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Accumulator (computing)

In a computer's central processing unit, the accumulator is a register in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are stored. Without a register like an accumulator, it would be necessary to write the result of each calculation to main memory only to be read right back again for use in the next operation. Access to main memory is slower than access to a register like the accumulator because the technology used for the large main memory is slower than that used for a register. Early electronic computer systems were split into two groups, those with accumulators and those without. Modern computer systems have multiple general purpose registers that operate as accumulators, the term is no longer as common as it once was. However, a number of special-purpose processors still use a single accumulator for their work to simplify their design. Mathematical operations take place in a stepwise fashion, using the results from one operation as the input to the next. For instance, a manual calculation of a worker's weekly payroll might look something like: look up the number of hours worked from the employee's time card look up the pay rate for that employee from a table multiply the hours by the pay rate to get their basic weekly pay multiply their basic pay by a fixed percentage to account for income tax subtract that number from their basic pay to get their weekly pay after tax multiply that result by another fixed percentage to account for retirement plans subtract that number from their basic pay to get their weekly pay after all deductionsA computer program carrying out the same task would follow the same basic sequence of operations, although the values being looked up would all be stored in computer memory.

In early computers, the number of hours would be held on a punch card and the pay rate in some other form of memory a magnetic drum. Once the multiplication is complete, the result needs to be placed somewhere. On a "drum machine" this would be back to the drum, an operation that takes considerable time, and the next operation has to read that value back in, which introduces another considerable delay. Accumulators improve performance in systems like these by providing a scratchpad area where the results of one operation can be fed to the next one for little or no performance penalty. In the example above, the basic weekly pay would be calculated and placed in the accumulator, which could immediately be used by the income tax calculation; this removes one save and one read operation from the sequence, operations that took tens to hundreds of times as long as the multiplication itself. An accumulator machine called a 1-operand machine, or a CPU with accumulator-based architecture, is a kind of CPU where, although it may have several registers, the CPU stores the results of calculations in one special register called "the accumulator".

All early computers were accumulator machines with only the high-performance "supercomputers" having multiple registers. As mainframe systems gave way to microcomputers, accumulator architectures were again popular with the MOS 6502 being a notable example. Many 8-bit microcontrollers that are still popular as of 2014, such as the PICmicro and 8051, are accumulator-based machines. Modern CPUs are 2-operand or 3-operand machines; the additional operands specify which one of many general purpose registers are used as the source and destination for calculations. These CPUs are not considered "accumulator machines"; the characteristic which distinguishes one register as being the accumulator of a computer architecture is that the accumulator would be used as an implicit operand for arithmetic instructions. For instance, a CPU might have an instruction like: ADD memaddress that adds the value read from memory location memaddress to the value in the accumulator, placing the result back in the accumulator.

The accumulator is not identified in the instruction by a register number. Some architectures use a particular register as an accumulator in some instructions, but other instructions use register numbers for explicit operand specification. Any system that uses a single "memory" to store the result of multiple operations can be considered an accumulator. J. Presper Eckert refers to the earliest adding machines of Gottfried Leibniz and Blaise Pascal as accumulator-based systems. Percy Ludgate was the first to conceive a multiplier-accumulator in his Analytical Machine of 1909. Historical convention dedicates a register to "the accumulator", an "arithmetic organ" that accumulates its number during a sequence of arithmetic operations: "The first part of our arithmetic organ... should be a parallel storage organ which can receive a number and add it to the one in it, able to clear its contents and which can store what it contains. We will call such an organ an Accumulator, it is quite conventional in principle in past and present computing machines of the most varied types, e.g. desk multipliers, standard IBM counters, more modern relay machines, the ENIAC".

Just a few of the instructions are, for example: Clear accumulator and add number from memory location X Clear accumulator and subtract number from memory location X Add number copied from memory location X to the contents of the accumulator Subtract number copied from memory location X from the contents of the accumulator Clear accumulator and shift contents of register into accumulatorNo convention

George A. Freedman

George A. Freedman, DDS is a Canadian dentist and dental educator, regarded as an international leader in the field of cosmetic and aesthetic dentistry, he is married to Fay B. Goldstep, DDS, with whom he has shared a private dental practice in Markham, Canada, since 1988, their daughter, Judy Freedman, is a Toronto-based broadcaster. A graduate of McGill University, Montreal, Dr. Freedman has delivered more than 600 lectures worldwide, held visiting or adjunct positions at the following universities: Case Western Reserve, Baylor College of Dentistry, State University of New York at Buffalo, Eastman Dental Center, Missouri, Tufts, Institute of Aesthetic Dentistry, Firenze He has written or contributed to 12 textbooks, including The Color Atlas of Porcelain Laminate Veneers, The Color Atlas of Tooth Whitening, as well as the published, Contemporary Esthetic Dentistry, published by Elsevier, the Netherlands-based healthcare publishers, he has published more than 700 scientific articles in professional journals.

