Acrylic paint is a fast-drying paint made of pigment suspended in acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints become water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint is diluted with water, or modified with acrylic gels, mediums, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolor, a gouache or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media. Otto Röhm invented acrylic resin, transformed into acrylic paint; as early as 1934, the first usable acrylic resin dispersion was developed by German chemical company BASF, patented by Rohm and Haas. The synthetic paint was first used in the 1940s, combining some of the properties of oil and watercolor. Between 1946 and 1949, Leonard Bocour and Sam Golden invented a solution acrylic paint under the brand Magna paint; these were mineral spirit-based paints. Acrylics were made commercially available in the 1950s. Following that development, Golden came up with a waterborne acrylic paint called "Aquatec".
In 1953, Jose L. Gutierrez produced Politec Acrylic Artists' Colors in Mexico, Henry Levinson of Cincinnati-based Permanent Pigments Co. produced Liquitex colors. These two product lines were the first acrylic emulsion artists' paints. Water-based acrylic paints were subsequently sold as latex house paints, as latex is the technical term for a suspension of polymer microparticles in water. Interior latex house paints tend to be a combination of binder, filler and water. Exterior latex house paints may be a co-polymer blend, but the best exterior water-based paints are 100% acrylic, due to elasticity and other factors. Vinyl, costs half of what 100% acrylic resins cost, polyvinyl acetate is cheaper, so paint companies make many different combinations of them to match the market. Soon after the water-based acrylic binders were introduced as house paints and companies alike began to explore the potential of the new binders. Water-soluble artists' acrylic paints were sold commercially by Liquitex beginning in the 1950s, with modern high-viscosity paints becoming available in the early'60s.
In 1963, Rowney was the first manufacturer to introduce artist's acrylic paints in Europe, under the brand name "Cryla". Before the 19th century, artists mixed their own paints, which allowed them to achieve the desired color and thickness, to control the use of fillers, if any. While suitable media and raw pigments are available for the individual production of acrylic paint, hand mixing may not be practical because of the fast drying time and other technical issues, such as the necessity to combine several polymers, as well as surfactants, dispersants and stabilisers in the correct amounts and order. Acrylic painters can modify the appearance, flexibility and other characteristics of the paint surface by using acrylic mediums or by adding water. Watercolor and oil painters use various mediums, but the range of acrylic mediums is much greater. Acrylics have the ability to bond to many different surfaces, mediums can be used to modify their binding characteristics. Acrylics can be used on paper, canvas and a range of other materials, however their use on engineered woods such as medium-density fiberboard can be problematic because of the porous nature of those surfaces.
In these cases it is recommended. Acrylics can be applied in thin layers or washes to create effects that resemble watercolors and other water-based mediums, they can be used to build thick layers of paint—gel and molding paste are sometimes used to create paintings with relief features. Acrylic paints are used in hobbies such as train, car and human models. People who make such models use acrylic paint to build facial features on dolls, or raised details on other types of models. Wet acrylic paint is removed from paint brushes and skin with water, whereas oil paints require the use of a hydrocarbon. Acrylic paints are the most common paints used in grattage, a surrealist technique that became popular with the advent of acrylic paint. Acrylics are used for this purpose because they scrape or peel from a surface. Acrylic artists' paints may be thinned with water or acrylic medium and used as washes in the manner of watercolor paints, but unlike watercolor the washes are not rehydratable once dry.
For this reason, acrylics do not lend themselves to the color lifting techniques of gum arabic-based watercolor paints. Instead, the paint is applied in layers, sometimes diluting with water or acrylic medium to allow layers underneath to show through. Using an acrylic medium gives the paint more of a rich and glossy appearance, whereas using water makes the paint look more like watercolor and have a matte finish. Acrylic paints with gloss or matte finishes are common; some brands exhibit a range of finishes. As with oils, pigment amounts and particle size or shape can affect the paint sheen. Matting agents can be added during manufacture to dull the finish. If desired, the artist can mix different media with their paints and use topcoats or varnishes to alter or unify sheen; when dry, acrylic paint is non-removable from a solid surface if it adheres to the surface. Water or mild solvents do not re-solubilize it, although isopropyl alcohol can lift some fresh paint films off. Toluene and acetone can remove paint films, but they do not lift paint stains well and are not selective.
The use of a solvent to remove paint may re
Mikhailo Aleksandrovich Olelkovich was a noble from the Olelkovich family of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. He was the brother of Prince Simeon Olelkovich of Kiev and cousin of Grand Prince Ivan III of Moscow. Mikhailo was involved both in bringing the Judaizer Heresy to Novgorod and the failed defection of the city to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1471, he organized a coup against Casimir IV Jagiellon, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, but was discovered and executed in 1481. Mikhailo's son Semen continued the family line. According to the 1456 Treaty of Yazhelbitsy, the Novgorod Republic became dependent on the Grand Duchy of Moscow was not allowed to conduct independent foreign policy. In a bid to regain independence, Novgorod began negotiations for an anti-Muscovite alliance with Casimir IV Jagiellon, Grand Duke of Lithuania, it was alleged in an account purportedly drawn up in the archiepiscopal scriptorium in the mid-1470s that Mikhailo, as regent for Casimir IV, arrived in Novgorod to marry Marfa Boretskaya, the matriarch of the pro-Lithuanian faction in the city.
