Athens Olympic Sports Complex
The Athens Olympic Park, is a sport facilities complex located at Marousi, northeast Athens, Greece. The complex consists of five major venues as well as other supplementary sport facilities; the Olympic Athletic Center of Athens has hosted the Mediterranean Games in 1991, the World Championship in Athletics in 1997 as well as other important athletic and cultural events. The most significant event the Athens Olympic Sports Complex has hosted, was the Olympic Games. OACA was the main venue for the Athens Olympic Games in 2004; the complex was revamped for the games under a design produced by the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava. The stadium, built in 1982 and extensively refurbished for the games in 2004, including the addition of a roof, hosted the athletics events and the soccer final, as well as the Opening Ceremony on August 13, 2004 and the Closing Ceremony on August 29, 2004, it is used as the home ground of AEK Athens F. C. one of the biggest football clubs in Greece. The Nikos Galis Olympic Indoor Hall was completed in 1995, was the largest indoor venue in use for sporting events at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece.
It is part of the Athens Olympic Sports Complex, in the suburb of Maroussi. The arena was used for artistic gymnastics and trampolining and hosted the finals of the basketball matches at the games. On May 18 and 20, 2006, the Olympic Indoor Hall hosted the 51st Eurovision Song Contest, held in Athens after Greece's victory at the Song Contest in 2005; the Athens Olympic Sports Complex can be reached by Metro, by suburban train, or by direct bus lines [A7, 602, 550. While it was reported in 2008 that all of the Olympic venues utilized for the 2004 games, including certain facilities in the Sports Complex such as the velodrome and tennis center, have fallen into varying states of dereliction or disrepair, all of the facilities in the Athens Olympic Sports Complex are still in use today; the table below illustrates how the Athens Olympic Sports Complex facilities are used today: 2004 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. Pp. 201, 207, 227, 231, 242, 273, 303, 324, 329, 346, 409. Media related to Athens Olympic Sports Complex at Wikimedia Commons Official site Olympic Indoor hall info and pictures at stadia.gr
Björn Waldegård was a Swedish rally driver, the winner of the inaugural World Rally Championship for drivers in 1979. His Swedish nickname was "Walle". Waldegård, who came from Rimbo, had a career, his first international victory, at the wheel of a Porsche 911, came on the 1969 Monte Carlo Rally, while his last came for Toyota on the 1990 Safari. It made him the oldest driver to win a record he still retains. In the mid 1970s Waldegård took part in the newborn European Championship for Rallycross Drivers with a entered Porsche Carrera RSR, his best overall result was to become the Runner-up to Austrian Franz Wurz, father of Alexander Wurz, of the 1974 Embassy European Rallycross Championship. The Alitalia-backed Lancia team of the 1970s choose between star drivers Waldegård and Italian frontrunner Sandro Munari. Waldegård and Munari came head to head in the 1976 Rallye Sanremo. Waldegård had a four-second lead over Munari entering the final stage, only to be forced to squander that advantage in keeping with the team's hopes for an'equal' shootout.
Waldegård, emerged as victor by four seconds, having disobeyed team orders and overtaken Munari – as a result, Waldegård left Lancia and joined Ford in late 1976. Driving Ford Escort RS1800 models, Waldegård won three of the world's most punishing rallies in 1977, he was victor in the inaugural World Rally Championship series in 1979 for Ford and Mercedes-Benz, beating Hannu Mikkola in the final round at the Rallye Côte d'Ivoire in the Ivory Coast, by finishing second behind his rival. In September 2008, Waldegård took part in the Colin McRae Forest Stages Rally, a round of the Scottish Rally Championship centred in Perth in Scotland, he was one of a number of ex-world champions to take part in the event in memory of McRae, who died in 2007. On the event he drove a Porsche 911. In addition to his rallying career, Waldegård took part in the 1970 Targa Florio sports car endurance race on the Italian island of Sicily, the oldest motor race in the world at the time, he drove a factory supported, John Wyer-entered Porsche 908/3.
