from Egypt and Denmark, Vol. LIIIIn Archaeologia Cantiana, the journal of the Kent Archaeological Society, he published: Palaeolithic Implements found in West Kent, Vol. XVFlaxman Spurrell published the following articles in the Essex Naturalist: Ensilage, or preserving grain in pits Withambury Danbury Camp, Essex Hæsten's Camps at Shoebury and Benfleet, Essex In the Proceedings of the Geologists' Association he published the following works: Excursion to Erith and Crayford, Vol. IX On the Estuary of the Thames and its Alluvium, Vol. XI Excursion to Higham, Vol. XI Excursion to Crayford, Vol. XI Excursion to Swanscombe, Vol XI Excursion to Grays, Essex, Vol. XII Excursion to Dartford Heath, Vol. XIII See Visit to see F. C. J. Spurrell's collection of fossils in Excursion to Belvedere, J. Morris, Vol. IIThe following was published in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society: Spurrell, F. C.

J.. "On the Discovery of the Place where Palaeolithic Implements were made at Crayford". Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. 36: 544. Doi:10.1144/GSL. JGS.1880.036.01-04.41. In the Journal of the Anthropological Institute can be found: On some Palaeolithic knapping tools and methods of using them, Vol. XIIIThe following appeared in the Reports of the West Kent Natural History and Photographic Society: A sketch of the history of the rivers and denudation of West Kent

Millen–Schmidt House

The Millen–Schmidt House is a historic residence in Xenia, United States. Built in the late nineteenth century, it was named a historic site after surviving a massive tornado. Eli Millen settled in Xenia in 1837, having left South Carolina because of his sense of revulsion toward slavery. After operating a dry goods store for several years, he expanded his operation to include pork packing and butchering. In life, Millen travelled to Europe, where he saw and admired a massive Italian mansion. After returning to America, he learned that a similar house had been built in New York, so he hired the architect to design a similar residence in Xenia's upscale North King Street neighborhood. In 1912, the house was purchased by a well-off produce merchant. Built of brick on a stone foundation, the Italianate-styled Millen–Schmidt House features elements of sandstone, its overall plan is in the shape of the letter "T". The house is entered through a Romanesque Revival-styled porch, built of stone; the interior was so elaborate that its completion required two years of work.

On 3 April 1974, much of Xenia's near north side was destroyed by one of the worst tornadoes on record. Two years it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, qualifying because of its significant architecture. Millen's goal of having "a house that people will notice" remained true over a century after its completion. Another house on North King that survived the tornado, known as the Samuel N. Patterson House, is located two blocks to the north.


In Japan, Fukurokuju is one of the Seven Lucky Gods in Japanese mythology. It has been theorized that he is a Japanese assimilation of the Chinese Three Star Gods embodied in one deity. Most related in appearance to the Chinese star god Shou, he is the God of longevity. According to some, before attaining divinity, he was a Chinese hermit of the Song Dynasty and a reincarnation of the Taoist god Xuanwu, it is said. Fukurokuju originated from an old Chinese tale about a mythical Chinese Taoist hermit sage renowned for performing miracles in the Northern Song period. In China, this hermit was thought to embody the celestial powers of the south polar star. Fukurokuju was not always included in the earliest representations of the Seven in Japan, he was instead replaced by Kichijōten. He is however, an established member of the Seven Lucky Gods, he is sometimes confused with Jurōjin, another of the Several Gods of Fortune, who by some accounts is Fukurokuju's grandson and by other accounts inhabits the same body as Fukurokuju.

As such, the two are confused. Fukurokuju is portrayed as bald with long whiskers and an elongated forehead, he is said to be an incarnation of the Southern Polestar. The sacred book tied to his staff either contains the lifespan of every person on earth or a magical scripture, he is accompanied by a turtle, which are considered to be symbols of longevity. He is sometimes accompanied by a black deer, he is the only member of the Seven Lucky Gods credited with the ability to revive the dead. Kuebiko Old Man of the South Pole Three Star Gods Ashkenazi, Michael. Handbook of Japanese Mythology. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-467-1. Chiba, Reiko. Seven Lucky Gods of Japan. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4629-0420-4

USS Rosa (SP-757)

USS Rosa was a United States Navy patrol vessel in commission from 1917 to 1918. Rosa was built as a private wooden motorboat of the same name in 1909 by Jensen at San Diego, California. In 1917, the U. S. Navy acquired her from her owner, Jack Merrill of Coronado, for use as a section patrol boat during World War I, she was commissioned on 17 May 1917 as USS Rosa, although the Navy did not take delivery of her from Merrill until 29 June 1917, when she entered service with Ensign E. W. Dort in command. Assigned to duty in San Diego Harbor, Rosa conducted patrols, provided minor transportation services, conducted salvage operations for the rest of World War I. Ca. December 1917, she is known to have alternated between guard and patrol duty at San Diego on rotation with the patrol boats USS Albacore, USS Normannia, USS Nomad, USS Natalie Mae. Rosa was decommissioned around 17 December 1918 and was returned to Merrill on 6 January 1919; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.

The entry can be found here. For USS Rosa This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. For USS Nomad SP-757 Rosa at Department of the Navy Naval History and Heritage Command Online Library of Selected Images: U. S. Navy Ships -- Listed by Hull Number "SP" #s and "ID" #s -- World War I Era Patrol Vessels and other Acquired Ships and Craft numbered from SP-700 through SP-799 NavSource Online: Section Patrol Craft Photo Archive Rosa

Philippine Racing Club

The Philippine Racing Club, Inc. is a horse racing institution in the Philippines. Founded in 1937 as the Santa Ana Turf Club in Makati, it is located at the Saddle and Clubs Leisure Park in Naic, Cavite where the Santa Ana Park racetrack is situated, it is one of the three racing clubs in the Philippines. PRC is a member of the Philippine Racing Commission. PRC was started out in 1937 when a group of Filipino and American businessmen organized the first racing club during the first years in the Commonwealth era: the Santa Ana Turf Club. Established as a rival to the Manila Jockey Club, it is the first club to introduced the thoroughbred style of horse racing, was organized for the purpose of using horse breeds of "superior quality" for horseracing. In 1939, Commonwealth Act No. 156 was enforced. This Commonwealth Act was amended through Commonwealth Act No. 156. The purpose of Commonwealth Act No. 156 was to include the Philippine Tuberculosis Society Inc. in the holding of yearly National Grand Derby Races, with the goal of promoting the breeding of local or native horses in the Philippines.

During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines on World War II, the racetrack activities was halted. This was resumed in 1946 after the war. In 1947, the ownership of the club was transferred to the Reyes family, led by Don Aurelio Parungao Reyes who became the club's president until his death in 1972. Following his death, his widow Antonia Reyes took over the operations and the SATC was renamed as the Philippine Racing Club. In 1972, the PRC was granted a 25-year franchise through Republic Act No. 6632 to operate a racetrack and conducting horse races. In 1994, a new management took over the operations of PRC. A year PRC's franchise was extended for another 25 years. In 1996, the PRC acquired a 147-hectare property in Naic, Cavite for a future relocation of the Santa Ana racetrack and made a joint-venture agreement with the Sta. Lucia Realty and Development Corporation for the development of the said property. In 2008, the PRC held its final year of horse racing activities in Makati. In 2009, the operations of the PRC and the Santa Ana Park racetrack were transferred to its current site at Saddle and Clubs Leisure Park in Naic, Cavite.

The club entered into a joint venture agreement with Ayala Land and its subsidiary, Alveo Land, in 2011 for the development of the property. The development would became Circuit Makati, opened in 2013. Official website