Moscow accused Novgorod not only of violation of a political treaty, but of religious treachery: there were allegations that the marriage would have brought Novgorod over to Catholicism, but Gail Lenhoff and Janet Martin argue that the pro-Lithuanian, pro-Catholic allegations are suspect and, indeed unlikely. Mikhailo was Orthodox and he and his brother had strong differences of opinion with Casimir IV Jagiellon. Mikhailo entered Novgorod on November 8, 1470 with a large retinue and remained in the city until March 15, 1471, his large retinue included Skhariya the Jew. The heresy spread from there to Moscow in 1479 when Grand Prince Ivan III transferred several heretical priests to Moscow; the affair ended when Mikhailo withdrew from the city and Ivan III defeated the Novgorodians in the Battle of Shelon in July 1471. In 1478, Moscow took direct control of the city. After the death of his brother Simeon in 1470, the Principality of Kiev was converted into the Kiev Voivodeship and was governed by appointed officials.
This was a serious setback to the Olelkovich family as it claimed the principality as their possession since Mikhailo's grandfather Vladimir, son of Algirdas. The loss of Kiev could be attributed to Olelkovich's faith and their close kinship with the Grand Princes of Moscow, who threatened Lithuania's eastern borders. For example, in 1479 Mikhailo acted as intermediary in arranging the marriage of Ivan the Young, son of Ivan III, Elena, daughter of Stephen III of Moldavia. Disappointed by the Lithuanian politics, Mikhailo Olelkovich organized opposition to Casimir IV. In 1481, he together with relatives Iwan Olshanski-Dubrovicki and Feodor Ivanovich Belsky organized a coup against the Grand Duke. However, the plot was discovered by voivode of Kiev Ivan Chodkiewicz, Mikhailo and Iwan were executed. Feodor managed to escape to the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Mikhailo and twelve other Ruthenian nobles signed a letter to Pope Sixtus IV in 1476, authored by Miseal, Metropolitan of Kiev; the letters expressed loyalty to the Council of Florence and supported a church union between Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy.
It contained complains that the Catholics were discriminating the Orthodoxs and asked the Pope for protection. There are doubts whether the letter was authentic and not a forgery. Mykhailo Olelkovych at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine
Queen Elizabeth cake is a dessert cake prepared with typical cake ingredients and a shredded coconut icing. Queen Elizabeth cake is named after Elizabeth II, it may have originated in 1953 for the coronation of Elizabeth II, another account holds that it was invented for the 1937 coronation of King George VI and the Queen Mother Queen Elizabeth. Queen Elizabeth cake is a dessert cake prepared with sugar, dates and butter, topped with a sugary icing infused with shredded coconut; the cake is named after Elizabeth II. It is a popular cake in Canada; the coconut topping is prepared by grilling. The icing is prepared using a caramel base; the dates used are chopped, give the cake a dark coloration. Chopped walnuts or other types of nuts are sometimes used atop the cake. Queen Elizabeth cake is low in fat compared to other cakes, has a moist consistency, it is sometimes served accompanied with tea. The cake is common at bake sales, it is sometimes purveyed at pastry shops in Canada. An account of Queen Elizabeth cake's origins is that it was prepared for the coronation of Elizabeth II in 1953.
During this time, food rationing still existed in Great Britain, a cake with few ingredients was in order. Another account is that the cake was invented for the 1937 coronation of King George VI and the Queen Mother Queen Elizabeth. A recipe for Queen Elizabeth cake was published by the Coronation Cook Book in 1953 in celebration of Elizabeth II's coronation. List of cakes List of things named after Queen Elizabeth II Queen Elizabeth cake
The Bandung Institute of Technology is a state, coeducational research university located in Bandung, Indonesia. Established in 1920, ITB is the oldest technology-oriented university in Indonesia. ITB was considered the top choice among Indonesia's high school students in 2006 and has been credited as one of the most prestigious universities in Indonesia, together with Gadjah Mada University and University of Indonesia. Sukarno, the first president of the Republic of Indonesia, earned his engineering degree in civil engineering from ITB. Furthermore, B. J. Habibie, the third president of Indonesia spent a year in the mechanical engineering department of ITB and is recognized as a graduate; the university cultivates professional and social activities by supporting its students' unions, the student government councils that exist in every department. Each students' union has its own distinctly designed jacket that, among other traditions, serves as part of its member identity. There are a number of student activity units/clubs supporting ITB student interests in rounding out their educational experience.