The Targa Florio was more or less a rally-type race on a closed circuit made up of public roads, hence the reason for Waldegård's one-off drive with Porsche. Sharing driving duties with Briton Richard Attwood, he finished fourth. Björn Waldegård died on August 29, 2014 of cancer at the age of 70. Björn Waldegård – Rally blev mitt liv, by Waldegård, Björn & Karlsson, Gerhard, Årets Bilsport 1994, 212 pages, Swedish language, ISBN 9188540464 Björn Waldegård RallyBase profile
Toni Gardemeister is a Finnish professional rally driver in the World Rally Championship. After competing for SEAT's, Mitsubishi's, Škoda's and Ford's factory teams, as well as for privateer teams, he joined the Suzuki World Rally Team for the 2008 season. From the outset of his career Gardemeister had shown himself as a driver of some promise, he won the Finnish Rally Championship Group a title in 1997 behind the wheel of a Nissan Sunny and was driving for the Spanish car firm SEAT for limited outings in 1998 with the Ibiza. He was to become a world championship mainstay by the year 2000 in the firm's Córdoba WRC as team-mate to former world champion Didier Auriol. Gardemeister's impressive drives include a third place in New Zealand in 1999, a fourth place on the 2000 Monte Carlo Rally. With SEAT's surprise withdrawal from the'works' scene for 2001 came two privateer opportunities in a Peugeot 206 WRC, in which Gardemeister scored drivers' points on both the Monte Carlo Rally and the Swedish Rally, finishing fifth and fourth, respectively.
These performances attracted the attention of Škoda to whom Gardemeister moved. He was to drive the Octavia WRC throughout 2002 and 2003, reuniting with Auriol, as well as the Fabia WRC in 2004, his best results with the Octavia were fifth places at the 2002 Rally Argentina and 2003 Rally New Zealand. With the Fabia WRC, he finished seventh at the 2004 Rallye Deutschland. After securing a contract with the BP Ford World Rally Team, Ford's factory effort, for the 2005 season, after both of Ford's 2004 factory drivers Markko Märtin and Francois Duval left the team, Gardemeister drove his Ford Focus RS WRC 04 to a string of podiums and other points-scoring positions. A second place in Monte Carlo on his debut and a third in Sweden a month - which caused him to temporarily lead the World Championship - were complemented by another second place, this time in the Acropolis Rally in the Spring of that year. Finishing second once more on the Rallye de France in Corsica to the all-conquering Sébastien Loeb was thought to have aided Gardemeister's claim to retaining his drive with Ford for the 2006 season.
However, with former Peugeot star Marcus Grönholm signed to drive the 2006-specification factory Focus RS WRC, the news in November 2005 that Mikko Hirvonen had been signed to drive the second car in 2006 meant that Gardemeister would have to find a drive elsewhere. He finished the season a career-best fourth in the drivers' world championship, scoring twice as many points as his team-mate Roman Kresta. Driving for the privateer Astra Racing team in a Peugeot 307 WRC with co-driver Jakke Honkanen, Gardemeister finished third in the 2006 Monte Carlo Rally, the first rally of the season, he went on to compete in three more world rallies driving a Citroën Xsara WRC, finishing fourth in Greece and Germany, finishing fifth in Cyprus. In the 2007 season, Gardemeister competed in five world rallies with a Mitsubishi Lancer WRC05 and one with a Citroën Xsara WRC. With the Lancer WRC05, he finished seventh in Monte Carlo and sixth in Sweden and Sardinia, suffered two retirements. With the Xsara WRC, he took seventh place at the 2007 Rallye Deutschland.
Gardemeister resurfaced to the WRC full-time the following year. His hard work with privateer teams had not gone unnoticed, as the new Suzuki World Rally Team offered him and new co-driver Tomi Tuominen one of the two works drives in the 2008 World Rally Championship season. Gardemeister performed, finishing seventh in only their second rally, the 2008 Swedish Rally. Along with an eighth place in Finland and another seventh in New Zealand, Gardemeister achieved Suzuki's first WRC stage win in Japan and finished sixth overall behind his team-mate PG Andersson; this marked Suzuki's best points finish and points haul of the 2008 season, on the team's home event. After the event, Toni said: "This has been a tough but a good rally for us, which has confirmed what I always thought: when we have a nice clean run with no problems, we are able to fight for a good position. I was really proud to set Suzuki's first fastest stage time on Saturday. Given that we have not finished our first full year yet and that we have done no testing, it shows our potential for the future."
With Suzuki retiring from motorsport before season 2009, Gardemeister lost his drive. For 2009, Gardemeister participated in only 2 rallies of the Intercontinental Rally Challenge; the first being the Rallye Monte Carlo with an Astra Racing run Fiat Grande Punto Abarth S2000. He retired because of technical problems from 2 special stages before the finish; the second was the Rallye Principe de Asturias, with an Opel Corsa S2000 run by Motor Sport Developments. Gardemeister crashed on SS9 from 12th place. In 2010 he again participated at the IRC Rallye Monte Carlo with an Astra Racing run Fiat Grande Punto Abarth S2000, he won the prologue but retired from 10th place on SS11. He raced at WRC Rally Finland with a Ford Fiesta S2000, finishing 12th overall. In 2011, he entered the Rallye Monte Carlo with an Astra Racing-run Peugeot 207 S2000, finished in 10th place. After that, he bought himself a Škoda Fabia S2000 and launched his own team, TGS Worldwide OU, he missed the SATA Rally Azores and the Cyprus Rally.
