The Malacca Sultanate was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia. Conventional historical thesis marks c. 1400 as the founding year of the sultanate by a Malay Raja of Singapura, Parameswara known as Iskandar Shah. At the height of the sultanate's power in the 15th century, its capital grew into one of the most important entrepots of its time, with territory covering much of the Malay Peninsula, the Riau Islands and a significant portion of the northern coast of Sumatra in present-day Indonesia; as a bustling international trading port, Malacca emerged as a centre for Islamic learning and dissemination, encouraged the development of the Malay language and arts. It heralded the golden age of Malay sultanates in the archipelago, in which Classical Malay became the lingua franca of the Maritime Southeast Asia and Jawi script became the primary medium for cultural and intellectual exchange, it is through these intellectual and cultural developments, the Malaccan era witnessed the enculturation of a Malay identity, the Malayisation of the region and the subsequent formation of an Alam Melayu.
In the year of 1511, the capital of Malacca fell to the Portuguese Empire, forcing the last Sultan, Mahmud Shah, to retreat to the further reaches of his empire, where his progeny established new ruling dynasties and Perak. The political and cultural legacy of the sultanate remains to this day. For centuries, Malacca has been held up as an exemplar of Malay-Muslim civilisation, it established systems of trade and governance that persisted well into the 19th century, introduced concepts such as daulat – a distinctly Malay notion of sovereignty – that continues to shape contemporary understanding of Malay kingship. The fall of Malacca benefited Brunei when its ports became a new entrepôt as the kingdom emerged as a new Muslim empire in the Malay Archipelago, attracting many Muslim traders who fled from the Portuguese occupation after the ruler of Brunei's conversion to Islam; the series of raids launched by the Chola Empire in the 11th century had weakened the once glorious empire of Srivijaya.
By the end of the 13th century, the fragmented Srivijaya caught the attention of the expansionist Javanese King, Kertanegara of Singhasari. In 1275, he decreed the Pamalayu expedition to overrun Sumatra. By 1288, Singhasari naval expeditionary forces sacked Jambi and Palembang and brought Malayu Dharmasraya—the successor state of Srivijaya, to its knees. In 1293 Singhasari was succeeded by Majapahit ruling the region. According to the Malay Annals, a prince from Palembang named Seri Teri Buana who claimed to be a descendant of Alexander the Great, stayed in the island of Bintan for several years before he set sail and landed on Temasek in 1299; the Orang Laut, famous for their loyal services to Srivijaya made him king of a new kingdom called Singapura. In the 14th century, Singapura developed concurrently with the Pax Mongolica era and rose from a small trading outpost into a centre of international trade with strong ties with the Yuan Dynasty. In an effort to revive the fortune of Malayu in Sumatra, in the 1370s, a Malay ruler of Palembang sent an envoy to the court of the first emperor of the newly established Ming dynasty.
He invited China to resume the tributary system. Learning this diplomatic maneuver King Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit sent an envoy to Nanking, convinced the emperor that Malayu was their vassal, was not an independent country. Subsequently, in 1377—a few years after the death of Gajah Mada, Majapahit sent a punitive naval attack against a rebellion in Palembang, which caused the complete destruction of Srivijaya and caused the diaspora of the Srivijayan princes and nobles. Rebellions against the Javanese rule ensued and attempts were made by the fleeing Malay princes to revive the empire, which left the area of southern Sumatra in chaos and desolation. By the second half of 14th century, Kingdom of Singapura grew wealthy. However, its success alarmed two regional powers at that time, Ayuthaya from the north and Majapahit from the south; as a result, the kingdom's fortified capital was attacked by at least two major foreign invasions before it was sacked by Majapahit in 1398. The fifth and last king, Parameswara fled to the west coast of the Malay Peninsula.