It is not uncommon that the students and alumni are identified by the clubs to which they belong at ITB, in addition to their class year and major. The university is a member of LAOTSE, an international network of leading universities in Europe and Asia exchanging students and senior scholars; as of early 2016, ITB had nine undergraduate study programs been internationally accredited from an independent U. S.-based accrediting institution, Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, where ITB and IPB or Bogor Agricultural University are the only public universities in Indonesia with this particular international accrediting institution. The ten study programs are Electrical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Engineering Physics, Industrial Engineering, Engineering Management, Ocean Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering. ITB's march "Mars ITB" and hymn "Hymne ITB" were arranged by a former professor, Prof. Dr. Sudjoko Danoesoebrata. ITB traces its origin to de Technische Hoogeschool te Bandoeng, established by the Dutch colonial administration to meet the needs of technical resources in Dutch East Indies.
The school building was designed in 1918 by a Dutch architect named Henri Maclaine Pont, inspired by Indonesian vernacular architecture and blending it with modern elements. When the school opened its door for the first time on 3 July 1920, it only had one department namely'de Faculteit van Technische Wetenschap' and one academic major of'de afdeeling der Weg en Waterbouw'. During the Japanese occupation in 1942-1945, the institute was renamed Kōgyō Daigaku; when Indonesia declared its independence the campus was renamed "Sekolah Tinggi Teknik" in 1945. However a year the Netherlands returned to Indonesia and took directorship of the campus, it was used as "Nood-Universiteit van Nederlandsch Indië". In 1947 the campus housed the Faculteit van Technische Wetenschap and Faculteit van Exacte Wetenschap, under Universiteit van Indonesië. In 1950 after the Netherlands left Indonesia, the university became faculty of engineering and faculty of natural sciences, under University of Indonesia. On 2 March 1959, the 2 faculty of University of Indonesia in Bandung was declared a separate academic entity.
On Government Regulation No. 155/2000, ITB was declared a Legal Enterprise. Bandung Institute of Technology was founded for higher learning in natural sciences and fine arts; the ITB main campus, to the north of the downtown Bandung, its other campuses, cover a total area of 770,000 square metres. Students and faculty housing, administrative headquarters are not on the main campus, but are located within proximity. Facilities on the campus include a post office, student cafeteria and medical clinic. In addition to lecture rooms, laboratories and studios, ITB has an art gallery, sports facilities and a student activities' centre. For implementation of academic and research activities there are seven academic support facilities, the Central Library on campus, Sports Centre, Language Centre and the Bosscha Observatory in Lembang, 11 kilometres to the north of Bandung. Admission to ITB is conducted through nationwide entrance examination. ITB has been the most selective University in the nation. In 2000, the last Asiaweek survey available, ITB ranked first in Asia in student selectivity.
In the 2007 and 2008 national entrance examination, ITB has the highest average score as well as the highest passing grade in the nation. The aggregate admission rate in 2008 was around 4%, lower than the admission rate of Harvard in the same year Several national and global surveys have been conducted to assess the quality of universities. ITB is among the first choices of college applicants to enter higher education. In a 1991 survey, the top 200 high school students in the national entrance examination indicated ITB as their first choice. THE-QS, a UK-based University ranking survey, ranked ITB 80th in the field of Engineering and IT in the world, the only university in Indonesia within the top 100 in its field; the first rank in the field was MIT. ITB is considered to have the highest selectivi
Chase v. Curtis, 113 U. S. 452, was a suit brought under the provisions of §12 of the Act of the Legislature of New York of February 17, 1848, as amended June 7, 1875, where trustees of corporations formed for manufacturing, mechanical, or chemical purposes are made liable for debts of the company on failure to file the reports of capital and of debts required by that section, is penal in its character, must be construed with strictness as against those sought to be subjected to its liabilities. Suit was brought to recover from the trustees of such a corporation the amount of a judgment against the corporation, the judgment roll is not competent evidence to establish a debt due from the corporation to the plaintiff. A claim in tort against a corporation formed under that act, as amended, is not a debt of the company for which the trustees may become liable jointly and severally under the provisions of the Act. In a proceeding to enforce a liability created by a state statute, the courts of the United States give to a judgment of a state court the same effect, either as evidence or as cause of action, given to it in like proceedings in the courts of the state whose laws are invoked in the enforcement.
