The accolade was the central act in the rite of passage ceremonies conferring knighthood in the Middle Ages. From about 1852, the term accolade was used much more to mean "praise" or "award" or "honour." Accolade is French, from the Occitan acolada. This, in turn, came from the Latin ad + collum and in Occitan meant "embrace". Accolade is akin to "dubbing" or "to dub" since the tap on the shoulder with the knighting sword is accepted to be the point at which the title is awarded; the accolade is a ceremony to confer knighthood. It may take many forms, including the tapping of the flat side of a knighting sword on the shoulders of a candidate or an embrace about the neck. In the first example, the "knight-elect" kneels in front of the monarch on a knighting-stool. First, the monarch lays the side of the sword's blade onto the accolade's right shoulder; the monarch raises the sword just up over the apprentice's head, flips it counterclockwise so that the same side of the blade will come in contact with the knight's body, places it on his left shoulder.

The new knight stands up, the king or queen presents him with the insignia of his new order. Contrary to popular belief, the phrase "Arise, Sir..." is not used. There is some disagreement among historians on the actual ceremony and in what time period certain methods could have been used, it could have been a slight blow on the neck or cheek. Gregory of Tours wrote that the early kings of France, in conferring the gilt shoulder-belt, kissed the knights on the left cheek. In knighting his son Henry with the ceremony of the accolade, history records that William the Conqueror used the blow; the blow, or colée, when first utilized was given with a stout box on the ear. This was substituted for by a gentle stroke with the flat part of the sword against the side of the neck; this developed into the custom of tapping on either the right or left shoulder, or both, still the tradition in the United Kingdom today. An early Germanic coming-of-age ceremony, of presenting a youth with a weapon, buckled on him, was elaborated in the 10th and 11th centuries as a sign that the minor had come of age.

This was a simple rite performed on the battlefield, where writers of Romance enjoyed placing it. A panel in the Bayeux Tapestry shows the knighting of Harold by William of Normandy, but the specific gesture is not represented. Another military knight, sufficiently impressed by a warrior's loyalty, would tap a fighting soldier on his back and shoulder with the flat of his sword and announce that he was now an official knight; some words that might be spoken at that moment were Advances Chevalier au nom de Dieu. In medieval France, early ceremonies of the adoubement were purely secular and indicated a young noble coming of age. Around 1200, these ceremonies began to include elements of Christian ritual; the impressive ceremonies surrounding adoubement figured in the Romance literature, both in French and in Middle English those set in the Trojan War or around the legendary personage of Alexander the Great. The process of becoming a knight included these stages: Page — A child started training at about the age of seven or eight, learning obedience and other skills.

Squire — At twelve to fourteen the young man would observe and help other knights. Occupying a position comparable to an apprenticeship, he managed equipment and weapons such as arrows, he learned the use of weapons while hunting with the knights. He went into recruit training to learn. At age 21, if judged worthy, he was bestowed the accolade of knighthood. Squires, soldiers, could be conferred direct knighthood early if they showed valor and efficiency for their service. Knight — A special kind of trained soldier cavalry, serving a lord. Knights had particular status in feudal society. Newly inducted military Knights of the Legion of Honour are struck on both shoulders with a sword or a dirk, if the ceremony is presided over by a military authority. Civilian members and all members of lesser orders are not dubbed with a bladed weapon, they receive only the accolade, which has kept in French its ancient meaning of "embrace". In the Netherlands, the knights in the exclusive Military Order of William are struck on the left shoulder with the palm of the hand, first by the Dutch monarch by the other knights.

The new knight does not kneel. All newly created knights in the UK, Knights Bachelor, Knights Commanders and Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire, Royal Victorian Order, Order of Saint Michael and Saint George and Order of the Bath, Knights Companions of the Order of the Thistle and the Order of the Garter are dubbed on both shoulders with a sword by the monarch or the prince delegated by her. Clergy receiving a knighthood are not dubbed; the use of a sword in this kind of a ceremony is believed to be inappropriate. Knights of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, an Order of chivalry under the protection of the Holy See, are dubbed in the head and on both shoulders during the investiture ceremony; the accolade is given by the officiating Prelate. Feudalism Vigil Bloch, Marc: Feudal Society, tr. Manyon. London: Rout

Pinchas Hacohen Peli

Pinchas Hacohen Peli was an Israeli modern Orthodox rabbi, essayist and scholar of Judaism and Jewish philosophy. He was born in Israel in 1930 to a Hasidic family named Hacohen. At age 16, he started publishing poetry in the Israeli newspaper Davar, he used the pen name "Peli" because he was afraid to use his real name, given that his family was a distinguished rabbinical family living in Jerusalem's ultra-Orthodox neighborhood of Mea Shearim. He subsequently adopted it as his actual name. Peli received a B. A in Jewish History and Talmud at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, became a strong supporter of Religious Zionism, he was Professor of Jewish Thought and Literature at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, a visiting professor at Yeshiva University, Cornell University, Notre Dame University, the Seminario Rabbinico in Argentina, the Makuya Bible Seminary in Japan. He was the editor of the Encyclopaedia Judaica Year Book, the Jerusalem Quarterly for Literature, Panim-el-Panim, served as the Torah Commentator for the Jerusalem Post.