Dr. Freedman is director and past-president of the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry, a Fellow of the following organizations: European Society of Cosmetic Dentistry, American Society for Dental Aesthetics, Academy of Dentistry International, American College of Dentists, International Academy for Dental Facial Esthetics, the Canadian Dental Association, he is an honorary member of the academies of aesthetic dentistry of India and Turkey, a founder of the academies of aesthetic dentistry in Canada and Romania. He serves as educational director of the University Dental Education Conference, based in Toronto, Canada. A consultant to more than 20 global dental industry manufacturers, Dr. Freedman developed several distributed aesthetic products, including the Shofu Porcelain Veneer Kit, Aesculap Posterior Esthetic Restorative Kit, Brasseler Posterior Composite Finishing Kit He serves as products editor of the journal Dentistry Today, an editorial board member of Oral Health magazine Dr. Freedman on ""

Borman Bridge

The Borman Bridge bringing a Cherry County, Nebraska road over the Niobrara River near Valentine, Nebraska was built in 1916, as a replacement for one of 18 Cherry County bridges washed away by flood and winter ice on February 16, 1916. It was designed by the Canton Bridge Co. of Canton, fabricated by the Cambria Steel Co. of Pittsburgh, built by the Canton Bridge Co. It has been known as the Niobrara River Bridge and known as NEHBS No. CE00-224, it is a pinned Pratt through truss bridge that could be and was built and has since carried only light traffic. It cost $4,230, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1992. More photos of the Borman Bridge at Wikimedia Commons

Rise to Your Knees

Rise to Your Knees is the Meat Puppets' eleventh full-length studio album, released on July 17, 2007. Not only was it their first studio release since 2000's Golden Lies, it was their first to feature the original bassist Cris Kirkwood since his departure after the release of 1995's No Joke!. The album was given a one-month advance release on the iTunes Store and eMusic. An earlier version of "Enemy Love Song" was available for download on Curt Kirkwood's official website in 2005 prior to the release of his solo album Snow, it was removed. In addition to "Enemy Love Song", "New Leaf" appeared on the 2004 compilation album Classic Puppets, this version being recorded by the Golden Lies-era lineup. All songs written by Curt Kirkwood. "Fly Like the Wind" - 5:31 "On the Rise" - 4:01 "Radio Moth" - 3:44 "Tiny Kingdom" - 5:04 "Enemy Love Song" - 3:24 "Spit" - 4:20 "Island" - 3:51 "Vultures" - 4:09 "Stone Eyes" - 3:59 "This Song" - 4:22 "New Leaf" - 3:57 "Disappear" - 4:18 "The Ship" - 4:17 "Ice" - 6:11 "Light the Fire" - 6:22 Based on 14 reviews, Metacritic assigned the album rating of 65, indicating "generally favorable reviews".

Curt Kirkwood - vocals, keyboards Cris Kirkwood - bass guitar, keyboards, guitjo Ted Marcus - drums Stuart Sullivan - Wurlitzer solo on "Enemy Love Song" Frenchy Smith - hypnosis guitar on "Light the Fire"

Never Let You Go (Evermore song)

"Never Let You Go" is the fourth single by Evermore, taken from their second studio album Real Life. It peaked in the top 30 of the ARIA Singles Chart. All tracks are written by Evermore; the video of the single is of a series of clips of that show the meaning of the lyrics of being sung. The band appears at the end. For example, when "GET" is said during the song, a picture of a'GOT' sign appears. During the music video the Hume brothers are not seen performing or in any pictures. However, the brothers are in the video: in the center section three scientists are seen that have a shocking similarity to the brothers, Evermore is spotted dressed as lower-class men sitting together, they are lower class now. In one scene they are shown shaking hands with Jar Jar Binks from Star Wars; the song has been part of the soundtrack of the Australian TV show McLeod's Daughters. "Never Let You Go" peaked at number 29 on the ARIA Singles Chart. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

John Wathan

John David Wathan is an American former professional baseball player and manager. He played his entire career in Major League Baseball as a catcher for the Kansas City Royals from 1976 to 1985. Wathan was a member of the world champion 1985 Kansas City Royals team. After his playing career, he worked as a coach before serving as the Royals manager from 1987 to 1991, he managed the California Angels in 1992. Wathan is notable for setting the single-season stolen base record for catchers in 1982 when, he stole 36 bases to break the previous record set by Ray Schalk in 1916. Wathan, nicknamed "The Duke" for his dead-on impersonations of John Wayne, was drafted in the first round, fourth overall in the 1971 MLB Draft from the University of San Diego, where he played college baseball for the Toreros in 1968–70. Wathan played ten seasons with the Royals from 1976 to 1985 where he played in 860 games, averaging a career.262 batting average with 21 home runs, 261 RBIs, 105 stolen bases. Wathan had his best season in 1980 in which he played in 126 games, had a.305 batting average.

After he retired, Wathan coached for the Royals in 1986 before becoming the manager of Kansas City's AAA Omaha Royals farm club and he was promoted manager for the big-league Royals on August 28, 1987. He managed five seasons in Kansas City, having two winning seasons in 1988 and 1989 and finishing second in the American League West both times, he was fired early in the 1991 season after a 15–22 start. In 1992, Wathan began the season as the third-base coach of the California Angels, but he was named acting manager midway through the campaign when Buck Rodgers was badly hurt in a bus accident and took a medical leave of absence. Wathan led the Angels to a 39–50 record until Rodgers was well enough to return, he spent 1994 as a Boston Red Sox coach, worked as a color analyst on Royals telecasts in 1996 and 1997, has worked as a scout and minor league instructor for a number of organizations since. In 2006-07, Wathan was a roving baserunning and bunting instructor in Kansas City's farm system, in 2008 he served the Royals as a special assistant to the director of player development.

Two of John's sons and Dusty, played professional baseball. Derek played minor league baseball from 1998 to 2008, while Dusty played for the Royals in 2002 and is the current third-base coach of the Philadelphia Phillies. List of Major League Baseball players who spent their entire career with one franchise Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet John Wathan at SABR The 100 Greatest Royals of All-Time- #41 John Wathan