The complaint in this action, after alleging that the plaintiff in error was a citizen of Pennsylvania, the defendants citizens of New York, proceeded as follows: "Second. That at the times hereinafter mentioned, the defendants were trustees of the Union Petroleum Company of New York." "Third. That the said company is, at the times hereinafter mentioned was, a corporation organized pursuant to an Act of the legislature of the State of New York entitled'An act to authorize the formation of corporations for manufacturing, mechanical, or chemical purposes,' passed on the 17th day of February, 1848, the amendments thereto, its principal place of business being in the City of New York." "Fourth. That the said plaintiffs brought their plea of trespass on the case against the said Union Petroleum Company of New York in the Court of Common Pleas for the County of Venango, in the State of Pennsylvania, in which the said Union Petroleum Company duly appeared, that the said action was thereafter, on or about the 9th day of September, 1873, on the petition of the said Union Petroleum Company, verified by the affidavit of Abijah Curtis, one of the defendants above named, removed to the United States Circuit Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania.
And that on the 30th day of July, 1874, before the time for filing the annual report hereinafter mentioned, the above-named plaintiffs duly recovered a judgment in the said action against the said Union Petroleum Company of New York in the Circuit Court of the United States in and for the Western District of Pennsylvania, by the judgment and consideration of said court having jurisdiction therein, of the said Union Petroleum Company of New York, for forty thousand five hundred dollars damages, three hundred and twenty-eight dollars and ninety-seven cents costs, which judgment was duly given, still remains in full force and effect, not satisfied or annulled, no part thereof has been paid." "Fifth. That the said Union Petroleum Company of New York did not within twenty days from the first day of January, 1875, make and publish a report as required by law in such case made and provided, signed by its president and a majority of its trustees, verified by the oaths of the president or secretary thereof, did not file the same in the office of the clerk of the county where the business of the company was carried on, to-wit, the County of New York, nor have they made, signed, verified, or filed any such report whatsoever as by law required, but have wholly failed so to do.""Wherefore the plaintiffs demand judgment against the above-named defendants in the sum of $40,828.97, with interest on $40,500.00 from the 30th day of July, 1874, on $328.97 from the 3d day of October, 1874, besides the costs and disbursements of this action."
To this complaint the defendants severally demurred on the ground that it did not state facts sufficient to constitute a cause of action. The demurrer was sustained and judgment rendered in favor of the defendants dismissing the complaint, to reverse which this writ of error is prosecuted; the statute on which the action is founded is as follows: "SECTION 1. The twelfth section of the'Act to authorize the formation of corporations for manufacturing, mechanical, or chemical purposes,' passed February 17, 1848, as said section was amended by chapter 657 of the Laws of 1871, is hereby further amended, so that section 12 shall read as follows:" "§ 12; every such company shall, within twenty days from the first day of January, if a year from the time of the filing of the certificate of incorporation shall have expired, if so long a time shall not have expired within twenty days from the first day of January in each year after the expiration of a year from the time of filing such certificate, make a report, which shall be published in some newspaper published in the town, city, or village, or, if there be no newspaper published in said town, city, or village in some newspaper published nearest the place where the business of the company is carried on, which shall state the amount of capital, of the proportion paid in, the amount of its existing debts, which report shall be signed by the president and a majority of the trustees, shall be verified by the oath of the president or secretary of said company, filed in the office of the clerk of the county where the business of the company shall be carried on, if any of said companies shall fail so to do, all the trustees of the company shall be jointly and severally liable for all the debts of the company exi
A vigil, from the Latin vigilia meaning wakefulness, is a period of purposeful sleeplessness, an occasion for devotional watching, or an observance. The Italian word vigilia has become generalized in this sense and means "eve". A vigil may be held on the eve of a major religious festival, observed by remaining awake—"watchful"—as a devotional exercise or ritual observance on the eve of a holy day; such liturgical vigils consist of psalms and hymns a sermon or readings from the Holy Fathers, sometimes periods of silent meditation. The term "morning" means. In traditional Christianity, the celebration of liturgical feasts begins on the evening before the holy day because the Early Church continued the Jewish practice of beginning the day at sunset rather than midnight. Most the best known vigil is the Easter Vigil held at night between Holy Saturday and Easter Sunday; the Midnight Mass held on Christmas Eve is a remnant of this practice. Christmas Eve is a time of reflection for Christians all over the world.
In the Eastern Orthodox Church an All-Night Vigil is held on the eves of Sundays and all Major Feast Days during the liturgical year. Vigils are commonly observed on Holy Days in the Anglican and Methodist Churches; when a Jew dies, a watch is kept over the body and Tehillim are recited until the burial service. In Christianity the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic traditions, a vigil is held when someone is gravely ill or mourning. Prayers are said and votives are made. Vigils extend from eventual death to burial, ritualistically to pray for a loved one, but more so their body is never left alone. During the Middle Ages, a squire on the night before his knighting ceremony was expected to take a cleansing bath, make confession, hold an all-night vigil of prayer in the chapel, preparing himself in this manner for life as a knight. For the knighting ceremony, he dressed in white as a symbol for purity and over, placed a red robe to show his readiness to be wounded, over which a black robe was placed as a symbol of his willingness to die for his king.