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Accelerating expansion of the universe

The accelerating expansion of the universe is the observation that the expansion of the universe is such that the velocity at which a distant galaxy is receding from the observer is continuously increasing with time. The accelerated expansion was discovered during 1998, by two independent projects, the Supernova Cosmology Project and the High-Z Supernova Search Team, which both used distant type Ia supernovae to measure the acceleration; the idea was that as type 1a supernovae have the same intrinsic brightness, since objects that are further away appear dimmer, we can use the observed brightness of these supernovae to measure the distance to them. The distance can be compared to the supernovae's cosmological redshift, which measures how much the universe has expanded since the supernova occurred; the unexpected result was that objects in the universe are moving away from one another at an accelerated rate. Cosmologists at the time expected that recession velocity would always be decelerating, due to the gravitational attraction of the matter in the universe.

Three members of these two groups have subsequently been awarded Nobel Prizes for their discovery. Confirmatory evidence has been found in baryon acoustic oscillations, in analyses of the clustering of galaxies; the accelerated expansion of the universe is thought to have begun since the universe entered its dark-energy-dominated era 4 billion years ago. Within the framework of general relativity, an accelerated expansion can be accounted for by a positive value of the cosmological constant Λ, equivalent to the presence of a positive vacuum energy, dubbed "dark energy". While there are alternative possible explanations, the description assuming dark energy is used in the current standard model of cosmology, which includes cold dark matter and is known as the Lambda-CDM model. In the decades since the detection of cosmic microwave background in 1965, the Big Bang model has become the most accepted model explaining the evolution of our universe; the Friedmann equation defines. H 2 = 2 = 8 π G 3 ρ − κ c 2 a 2 where κ represents the curvature of the universe, a is the scale factor, ρ is the total energy density of the universe, H is the Hubble parameter.

We define a critical density ρ c = 3 H 2 8 π G and the density parameter Ω = ρ ρ c We can rewrite the Hubble parameter as H = H 0 Ω k a − 2 + Ω m a − 3 + Ω r a − 4 + Ω D E a − 3 where the four hypothesized contributors to the energy density of the universe are curvature, matter and dark energy. Each of the components decreases with the expansion of the universe, except the dark energy term, it is the values of these cosmological parameters which physicists use to determine the acceleration of the universe. The acceleration equation describes the evolution of the scale factor with time a ¨ a = − 4 π G 3 where the pressure P is defined by the cosmological model chosen. Physicists at one time were so assured of the deceleration of the universe's expansion that they introduced a so-called deceleration parameter q0. Current observations indicate this deceleration parameter being negative. According to the theory of cosmic inflation, the early universe underwent a period of rapid, quasi-exponential expansion.

While the time-scale for this period of expansion was far shorter than that of the current expansion, this was a period of accelerated expansion with some similarities to the current epoch. The definition of "accelerating expansion" is that the second time derivative of the cosmic scale factor, a ¨, is positive, equivalent to the deceleration parameter, q, being negative. However, note this does not imply. Since the Hubble parameter is defined as H ≡ a ˙ /

Mary of Nazareth (film)

Mary of Nazareth is a 2012 Italian-German-Spanish television movie directed by Giacomo Campiotti. It focuses on life events of Mary of Nazareth, Mother of Jesus, Mary Magdalene. In the beginning. We are introduced to her family, mother Ann and father Joachim. We see how special she is and how God protects her in the face of eminent danger. We feel the emotions that her parents must have felt as she was dedicated to the temple in service to the Lord. Throughout her life, there is constant element of childlike faith. Preserved by God Himself, we see Mary's faith in action, always succumbing to His will before her own. Compare and contrast. Through the movie, we see three women's lives and the effects of their choices – Mary of Nazareth, Mary Magdalene, Herodias, daughter of Herod. We see both Mary's as friends in the beginning, but soon see the vast difference of journeys each takes. Our Lady, whose life is in complete service to God, Magdalene, who seeks validation and self-worth through domination and lust.