He sometimes complained that the works Škodas had a technical advantage over the marque's privateer drivers, because of certain updates they couldn't get. He finished the season 9th overall. Gardemeister tried to put together the budget he needed to return to the IRC in 2012, but with Hankook leaving his team, his efforts were unsu
Special stage (rallying)
A special stage is a section of closed road at a stage rallying event. Racers attempt to complete the stage in the shortest time. A race on a special stage is coordinated such that each competing racer begins after a set interval, to reduce the chance of impedance by other competitors; each special stage is a short section up to about 30 miles in length. A rally comprises 15–30 special stages; the driver with the lowest overall time for all special stages in an event is the winner. The roads on which special stages are held vary from rally to rally, from the asphalt mountain passes used on the Monte Carlo Rally to the rough forest tracks used on the Rally GB. Surfaces such as ice and snow or desert sand are common, with the aim of providing a challenge for the driver and crew as well as a test of the car's performance and reliability. While competing on a special stage, the drivers and co-drivers can have no support from their teams and must deal with any breakdowns or problems themselves; each car will be given a specific start time for a stage at four-minute intervals.
In the minutes before setting off, a car will wait stationary at the start point until the driver scheduled start time. The driver may begin at that time, an official and the co-driver will provide a ten-second countdown; the timing of a stage for a particular car starts at its scheduled time, not when it passes the start point. At the end of the stage, there are two sets of markers; the first is referred to as the flying finish, is the point at which timing for the stage ends. The name comes from the fact that a car will be traveling at full racing speeds when it passes this post. Several hundred meters further along the stage is the stop control point, where the car must come to a halt in order for officials to record their time and check paperwork. 50 meters after the stop point is the end of the special stage restrictions. The cars must travel between special stages on public roads known as transport stages. While on public roads, all local traffic laws must be obeyed, so all cars must be roadworthy and taxed and insured.
Drivers may be given a scheduled time to arrive at their destination to ensure they do not speed during the journey, with penalties for arriving too soon or too late. It is common to see rallies containing a "Super Special Stage" or "Spectator Stage." These are timed stages, like standard special stages, but are held on short purpose-built tracks in outdoor stadia, but in covered venues. Two cars will set off at the same time and at the halfway point of the stage will swap lanes; the short distance means that the difference in times between the top runners is negligible, so the stage is of little relevance to the overall classification. What Is WRC? Glossary
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A center for the arts and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, in particular the Romans. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power and the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. Athens is a global one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe.
It has a large financial sector, its port Piraeus is both the largest passenger port in Europe, the second largest in the world. While at the same time being the sixth busiest passenger port in Europe; the Municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its administrative limits, a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. According to Eurostat in 2011, the functional urban area of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, with a population of 3.8 million people. Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland; the heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery.
Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. Athens is home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics, making it one of only a handful of cities to have hosted the Olympics more than once. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη, it was rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι.
The root of the word is not of Greek or Indo-European origin, is a remnant of the Pre-Greek substrate of Attica. In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena or Athena took her name from the city. Modern scholars now agree that the goddess takes her name from the city, because the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names. During the medieval period, the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. However, after the establishment of the modern Greek state, due to the conservatism of the written language, Ἀθῆναι became again the official name of the city and remained so until the abandonment of Katharevousa in the 1970s, when Ἀθήνα, Athína, became the official name. According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city. According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up.
In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree. Cecrops declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning "flower", to denote Athens as the "flowering city". Ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil. In classical literature, the city was sometimes referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindar's ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι, or as τὸ κλεινὸν ἄστυ. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of p
Ari Pieti Uolevi Vatanen is a Finnish rally driver turned politician and a Member of the European Parliament from 1999 to 2009. Vatanen won the World Rally Championship drivers' title in 1981 and the Paris Dakar Rally four times. Since 2013 Vatanen has been the President of the Estonian Autosport Union. Vatanen grew up in rural Tuupovaara in Eastern Finland, his debut year in rallying was 1970, he debuted in the World Rally Championship at the 1974 1000 Lakes Rally. In that year he won the Nortti Rally in an Opel Ascona, beating Hannu Mikkola in the process, which brought him to wider attention, his first international rally was the 1975 Rothmans 747 Rally in Jamaica driving a Datsun 120Y. He placed 12th with co-driver Gerry Phillips. At the end of that season he was offered his first professional drive, in a Ford Escort RS1800, on the RAC Rally, he crashed out on the second day, but by he had impressed Ford team manager Stuart Turner sufficiently for him to be offered a seat in the team for the British Rally Championship the following year.