Parameswara fled north to Muar, Ujong Tanah and Biawak Busuk before reaching a fishing village at the mouth of Bertam river. The village belonged to the sea-sakai or orang laut which were left alone by Majapahit forces that not only sacked Singapura but Langkasuka and Pasai; as a result, the village became a safe haven and in the 1370s it began to receive a growing number of refugees running away from Mahapahit's attacks. By the time Parameswara reached Malacca in the early 1400s, the place had a cosmopolitan feel with Buddhists from the north, Hindus from Palembang and Muslims from Pasai. Legend has it that Parameswara saw a mouse deer outwit his hunting dog into the water when he was resting under the Malacca tree, he thought this bode well, remarking,'this place is excellent the mouse deer is formidable. Tradition holds that he named the settlement after the tree he was leaning against while witnessing the portentous event. Today, the mouse deer is part of modern Malacca's coat of arms; the name "Malacca" itself was derived from the fruit-bearing Melaka tree scientifically termed as Phyllanthus emblica.
Another account of the naming origin of Malacca elaborates that
The Kingdom of Bali was a series of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms that once ruled some parts of the volcanic island of Bali, in Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. With a history of native Balinese kingship spanning from the early 10th to early 20th centuries, Balinese kingdoms demonstrated sophisticated Balinese court culture where native elements of spirit and ancestral reverence combined with Hindu influences – adopted from India through ancient Java intermediary – flourished and shaped the Balinese culture; because of its proximity and close cultural relations with the neighbouring Java island during the Indonesian Hindu-Buddhist period, the history of Bali Kingdom was intertwined and influenced by its Javanese counterparts, from Medang c. 9th century to Majapahit empire in 13th to 15th centuries. The culture, language and architecture of the island was influenced by Java. Javanese influences and presences grew stronger prompted with the fall of Majapahit empire in the late 15th century. After the empire fell to its Muslim vassal of Demak Sultanate, a number of Hindu Majapahit courtiers, nobles and artisans, found refuge on the island of Bali.
As a result, Bali became what historian Ramesh Chandra Majumdar describes as the last stronghold of Indo-Javanese culture and civilisation. The Balinese Kingdom in subsequent centuries expanded their influence to neighbouring islands; the Balinese Kingdom of Gelgel for example extended their influences to Blambangan region in eastern end of Java, neighbouring island of Lombok, as far as western part of Sumbawa island, while Karangasem established their rule on western Lombok in period. Since the mid-19th century, the colonial state of Dutch East Indies began its involvements in Bali, as they launched their campaign against Balinese minor kingdoms one by one. By the early 20th century, the Dutch has completed their conquest of Bali as these minor kingdoms fell under their control, either by force resulted in Puputan fighting followed by mass ritual suicide, or surrendered graciously to the Dutch. Either way, despite some of these Balinese royal houses still surviving, these events ended a millennium of the native Balinese independent kingdoms, as the local government changed to Dutch colonial administration, to provincial government of Bali within the Republic of Indonesia.
Bali has been inhabited by humans since Paleolithic times, testified by the finding of ancient tools such as hand axes in Sembiran and Trunyan villages in Bali. Followed by Mesolithic period. Bronze Age period follows, from around 600 BCE to 800 CE; the historical period in Bali started c. 8th century, marked by the discovery of inscribed Buddhist votive clay tablets. These Buddhist votive tablets, found in small clay stupa figurines called "stupikas", are the first known written inscriptions in Bali and date from around the 8th century CE; such stupikas have been found in the regency of Gianyar, in the villages of Pejeng and Blahbatuh. The bell-shaped stupikas bears resemblances to the style of the 8th-century stupas of Central Javanese Buddhist art found in Borobudur and other Buddhist temples dated from that period, which suggested the Sailendra link to the Buddhist pilgrims or inhabitant of early Bali's history. In the early 10th century, Sri Kesari Warmadewa created the Belanjong pillar inscription found near the southern strip of Sanur beach.
It was the oldest written inscription created by a ruler found in Bali. The pillar dated in 836 saka. According to the inscription, Sri Kesari was a Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty that led a military expedition, to establishing a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali. Two other inscription by Kesari are known in the interior Bali, which suggest conflicts in the mountainous interior of the island. Sri Kesari is considered as the founder as the Warmadewa dynasty, the earliest known ruler of Bali, which prospered for several generations prior to Javanese expansion, it seems that the centre of early court of Bali was first located in Sanur area east of today Denpasar city, the political and cultural centre moved inland to the north, clustered around southern plain within today Gianyar Regency. The stone cave temple and bathing place of Goa Gajah, near Ubud in Gianyar, was made around the same period, it shows a combination of Hindu Shivaite iconography. Several carvings of stupas and image of Boddhisattvas suggested that Warmadewa dynasty was the patron of Mahayana Buddhism.