After a lifetime of debauchery, she shows up at Christ's feet like a war-torn soldier with nothing left to give. She uses what little energy she has left to surrender to Him after He challenges those without sin to cast the first stone in the face of what is certain death. Herodias, on the other hand, remains a cold and vindictive person whose heart is hardened by the mention of Jesus, her reaction to Christ parallels the hardness of heart. We see Magdalene reclaim her femininity by wearing modest apparel – we see this change in her demeanour and appearance go from a haggard, chewed up and spit out by society look to someone who has the glow of Christ and embodies the forgiveness we all crave as sinners. Shame and humiliation. Throughout Jesus’ life, we know that He accepted a life of worldly humiliation for the sake of paying our debt. We know that He could have chosen not to feel the pain of the Cross, but chose to, out of love for us. We see the shame and humiliation that Mary must have felt throughout her life.

Although she always placed her trust and care in God's loving hands, the reality of her situation was, difficult – carrying a child out of wedlock, enduring the stares and not-so silent gossip whenever she was around, the embarrassment the families faced on their wedding day when it seems as though Jesus publicly repudiates Mary. Each stage of her life, we see how Mary responds to the humiliation with perfect and total trust in God's plan. Humour and humanity; this movie delivers. When Mary arrives to visit her cousin Elizabeth, Zechariah opens the door, but fails to answer Mary's greeting because of his own misgivings from months prior. We see Joseph do what every father does when their child has come into the world – count toes! When the shepherds arrive to adore the Messiah, Mary is all too quick to hand over the Anointed One, but Joseph has a look of near panic on his face. It's easy to imagine what he must have been feeling as the one chosen by God to be a protector of both Mary and Jesus!

Alissa Jung as Mary of Nazareth Paz Vega as Mary Magdalene Luca Marinelli as Joseph Andreas Pietschmann as Jesus Antonia Liskova as Herodias Thomas Trabacchi as Joazar Roberto Citran as Joachim Andrea Giordana as Herod the Great Antonella Attili as Anne Johannes Brandrup as Herod Antipas Nikolai Kinski as Judas Iscariot Toni Laudadio as Simon Petrus Sergio Múñiz as Antipater Robert Stadlober as Hircanus Remo Girone as Pontius Pilate Marco Rulli as John Marco Foschi as John the Baptist Mariano Rigilo as Simeon Marco Messeri as Zechariah Ditta Teresa Acerbis as Elisabeth Raffaele Vannoli as Joseph of Arimathea Alice Bellagamba as Salome Mary of Nazareth on IMDb

The Adventures of Patsy

The Adventures of Patsy was an American newspaper comic strip which ran from March 11, 1935 to April 2, 1955. Created by Mel Graff, it was syndicated by AP Newsfeatures; the Phantom Magician, an early supporting character in the strip, is regarded by some comics historians as among the first superheroes of comics. Mel Graff departed in May 1940 to take over Secret Agent X-9. Charles Rabb took over the strip on June 17, 1940, added a Sunday page on October 1941 known as Patsy in Hollywood. Rabb left the strip as of December 5, 1942. After Rabb, the strip was unsigned for a few months, went through a succession of creators: George Storm, Al McClean, Richard Hall and William Dyer, who debuted on the strip April 8, 1946, stayed for nine years, until the strip came to a conclusion on April 2, 1955; the strip originated as a fantasy. The story began with five-year-old Patsy carried away in a kite to the magical kingdom of Ods Bodkins. During her fanciful journey, Patsy was accompanied and rescued by the masked Phantom Magician.