He duly won the championship, a feat he repeated in 1980, co-driven by David Richards, who went on to become chairman of Prodrive, the Banbury based motorsport team and one of the most influential figures in British motorsport. Between 1977 and 1980 he competed on selected World Championship events for the official Ford team and after its withdrawal from the sport at the end of 1979, for the semi-private Rothmans Rally Team, he took his debut win at the 1980 Acropolis Rally and became the World Rally Champion in 1981. He remains the only privateer driver to have achieved this feat. Vatanen and Richards parted ways for the 1982 season, for the next few years Vatanen was co-driven by Terry Harryman, he did not defend his world title in 1982, competing instead in the British Championship in a Ford Escort, before moving to the Opel team for 1983. The Opel Ascona and Opel Manta were only two-wheel-drive and not competitive, but Vatanen still managed to win the Safari Rally. In 1984, Vatanen signed to drive the Peugeot 205 T16 for Peugeot's factory team.
From the 1984 1000 Lakes Rally to 1985 Swedish Rally, Vatanen won five world rallies in a row. He was tipped to win the 1985 world title, but at mid-season was trailing his teammate Timo Salonen after a series of accidents and mechanical problems, he had a serious accident on the Rally Argentina, when his car somersaulted at over 120 mph. His seat broke, he was thrown around inside the car, suffering severe injuries to his legs and torso and life-threatening internal bleeding, he spent 18 months recovering first from his physical injuries, from severe depression. He went on to make a complete recovery and his return to motorsport in 1987 saw him go on to win the Paris-Dakar Rally four times, he became the centre of controversy when his car was stolen whilst leading the same rally in 1988. With Peugeot, Vatanen won the Pikes Peak International Hillclimb, after Peugeot stopped participating in the World Rally Championship in 1986, due to the demise of Group B rallying. Peugeot used the lessons learnt from its 205 T16 to create the 405 T16.
With at least 600 bhp, large aerofoils, four-wheel drive and four-wheel steering, Vatanen took the car up the hill in record time, his efforts being captured in the award-winning short film Climb Dance. Vatanen's autobiography Every Second Counts, detailing his life and career up until that point, was published in 1988 and became a best seller. Vatanen continued competing in the World Rally Championship more or less until the 1998 season, he drove for Mitsubishi Ralliart Europe in four events in 1989 and in five events in 1990. His best result with the Mitsubishi Galant VR-4 was second at the 1990 1000 Lakes Rally. From 1992 to 1993, he competed for Subaru in 11 events, finishing second three times, including on the debut event of the first Subaru Impreza in Finland. Vatanen led the event before being overhauled by eventual winner Juha Kankkunen. So, he was dropped by the Subaru team at the end of the 1993 season in favour of Carlos Sainz; the following year he returned to the wheel of a Ford, driving the Ford Escort RS Cosworth for a semi-private team, being co-opted into the Ford factory team where he stood in for the injured Francois Delecour.
His most notable result that year was a podium finish on Rally Argentina, the first time he had contested the event since his accident there nine years previously. The 1995 and 1996 seasons were quiet for Vatanen, whose career as a top-line driver was drawing to a close. At the time there was a surplus of drivers and those late in their careers, such as Vatanen, tended to lose out in favour of younger talents, he continued to contest a few events and in subsequent years, his best result being a podium finish at the 1998 Safari Rally. He briefly returned to a works Subaru for the season-ending Rally of Great Britain, marking his 100th World Rally Championship event. Although he became much less active in rallying, his hunger for motorsport had not left him however, Vatanen joined Nissan in the Paris-Dakar in 2003, finishing seventh, he made an appearance at the 2003 Rally Finland with a Bozian Racing-prepared Peugeot 206 WRC, finished eleventh. In 2004 and 2005, Vatanen drove the Dakar for Nissan as well, in 2007 he made another attempt with Volkswagen, but retired on the seventh stage.
He holds the position of'Club Patron' to the Ireland's Donegal Motor Club since 2002. He has a long association with the Donegal Motor Club an
2006 Acropolis Rally
The 2006 Acropolis Rally was the eighth round of the 2006 World Rally Championship season. It took place between June 1–4, 2006. All dates and times are EEST. Results at eWRC-results.com