Hinduism is practised in Bali during this period. In the second half of the 10th century, Bali was ruled by king Udayana Warmadewa and his queen, Mahendradatta, a princess of Isyana dynasty from East Java. Mahendradatta was the daughter of king Sri Makutawangsawarddhana, sister of king Dharmawangsa of Medang Kingdom; the presence of a Javanese queen in the Balinese court suggested that either Bali had formed an alliance with East Java, or Bali was Java's vassal. The royal Balinese couple was the parents of the famous king of Airlangga. Airlangga's younger brothers Marakata and Anak Wungçu rose to the Balinese throne; the rock-cut candi shrine of Gunung Kawi in Tampaksiring was made around the same period. It demonstrates similar temple style of Java during the late Medang period; the Warmadewa dynasty continued to rule Bali well until the
Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura
The Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura called Sultanate of Siak, was a kingdom, located in the Siak Regency, Riau from 1723 to 1946 CE. It was founded by Raja Kecik from the Johor Kingdom, after he failed to seize the throne of the Sultanate of Johor. After Indonesia's Independence was proclaimed on 17 August 1945, the last sultan of Siak declared his kingdom to have joined the Republic of Indonesia; the history of Riau before Indonesian independence time has been rooted in the history of Siak Sri Indrapura, a Malay Islamic kingdom. The Siak-centred sultanate was founded by Sultan Abdul Jalil Rahmad Shah in 1725; the first Sultan died in 1746 and posthumously given the title of Marhum Buantan. The reign was continued to Sultan Abdul Jalil Muzaffar Shah; this second Sultan succeeded in making the Kingdom of Siak Sri Indrapura triumphant. The third Sultan was Abdul Jalil Jalaluddin Shah, his real name was Tengku Ismail. His reign was under attacks of the Dutch East India Company which took advantage of Tengku Alam as a shield.
Sultan Abdul Jalil dubbed Marhum Mangkat di Balai. Tengku Alam ascended to the throne after the death of Abdul Jalil Jalaluddin, with the title of Sultan Abdul Jalil Alamuddin Syah and posthumously given the title of Marhum Bukit; the daughter of fourth Sultan, Abdul Jalil Alamuddin Syah, Badriyyah was married to a person knowledgeable in Islam Sayyid Uthman bin Abdurrahman bin Sa'id bin Ali bin Muhammad bin Hasan bin Umar Banahsan, a Hadhrami of Ba'Alawi sada family. Uthman was appointed as a military commander and religious advisor in the Sultanate. Six of their descendants from this marriage became Sultans, started since the seventh Sultan of Siak Sri Indrapura; the book of pedigree Shamsu al-Dzahirah, the book of the Ba'Alawi sada genealogy authored by Sayyid Abdurahman bin Mohammed Al-Mashoor, several other books such as Shajarah al-Zakiyah written by Yusuf bin Abdullah Jamalullail and al-Mu'jam al-Latif li Asbab al-Alqab wa al-Kunya fi al-Nasab al-Sharif by Sayyid Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Shatri, discuss the family history of Siak Sultanate which many people mistakenly think as of the Shahab families.
This has been verified by the institution for that purpose, al-Rabithah al-Alawiyah. The last name Shahabuddin given to Usman bin Abdurrahman, married to the daughter of the Sultan of Siak is just a title, as well as titles given to his grandchildren such as Syaifuddin, Khaliluddin, or Jalaluddin. Many descendants of Sayyid Usman bin Abdurrahman in Malaysia still use the Shahab title; the fifth in throne was Sultan Muhammad Ali Abdul Jalil Muazzam Shah. During his reign the Sultanate of Siak relocated to Senapelan, he is the founder of the city of Pekanbaru, so since his death in 1782 he was titled with title Marhum Pekan. Sultan Yahya Abdul Jalil Muzaffar Shah took the position as the sixth sultan during 1782–1784. Like the previous sultan, Sultan Yahya only had 2 years to rule, he died in 1784 and was posthumously granted the title Marhum Mangkat di Dungun. The seventh Sultan, Ali Abdul Jalil Syaifuddin Ba'alawi, was the first sultan of Arab descent and holds the title al-Sayyid Sharif. During his reign the Kingdom of Siak reached its peak.