When they returned to Earth, the Phantom Magician doffed his duds for conventional clothing and assumed the identity of Phil Cardigan, Patsy's uncle, in December 1936. With stories situated in Hollywood, Uncle Phil worked as a screenwriter and Patsy was a young movie actress for producer J. P. Panberg. After Phil was written out of the strip, Patsy's new sidekick was Hollywood agent Skidd Higgins. An early supporting character, the swashbuckling Phantom Magician, introduced a fantasy element; some comics historians regard this character and Lee Falk's Mandrake the Magician as among the first superheroes of comics. Don Markstein writes, "Depending on how you define the term, Patsy's recurring rescuer, The Phantom Magician, may have been the first superhero in comics... Some people say Mandrake the Magician, who started in 1934, was comics' first superhero."

Can Themba

Daniel Canodoce "Can" Themba was a South African short-story writer. Temba was born in Marabastad, near Pretoria, but wrote most of his work in Sophiatown, South Africa; the town was destroyed under the provisions of the apartheid Group Areas Act, which reassigned ethnic groups to new areas. He was a student at Fort Hare University College, where he received an English degree and a teacher's diploma. After moving to Sophiatown, he tried his hand at short-story writing. Temba entered the first short story contest of Drum, he subsequently worked for Drum, where he became one of the "Drum Boys," together with Henry Nxumalo, Bloke Modisane, Todd Matshikiza, Stan Motjuwadi and Casey Motsisi. They were joined by Lewis Nkosi and Nat Nakasa; this group lived by the dictum: "Live fast, die young and have a good-looking corpse."Part of Drum's ethos was investigative journalism. One of the aims was to show the inequities of apartheid. Themba decided to see. "The Presbyterian Church in Noord Street allowed me in, yet the one in Orange Grove refused me admittance.

They explained that the hall was rented from some boys' club whose policy did not allow Non-whites into the hall. They said something about the laws of the country.""At the Kensington DRC, an aged church official was just about to close the doors when he saw me. He bellowed in Afrikaans:'Wat soek jy?'.'I've come to church', I said. He shoved me violently. I walked off dejected.""A few doors away was the Baptist Church, as I walked towards it I began to think that people didn't want me to share their church. As I walked through the Baptist door I was tense, waiting for that tap on the shoulder…but instead I was given a hymn book and welcomed into the church. I sat through the service… This up and down treatment wasn't doing my nerves much good." Growing frustrations with the restrictions of apartheid, caused him to move to Swaziland where he worked as a teacher. In 1966, he was declared a "statutory communist", as a result of which his works were banned in South Africa, his literary output was only available in the 1980s with the publication of two collections The Will to Die and The World of Can Themba.

In his stories, he described the frustrations of the university-educated urban black people. His most famous story "The Suit" tells the story of Philemon, a middle-class lawyer, his wife, who live in Sophiatown. One day, Philemon hears that his wife is having an affair, so he goes home in the middle of the day and catches her in flagrante, her lover leaves behind his suit. Philemon dreams up a strange and bizarre punishment. Matilda has to feed it, entertain it and take it out for walks; this serves as a constant reminder of her adultery. A remorseful Matilda dies of humiliation. Philemon regrets his actions but it is all too late. Themba's increasing dependency on alcohol led to darker, introspective pieces such as Crepuscle, The Will to Die, The Bottom of the Bottle, he died in 1967 in Swaziland. The Suit, short story by Can Themba; the Suit, a short film adaptation of the Can Themba short story and directed by Jarryd Coetsee. South African The Order of Ikhamanga in Silver for "Excellent achievement in literature, contributing to the field of journalism and striving for a just and democratic society in South Africa."

Deep Cuts: graphic adaptations of stories by Can Themba, Alex la Guma & Bessie Head / project co-ordinator: Neil Napper. Viva Books, 1994. ISBN 1-874932-14-X The Will To Die / Can Themba. ISBN 0-435-90104-4 The World of Can Themba: selected writings of the late Can Themba, edited by Essop Patel, Ravan Press, 1985. ISBN 0-86975-145-X Requiem for Sophiatown. London: Penguin, 2006. ISBN 9780143185482 Mike Nicol, Good-looking Corpse: World of Drum – Jazz and Gangsters and Defiance in the Townships of South Africa, Secker & Warburg, 1991, ISBN 0-436-30986-6 Anthony Adams & Ken Durham, Writing from South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-43572-2, contains "Mob Passion" by D. Can Themba. Can Themba’s profile for National Orders "Simplicity is not a style" – video interview about "The Suit" with Peter Brook and Andrew Dickson, The Guardian, 25 May 2012

