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MOS Technology 6502

The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor, designed by a small team led by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology. The design team had worked at Motorola on the Motorola 6800 project; when it was introduced in 1975, the 6502 was, by a considerable margin, the least expensive microprocessor on the market. It sold for less than one-sixth the cost of competing designs from larger companies, such as the 6800 or Intel 8080, its introduction caused rapid decreases in pricing across the entire processor market. Along with the Zilog Z80, it sparked a series of projects that resulted in the home computer revolution of the early 1980s. Popular home video game consoles and computers, such as the Atari 2600, Atari 8-bit family, Apple II, Nintendo Entertainment System, Commodore 64, Atari Lynx, BBC Micro and others, used the 6502 or variations of the basic design. Soon after the 6502's introduction, MOS Technology was purchased outright by Commodore International, who continued to sell the microprocessor and licenses to other manufacturers.

In the early days of the 6502, it was second-sourced by Rockwell and Synertek, licensed to other companies. In its CMOS form, the 65C02, developed by the Western Design Center, the 6502 family continues to be used in embedded systems, with estimated production volumes in the hundreds of millions; the 6502 was designed by many of the same engineers that had designed the Motorola 6800 microprocessor family. Motorola started the 6800 microprocessor project in 1971 with Tom Bennett as the main architect; the chip layout began in late 1972, the first 6800 chips were fabricated in February 1974 and the full family was released in November 1974. John Buchanan was the designer of the 6800 chip and Rod Orgill, who did the 6501, assisted Buchanan with circuit analyses and chip layout. Bill Mensch joined Motorola in June 1971 after graduating from the University of Arizona, his first assignment was helping define the peripheral ICs for the 6800 family and he was the principal designer of the 6820 Peripheral Interface Adapter.

Motorola's engineers could run digital simulations on an IBM 370-165 mainframe computer. Bennett hired Chuck Peddle in 1973 to do architectural support work on the 6800 family products in progress, he contributed in many areas, including the design of the 6850 ACIA. Motorola's target customers were established electronics companies such as Hewlett-Packard, Tektronix, TRW, Chrysler. In May 1972, Motorola's engineers began visiting select customers and sharing the details of their proposed 8-bit microprocessor system with ROM, RAM, parallel and serial interfaces. In early 1974, they provided engineering samples of the chips so that customers could prototype their designs. Motorola's "total product family" strategy did not focus on the price of the microprocessor, but on reducing the customer's total design cost, they offered development software on a timeshare computer, the "EXORciser" debugging system, onsite training and field application engineer support. Both Intel and Motorola had announced a $360 price for a single microprocessor.

The actual price for production quantities was much less. Motorola offered a design kit containing the 6800 with six support chips for $300. Peddle, who would accompany the salespeople on customer visits, found that customers were put off by the high cost of the microprocessor chips. At the same time, these visits invariably resulted in the engineers he presented to producing lists of required instructions that were much smaller than "all these fancy instructions", included in the 6800. Peddle and other team members started outlining the design of an improved feature, reduced size microprocessor. At that time, Motorola's new semiconductor fabrication facility in Austin, was having difficulty producing MOS chips, mid-1974 was the beginning of a year-long recession in the semiconductor industry. Many of the Mesa, employees were displeased with the upcoming relocation to Austin. Motorola's Semiconductor Products Division management was overwhelmed with problems and showed no interest in Peddle's low-cost microprocessor proposal.

Peddle was given an official letter telling him to stop working on the system. Peddle responded to the order by informing Motorola that the letter represented an official declaration of "project abandonment", as such, the intellectual property he had developed to that point was now his. In a November 1975 interview, Motorola's Chairman, Robert Galvin agreed that Peddle's concept was a good one and that the division missed an opportunity, "We did not choose the right leaders in the Semiconductor Products division." The division was reorganized and the management replaced. The new group vice-president John Welty said, "The semiconductor sales organization lost its sensitivity to customer needs and couldn't make speedy decisions." Peddle began looking outside Motorola for a source of funding for this new project. He approached MOSTEK CEO L. J. Sevin, but Sevin declined and admitted this was because he was afraid Motorola would sue them. While Peddle was visiting Ford Motor Company on one of his sales trips, Bob Johnson head of Ford's engine automation division, mentioned that their former colleague John Paivinen had moved to General Instrument and taught himself semiconductor design.