He was posthumously granted the title Marhum Kota Tinggi. Ibrahim Abdul Jalil Khaliluddin was the eight sultan in the kingdom in 1810–1815, where his real name was Ibrahim, he died in 1815 and was named the Marhum Mempura Kecil. He was followed by Sultan Syarif Ismail Abdul Jalil Jalaluddin Ismail who took the reign during 1815–1854, given title Marhum Indrapura, he was followed by the next sultan, Qasim Abdul Jalil Syaifuddin I. He was posthumously granted the title Marhum Mahkota, his son, Syarif Hashim Abdul Jalil Muzaffar Shah was raised to the throne during period 1889–1908. During his rule, many buildings were constructed which now have become the evidence of the Kingdom of Siak, he was posthumously granted the title Marhum Baginda. Post Anglo-Dutch Treaties of 1870–71, the colonial government created the Siak Residency in 1873, which covers the entire northeast coast of Sumatra to the sultanate of Deli; the transfer of the capital of the Oostkust van Sumatra residentie in 1887 from Siak to Medan, the capital of Deli, confirms the loss of importance of the sultanate to the Dutch.
The last Sultan of Siak was Syarif Qasim Abdul Jalil Syaifuddin. The sultan with real name Tengku Sulong went to the throne seven years after the death of his father Sultan Hashim. In November 1945, Sultan Syarif Qasim II sent a cable to President of the Republic of Indonesia declaring allegiance to the newly created Government of the Republic of Indonesia. Not only that, the Sultan handed over his property for the struggle of independence of the Republic of Indonesia. In 1889, the 11th sultan, Syarif Hasyim Abdul Jalil Syarifuddin built a Moorish-style palace 120 kilometres upstream of the Siak river in Pekanbaru; the palace is now a museum. Before its construction, the sultan made a tour of Europe. In the architecture of the palace there are European influences that blend harmoniously with the Malay and Moorish elements, with the furniture was brought from Europe; the palace contains royal ceremonial objects, su
Kediri or Kadiri was a Hindu Javanese Kingdom based in East Java from 1042 to around 1222. Despite the lack of archaeological remains, the age of Kediri saw much development in classical literature. Mpu Sedah's Kakawin Bharatayuddha, Mpu Panuluh's Gatotkacasraya, Mpu Dharmaja's Smaradhana blossomed in this era; the kingdom's capital is believed to have been established in the western part of the Brantas River valley, somewhere near modern Kediri city and surrounding Kediri Regency. The name "Kediri" or "Kadiri" derived from Sanskrit word Khadri which means Indian Mulberry, locally known as pacé or mengkudu tree; the bark of morinda produces a brownish-purplish dye for batik-making, while its fruit have medicinal values. Similar named city known, Kadiri in Andhra Pradesh, India; the kingdom was known as Panjalu as the twin kingdom with Jenggala. During the reign of Jayakatwang that revived the short-lived second dynasty of Kadiri, the kingdom is known as Gelang-gelang or Gegelang. Other than Kadiri, the kingdom was often referred to as Daha or Dahana, after its capital.
The name "Daha" was used in Majapahit period, as the seat of rival court of Trowulan. The Kingdom of Kediri is the successor of Airlangga's Kahuripan kingdom, thought as the continuation of Isyana Dynasty in Java. In 1045, Airlangga divided his kingdom of Kahuripan into two and Panjalu, abdicated in favour of his sons to live as an ascetic, he died four years later. The first king of Kediri to leave historical records was Çri Jayawarşa Digjaya Çāstaprabhu. In his inscription dated 1104, like Airlangga, he claimed himself to be the incarnation or Avatar of Vishnu; the second king was Kameçvara. His formal stylised name was Çri Maharaja Rake Sirikan çri Kameçvara Sakalabhuwanatustikarana Sarwaniwaryyawiryya Parakrama Digjayottunggadewa; the Lanchana of his reign was a skull with a crescent moon called chandrakapala, the symbol of Shiva. During his reign, Mpu Dharmaja wrote Smaradhana, in which the king was adored as the incarnation of Kamajaya, the god of love, his capital city Dahana was admired throughout the known world.