Marienkirche, Neubrandenburg

Marienkirche, a hall church in the North German red brick Gothic style, completed in 1298, was the main church of the city of Neubrandenburg. It has been transformed into a concert hall, designed by Pekka Salminen, which opened in 2001, it was rededicated as the Konzertkirche. It is known for its renowned Philharmony; the Marienkirche, badly damaged in the 17th and 18th centuries, was repaired and rebuilt from 1832 to 1841. In the final days of World War II, it was again damaged; the town of Neubrandenburg decided to convert the ruined church into a concert hall, restored and renovated it in the 1980s and 1990s. A European architectural competition was arranged in 1996; the implemented plan is based on the winning proposal of Finnish architect Pekka Salminen. The church hall is divided by an acoustic wall into a shoebox-shaped concert hall; the hall is implemented in the old walls as a "house within a house", keeping the historic parts visible. A suspended glass ceiling made of glass pyramids in different shapes enhances the acoustics of the hall.

The concert hall serves other functions. Depending on the setup, it has up to 1,100 seats. Jacob Friedrich Roloff: Erinnerungen an Friedrich Wilhelm Buttel. Commissionsverlag Gustav Lange, Berlin 1870 Volker Schmidt: Neubrandenburg. Ein historischer Führer. Hinstorff, Rostock 1997, ISBN 3-356-00726-2, pp. 85–87. Konzertkirche website Pictures on PES-Architects web site


Ricci is an Italian surname, derived from the adjective "riccio" meaning curly. Notable people with the surname include: Christina Ricci, American actress Federico Ricci, Italian composer Franco Maria Ricci, Italian art publisher Italia Ricci, Canadian actress Jason Ricci, American blues harmonica player Lella Ricci, Italian singer Luigi Ricci, Italian composer Luigi Ricci, Italian vocal coach Luigi Ricci-Stolz, Italian composer, son of composer Luigi Ricci Marco Ricci, Italian Baroque painter Nahéma Ricci, Canadian actress Nina Ricci, French fashion designer Nino Ricci, Canadian novelist Regolo Ricci, Canadian painter and illustrator Ruggiero Ricci, American violinist Sebastiano Ricci, Venetian Baroque painter Ulysses Ricci, American architectural sculptor Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro, Italian mathematician Michelangelo Ricci, Italian mathematician and Cardinal Ostilio Ricci, Italian mathematician Lorenzo Ricci, 18th Superior General of the Jesuits Matteo Ricci, Jesuit missionary in China Michelangelo Ricci, Italian mathematician and Cardinal Regolo Ricci, Canadian painter and illustrator Austin Ricci, Canadian soccer player Christie Ricci, American wrestler Fausto Ricci, Italian motorcycle racer Francesco Ricci Bitti, Italian sports administrator Giampaolo Ricci, Italian basketball player Mike Ricci, Canadian ice hockey player Renato Ricci, Australian footballer Renato Ricci, Italian footballer Sandro Ricci, Brazilian football referee Secondo Ricci, Italian footballer Kenn Ricci, aviation entrepreneur Lawrence Ricci, US murder victim alleged to be a high-ranking officer in the Genovese crime family Nina Ricci, French fashion designer Renato Ricci, Italian Fascist politician Richard Ricci, a convicted burglar suspected of involvement in the Elizabeth Smart kidnapping cleared of all charges Ricci Crisostomo, Filipino actor Ricci Greenwood, US footballer Ricci Harnett, English actor 13642 Ricci, asteroid named after Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro Ricci v. DeStefano, 2009 US court case concerning affirmative action Nina Ricci, fashion house founded by Nina Ricci