He had since moved on and was doing some interesting work on calculator chipsets at a new company he formed in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. Paivinen had formed MOS Technology in 1969 with two other executives from General Instrument, Mort Jaffe and

1984 Giro d'Italia, Stage 12 to Stage 22

The 1984 Giro d'Italia was the 67th edition of the Giro d'Italia, one of cycling's Grand Tours. The Giro began in Lucca, with a prologue individual time trial on 17 May, Stage 12 occurred on 30 May with a stage from Rieti; the race finished in Verona on 10 June. 30 May 1984 — Rieti to Città di Castello, 175 km 31 May 1984 — Città di Castello to Lerici, 269 km 1 June 1984 — Lerici to Alessandria, 204 km 2 June 1984 — Certosa di Pavia to Milan, 38 km 3 June 1984 4 June 1984 — Alessandria to Bardonecchia, 198 km 5 June 1984 — Bardonecchia to Lecco, 249 km 6 June 1984 — Lecco to Merano, 252 km 7 June 1984 — Merano to Selva di Val Gardena, 74 km 8 June 1984 — Selva di Val Gardena to Arabba, 169 km 9 June 1984 — Arabba to Treviso, 208 km 10 June 1984 — Soave to Verona, 42 km

A Young Man Being Introduced to the Seven Liberal Arts

A Young Man Being Introduced to the Seven Liberal Arts known as Lorenzo Tornabuoni Presented by Grammar to Prudentia and the other Liberal Arts or Lorenzo Tornabuoni Being Introduced to the Liberal Arts, is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Sandro Botticelli, circa 1483-1486. The painting and its companion piece and the Three Graces Presenting Gifts to a Young Woman decorated Villa Lemmi, a country villa near Florence owned by Giovanni Tornabuoni, uncle of Lorenzo de' Medici and head of the Roman branch of the Medici Bank, they were commissioned for the 1486 wedding of Giovanni's son Lorenzo to Giovanna of the Albizzi family, are therefore thought to depict the two. A Young Man Being Introduced to the Seven Liberal Arts depicts a young man Lorenzo Tornabuoni, led by a personification of Grammar into a circle of allegorical figures representing the Seven Liberal Arts. Presided over by Prudentia, the circle includes Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry and Music, each recognizable by means of various attributes.

In antiquity, the liberal arts denoted the education worthy of a free person and the painting therefore testifies to the young man's broad education. The figure of Arithmetic is seen holding its hand out in greeting to the young man. Tornabuoni, a scion to a banking family, would have had an education focused on numbers. Both paintings were discovered at Villa Lemmi in 1873 under a coat of whitewash and removed from their original location, they are housed in the Musée du Louvre, Paris

Rollin' wit Dana Dane

Rollin' Wit Dana Dane is the third and final studio album released by Dana Dane. It was released on March 28, 1995, on Maverick Records and was produced by DJ Battlecat, along with Smash Money and 3rd Rail. Rollin' Wit Dana Dane only peaked at #42 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums, but two singles did well: "Record Jock" made it to #61 on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks and #11 on the Hot Rap Singles, while "Rollin' Wit Dane" made it to #77 on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Single & Tracks and #25 on Hot Rap Singles. "Dedication" – 2:09 "Once Again" – 3:55 "In Da Mix" – 4:17 featuring Don Perryon "Rollin' Wit Dane" – 4:21 "Booty Call" – 1:33 "Record Jock" – 4:06 "Ain't No Love" –:44 "Chester" – 3:51 "Nina" – 4:27 "Mama Told Me" – 4:52 featuring Don Perryon "Show Me Love" – 4:00 featuring DJ Battlecat "Fort Greene Killz" – 5:07 featuring Lady Terra, Don Perryon, 3rd Rail, Gap Da Rippa, Ike Capone "Ain't No Love" – 4:30