Kameçvara's wife, Çri Kirana, was celebrated as the incarnation of Kamaratih, goddess of love and passion. The tales of this story, known as Panji cycle, spread throughout Southeast Asia as far as Siam. Jayabhaya succeeded Kameçwara, his formal stylised name was Çri Maharaja çri Dharmmeçwara Madhusudanawataranindita Suhrtsingha Parakrama Digjayottunggadewa. The Lanchana of his reign was Narasingha; the name Jayabhaya was immortalised in Sedah's Kakawin Bharatayuddha, a Javanese version of the Mahabharata, written in 1157. This Kakawin was perfected by Mpu Panuluh. Mpu Panuluh wrote Gatotkacasraya. Jayabhaya's reign was considered the golden age of Old Javanese literature; the Prelambang Joyoboyo, a prophetic book ascribed to Jayabhaya, is well known among Javanese. It predicted that the archipelago would be ruled by a white race for a long time a yellow race for a short time be glorious again; the Jayabhaya prophecies mention Ratu Adil, the Just Prince, a recurring popular figure in Javanese folklore.
During the reign, Ternate was a vassal state of Kediri. Jayabhaya's successor was Sarwweçwara, followed by Aryyeçwara, who used Ganesha as his royal Lanchana; the next monarch was Gandra. An inscription from his reign documents the beginning of the adoption of animal names for important officials, such as Kbo Salawah, Menjangan Puguh, Lembu Agra, Gajah Kuning, Macan Putih. Among these ranked officials mentioned in the inscription, there is a title Senapati Sarwwajala, or laksmana, a title reserved for navy generals, which means that Kediri had a navy during his reign. From 1190 to 1200, King Çrngga ruled Kediri, with the official name Çri maharaja çri Sarwweçwara Triwikramawataranindita Çrngga lancana Digwijayottunggadewa, he used a cangkha on a crescent moon as his royal seal. The last king of Kediri was Kertajaya, his royal seal was the same as Airlangga's. In 1222 he was forced to surrender his throne to Ken Arok and so lost the sovereignty of his kingdom to the new kingdom of Singhasari; this was the result of his defeat at the battle of Ganter.
This event marked the end of Kediri era, the beginning of the Singhasari era. According to Jiyu and Petak inscriptions, during the end of Majapahit era in the 15th century, there was a brief resurrection of Daha as the centre of political power, led by Girindrawardhana in 1478 after he managed to defeat Kertabhumi, but it short lived since descendant of Kertabhumi who became ruler of Demak crushed Daha in 1527. The Kediri kingdom existed alongside the Srivijaya empire based in Sumatra throughout 11th to 12th-century, seems to have maintained trade relations with China and to some extent India. Chinese account identify this kingdom as Tsao-wa or Chao-wa, numbers of Chinese records signify that Chinese explorers and traders frequented this kingdom. Relations with India were cultural one, as numbers of Javanese rakawi wrote literatures that been inspired by Hindu mythology and epics such as Mahabharata and Ramayana. In 11th-century, Srivijayan hegemony in Indonesian archipelago began to decline, marked by Rajendra Chola invasion to Malay Peninsula and Sumatra.
The Chola king of Coromandel conquered Kedah from Srivijaya. The weakening of Srivijayan hegemony has enabled the formation of regional kingdoms, like Kediri, based on agriculture rather than trade. Ke
The Buni culture is a prehistoric clay pottery culture that flourished in coastal northern West Java and Banten around 400 BC to 100 AD and survived until 500 AD. The culture was named after its first discovered archaeological site, Buni village in Babelan, east of Jakarta; the Buni culture is known for its peculiar pottery with incised, geometrical decorations, the fact that it yielded the first Indian rouletted wares recorded from Southeast Asia. Clay potteries were developed with evidence found in Anyer to Cirebon. Artifacts such as food and drink containers, dated from 400 BC to AD 100 have been found as burial gifts; the Buni clay pottery culture bears similarities with the Sa Huỳnh culture in Vietnam. Pottery artefacts were discovered such as clay dishes, water jars and other daily utensils. Megalithic remains can be found, such as beads as burial gifts, menhirs and stone tables; the people that supported the Buni culture had established trade with foreign people, the kingdom of Tarumanagara is the successor of the Buni culture after the adoption of Hinduism.