His writings include studies of the thought of rabbis Abraham Joshua Heschel and Joseph B. Soloveitchik, discussions concerning Shabbat, the Land of Israel, anti-Semitism, the problem of evil, commentary on the weekly Torah portion. Lecturing to both Jews and Christians, he participated in the Israel Interfaith Committee and discussed Jewish-Catholic relations at the Vatican. While a professor at Yeshiva University between 1967 and 1971, he became a friend and important disciple of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik, publishing a volume based on his oral discourses entitled On Repentance. Peli opposed efforts to impose greater religious control over life in Israel, he told an interviewer in 1986, "I think for the sake of religion and for the sake of Israel there must be a separation between state and religion." Peli married his cousin Penina Cohen, whom he met in 1951 when he went to the United States as emissary of the Jewish Agency, lecturing on behalf of the Synagogue Council of America and the Israel Bonds organization.

They raised four children: Dr. Bitkha Har-Shefi, lecturer of Talmud at Hebrew Union College Emuna Elon, Israeli author and journalist, married to Rabbi Binyamin Elon Bat-Sheva Peli-Seri, active in the Kolech, the Israeli Religious Women's Forum Deuell Peli, a lawyerPeli died in Jerusalem on 3 April 1989, is buried in Jerusalem's Mount of Olives Jewish Cemetery. Abraham Joshua Heschel: An intellectual Biography Torah Today: A Renewed Encounter With Scripture, Shabbat Shalom: A Renewed Encounter with the Sabbath, Chapters in Jewish Thought in the Land of Israel, On Repentance: The Thought and Oral Discourses of Rabbi Joseph Dov Soloveitchik

Manhunt (Star Trek: The Next Generation)

"Manhunt" is the 19th episode of the second season of the American science fiction television series Star Trek: The Next Generation, the 45th episode overall broadcast on June 19, 1989. Set in the 24th century, the series follows the adventures of the Starfleet crew of the Federation starship Enterprise-D. In this episode, the Enterprise must transport delegates to a conference, one of whom is an man-hungry Lwaxana Troi with eyes for Captain Picard. Drummer Mick Fleetwood from the British-American rock band Fleetwood Mac plays an Antedean dignitary in this episode; the Federation starship Enterprise is ordered to escort two Antedean ambassadors to an important conference on the planet Pacifica. The Antedeans are transported aboard in a self-induced catatonic state—to reduce the stress of space travel—along with a plentiful food supply for when they awaken, in accordance with their custom. En route, the Enterprise is ordered to rendezvous with a shuttlecraft carrying the Betazoid telepath ambassador Lwaxana Troi, mother of ship's counselor Deanna Troi, her mute manservant Mr. Homn.

Due to his previous experience with her, Captain Jean-Luc Picard does not welcome Lwaxana's presence, as she tends to be overbearing and lack tact, but Starfleet's instructions are that she be afforded full diplomatic courtesy. Lwaxana invites Picard to dinner, he is surprised to find that rather than the formal diplomatic function for the entire senior staff that he expected, it is a romantic setting for just the two of them. Picard evades her advances, inviting android Lieutenant Commander Data to join them, manipulating him into taking over the conversation with long-winded anecdotes. Troi explains that her mother has entered "The Phase": a stage in the life of a Betazoid woman when her sex drive drastically increases, that she is searching for a new husband. Moreover, her telepathy is clouded as a side effect, causing her to misread Picard's thoughts as indicating sexual desire for her. Picard retreats to the Holodeck to hide from her, leaving Commander Riker in charge. Frustrated by Picard's absence, Lwaxana targets Riker instead, makes a surprise announcement to the bridge crew that they will be married.

The Antedeans have meanwhile revived, Riker goes to the holodeck to notify Picard. Lwaxana follows, having determined that Riker is not interested either, switches her attention to a character from Picard's Dixon Hill simulation, who returns her affections. Picard somewhat reluctantly informs her that her new husband-to-be is a holographic projection; when the ship arrives at the conference and collected ambassadors prepare to beam down to the planet, Lwaxana offhandedly informs the crew that the Antedeans are assassins. Though they deny this, scans show they are carrying explosives, just as Lwaxana indicated, they are taken into custody, she remarks that while she did not find a new husband, at least she saved the conference, as she is beaming away, playfully chastises Picard for having "such naughty thoughts" about her, much to his dismay. "Manhunt" received a Nielsen rating of 8.9 and a ranking of 3 making it, according to the Nielsen system, towards the lower end of views for a first run Star Trek: The Next Generation episode In 2019, Den of Geek noted this episode for including an awkward romance between Picard and Lwaxana Troi.

In a ranking of every Star Trek: The Next Generation episode, "Manhunt" was ranked 156th by Medium in 2016. Variety magazine notes the costumed role by Mick Fleetwood, a musician famous for being part of the Fleetwood Mac band. In the episode he has the role of a fish-like Anteaden alien. In 2019, Screen Rant ranked "Manhunt" the 3rd funniest episode of Star Trek:The Next Generation. Star Trek The Next Generation DVD set, volume 2, disc 5, selection 3. "Manhunt" on IMDb "Manhunt" at "Manhunt" at "Manhunt" at Memory Alpha "Manhunt" rewatch by Keith R. A. DeCandido Antedian at Memory Alpha "Manhunt" rewatch by Zack Handlen of The A. V. Club