Lily Wangchuk

Lily Wangchuk or Lily Wangchhuk is a Bhutanese politician and activist. A diplomat between 1994 and 2008, in November 2012 she became the first Bhutanese woman to be appointed president of a political party. Wangchuk was born into a noble family, her grandfather, Rinzin Dorji, served as the last Daga Penlop under the second King Jigme Wangchuk and third King Jigme Dorji Wangchuk. Her father died when she was young and her mother left the family to become a nun, she studied International Diplomacy at the Australian National University, Human Rights and International Law at the Indian Academy of International Law and Diplomacy. She further studied Political Science at Miranda College in India. Wangchuk began work as a diplomat in 1994, in 2003 she was a recipient of the Lions Club Award for Outstanding Diplomat for her work with Bhutanese bilateral relations with India. After a 12-year career as a diplomat, she took time off to travel across Bhutan, visiting all 20 districts and the remotest areas of the country, during which she observed the socio-economic challenges facing common people and inequalities in development.

Wangchuk once served as the executive director of the Bhutan Media Foundation and head of the Peoples' Democratic Party's women wing. Soon after leaving BMF to pursue a career as a politician, in October 2011 she was diagnosed with endometrial cancer and overcame the disease in six months. In November 2012, Wangchuk became the first Bhutanese woman to be appointed president of a political party, Druk Chirwang Tshogpa, a party, formally recognized in early 2013, she was a candidate for presidency during the 2013 elections, represents North Thimphu Constituency. Wangchuk cites Aung San Suu Kyi as an inspiration in her leadership, she ran for the seat of the National Assembly of Bhutan as a candidate of Druk Phuensum Tshogpa from North Thimphu constituency in the 2018 Bhutanese National Assembly election, but was unsuccessful. She came in second receiving 2,102 votes and losing the seat to Dechen Wangmo

Vladas Jurgutis Award

Vladas Jurgutis Award is a prestigious economic award, once a year granted by the Bank of Lithuania and Lithuanian Academy of Sciences. The aim of the Award is to encourage scientific activities in the area of research on Lithuania's banking, finance and macroeconomics. Award named after the father of Vladas Jurgutis; the Bank of Lithuania established Vladas Jurgutis Award in 1997 to perpetuate the merits of academic and the first Governor of the Bank of Lithuania Vladas Jurgutis unofficially considered to be the "father of the Lithuanian litas." Since 2008, after signing a co-operation agreement, the Award is being granted by the Bank of Lithuania and Lithuanian Academy of Sciences. The Award in the amount of LTL 50 000 is granted for significant works in the areas of Lithuanian economy and banking research. Applications for Vladas Jurgutis Award are accepted every year until 1 September. Candidates could be both Lithuanian and foreign scientists, students and specialists; when nominating a candidate for the Award, the following should be submitted to the Bank of Lithuania: recommendation of the natural or legal person that nominates the candidate.

1997: Alfonsas Žilėnas for influential works in the fields of banking and finance 1998: Stasys Sajauskas and Dominykas Kaubrys for their work Numismatics of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania 1999: Vladas Terleckas for his books and articles published from 1995 to 1999 on the history of Lithuanian banking 2008: Arūnas Dulkys, Juozas Galkus and Stanislovas Sajauskas for their work Lithuanian Coins 2010: Antanas Tyla for The Treasury of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania During Twenty Years of War 1648–1667 and economist Vytautas Valvonis for his work carried out over the last five years in the field of banking credit risk management for the practical benefits in improving risk management in banks, enhancing the soundness of banking operations 2012: Vladas Terleckas for his monograph Banking in Lithuania 1795–1915 2015: Gediminas Vaskela for his monograph National Aspects in Lithuania’s Economic Policy, 1919–1940 Since 2018 the award is 10,000 EUR and is awarded annually during the Annual Meeting of the Baltic Economic Association 2018: Agnė Kajackaitė, Uri Gneezis and Joel Sobel for collective work Lying Aversion and the Size of the Lie, American Economic Review, 108, 419-453 2019: Matthias Weber and Arthur Scharm for collective work The Non-Equivalence of Labor Market Taxes: A Real-Effort Experiment, Economic Journal, 127:2187–2215.

List of economics awards Bank of Lithuania Lithuanian Academy of Sciences