The remnants of Buni pottery have been discovered at the Batujaya Archaeological Site and the Kendaljaya site in Karawang. Manguin, Pierre-Yves and Agustijanto Indrajaya, "The Archaeology of Batujaya:an Interim Report", in Uncovering Southeast Asia's past: selected papers from the 10th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists, 2006, NUS Press, ISBN 9971-69-351-8 Miksic, John N; the Buni Culture, In: Southeast Asia, from prehistory tons history, London 2004, ISBN 0-415-29777-X Simanjuntak, Truman, M. Hisyam, Bagyo Prasetyo, Titi Surti Nastiti, Archaeology: Indonesian perspective: R. P. Soejono's festschrift, LIPI, 2006, ISBN 979-26-2499-6 Uncovering Southeast Asia's past Situs Buni Terabaikan. Kompas daring. Edisi 30 May 2007
Pagaruyung was the seat of the Minangkabau kings of Western Sumatra, though little is known about it. Modern Pagaruyung is a village in Tanjung Emas subdistrict, Tanah Datar regency, located near the town of Batusangkar, Indonesia. Adityawarman is believed to have founded the kingdom and presided over the central Sumatra region between 1347 and 1375, most to control the local gold trade; the few artefacts recovered from Adityawarman's reign include a number of stones containing inscriptions, statues. Some of these items were found at Bukit Gombak, a hill near modern Pagarruyung, it is believed a royal palace was located there. There is a major gap in the historical picture in the Minangkabau highlands between the last date of Adityawarman's inscription in 1375 and Tomé Pires Suma Oriental, written some time between 1513 and 1515. By the 16th century, the time of the next report after the reign of Adityawarman, royal power had been split into three recognised reigning kings, they were the King of the World, the King of Adat, the King of Religion.
Collectively they were called the Kings of the Three Seats. The first European to enter the region was Thomas Dias, a Portuguese employed by the Dutch governor of Malacca, he travelled from the east coast to reach the region in 1684 and reported from hearsay, that there was a palace at Pagaruyung and that visitors had to go through three gates to enter it. The primary local occupations at the time were gold panning and agriculture, he reported. A civil war started in 1803 with the Padri fundamentalist Islamic group in conflict with the traditional syncretic groups, elite families and Pagarruyung royals; the original Pagaruyung Palace on Batu Patah Hill was burned down during a riot in Padri War back in 1804. During the conflict most of the Minangkabau royal family were killed in 1815, on the orders of Tuanku Lintau; the British controlled the west coast of Sumatra between 1795 and 1819. Stamford Raffles visited Pagarruyung in 1818, reaching it from the west coast, by it had been burned to the ground three times.
It was rebuilt after the first two fires, but abandoned after the third, Raffles found little more than waringin trees. The Dutch returned to Padang in May 1819; as a result of a treaty with a number of penghulu and representatives of the murdered Minangkabau royal family, Dutch forces made their first attack on a Padri village in April 1821. The prestige of Pagaruyung remained high among the Minangkabau communities in the rantau, when the members of the court were scattered following a failed rebellion against the Dutch in 1833, one of the princes was invited to become ruler in Kuantan
The Sunda Kingdom was a Sundanese Hindu kingdom located in the western portion of the island of Java from 669 to around 1579, covering the area of present-day Banten, West Java, the western part of Central Java. The capital of Sunda Kingdom has moved for several times during its history. According to primary historical records, the Bujangga Manik manuscript, the eastern border of the kingdom was the Pamali River and the Serayu River in Central Java. Most accounts of the Sunda Kingdom come from primary historical records from the 16th century, its inhabitants were the eponymous ethnic Sundanese, while the majority religion was Hinduism. The name Sunda derives from the Sanskrit prefix su- which means "goodness" or "possessing good quality"; the example is suvarna used to describe gold. Sunda is another name for Hindu God Vishnu. In Sanskrit, the term Sundara or Sundari means "beautiful" or "excellence"; the term Sunda means bright, purity and white. The name Sunda is known in Hindu mythology of Sunda and Upasunda, as one of the powerful Asura brothers that received the boon of invulnerability from Brahma.
The powerful Asura brothers set out to conquering the world, menacing the Gods. In the end they fought each other over a beautiful Apsara; the story of Sunda and Upasunda is found in Book I: Adi Parva. It is not clear however, it seems that by the 10th century, the name Sunda was used by foreigners by early Indian explorers, Malay Srivijayan traders and colonizer Javanese neighbours, as a toponym to identify the Western parts of Java. The Juru Pangambat inscription dated from 854 Saka confirmed this; the name is used by the Javanese to identify their western neighbour rival and enemy, as mentioned in Horren inscription from Kediri. An early 13th century Chinese account reported the pepper port of Sin-t'o, which refer to the port of Banten or Sunda Kalapa. By the 15th to 16th century, after the consolidation of the kingdom by Sri Baduga Maharaja, the name Sunda has shifted from a eponymous toponymy, into a name that identify a kingdom and its people, thus subsequently gave birth and identity to the ethnogenesis of the Sundanese people.
Knowledge of the kingdom among Sundanese people has been kept alive through Sundanese Pantun oral tradition, the chant of poetic verses about the golden age of Sunda Pajajaran, the legend of Prabu Siliwangi, the most popular king of Sunda. Several stone inscriptions mention the kingdom, such as Juru Pangambat, Jayabupati and Batutulis. Most account and records of the Sunda Kingdom came from manuscripts dated from a period circa 15th to 16th century, such as Bujangga Manik, Sanghyang Siksakanda ng Karesian, Carita Parahyangan and Kidung Sunda; the history of Sunda kingdom is recorded quite detailed in Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, a book within Wangsakerta manuscripts collection. However the Wangsakerta manuscripts are discounted as a valid historical source among historians, since this controversial manuscript is suspected as a fraud containing pseudohistory; the earliest reference to the name "Sunda" being used to identify a kingdom is the Kebon Kopi II inscription dated 854 Saka. The inscription was in old Javanese script.
It translates as follows: This memorial stone is to remark the saying of Rakryan Juru Pangambat, in 854 Saka, that the order of government is returned to the power of king of Sunda. The inscription chandrasengkala written 458 Saka, however some historians suggested that the year of the inscription must be read backward as 854 Saka because the Sunda kingdom could not have existed in 536 AD, in the era of the Kingdom of Tarumanagara. Another reference to the kingdom is the Jayabupati inscription which consists of 40 lines written on four pieces of stone found on the Cicatih river bank in Cibadak, Sukabumi; the inscription is written in old Javanese script. The four inscriptions are now stored at the National Museum in Jakarta, under the codes D 73, D 96, D 97 and D 98; the contents of the inscriptions: Peace and well-being. In the year of Saka 952, Kartika month on the 12th day on the light part, Hariang day, first day, Wuku Tambir. Today is the day that king of Sunda Maharaja Sri Jayabupati Jayamanahen Wisnumurti Samarawijaya Sakalabuwanamandaleswaranindita Haro Gowardhana Wikramottunggadewa, makes his marks on eastern part of this Sanghiyang Tapak.
Made by Sri Jayabupati King of Sunda. And may there be nobody allowed to break this law. In this part of river catching fish is forbidden, in the sacred area of Sanghyang Tapak near the source of the river. Up until the border of sacred Sanghyang Tapak marked by two big tree. So this inscriptions is enforced with an oath. Whoever breaks the law will be punished by these supranatural beings, die in horrible way like their brain being sucked, blood being drunk, intestines being destroyed, chest is split in two. O being known by thee.. all the spirits. The date of the Jayabupati inscription may be 11 October 1030. According to Pustaka Nusantara, Parwa III sarga 1, Sri Jayabupati reigned for 12 years, from 952 to 964 saka; the inscription has an East Javanese style in lettering and style, mentions the current king by name. Copperplate letters dating to the 15th century, including royal instr