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Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves

The Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves of 1807 is a United States federal law that provided that no new slaves were permitted to be imported into the United States. It took effect in the earliest date permitted by the United States Constitution; this legislation was promoted by President Thomas Jefferson, who called for its enactment in his 1806 State of the Union Address. He had promoted the idea since the 1770s, it reflected the force of the general trend toward abolishing the international slave trade which Virginia, followed by all the other states, had prohibited or restricted since then. South Carolina, had reopened its trade. Congress first regulated against the trade in the Slave Trade Act of 1794; the 1794 Act ended the legality of American ships participating in the trade. The 1807 law did not change that—it made all importation from abroad on foreign ships, a federal crime; the British parliament had passed the comparable Abolition of the Slave Trade Act, on February 23, 1807. The domestic slave trade within the U.

S. was not affected by the 1807 law. Indeed, with the legal supply of imported slaves terminated, the domestic trade increased in importance. In addition, some smuggling of slaves persisted; the laws discussed here affected only the export of slaves. It did not affect the internal trade between states. Article 1 Section 9 of the United States Constitution protected the international slave trade for twenty years from federal prohibition. By 1800 all states prohibited the international trade but South Carolina reversed itself and permitted it. At all times and after 1808, there was considerable illegal trade. Article 5 said. Only starting January 1, 1808, could there be a federal law to abolish the international slave trade, although individual states could and did ban it at any time; the Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

In the 18th century, Great Britain had become Europe's largest slave trader. During the American Revolution against Great Britain, all the states banned the Atlantic slave trade; this was done for a variety of economic and moral reasons depending on the state. The trade was reopened in South Carolina and Georgia. Contradicts previous paragraph. On March 22, 1794, Congress passed the Slave Trade Act of 1794, which prohibited making, outfitting, equipping, or dispatching of any ship to be used in the trade of slaves limiting the trade to foreign ships. On August 5, 1797, John Brown of Providence, Rhode Island, became the first American to be tried in federal court under the 1794 law. Brown was forced to forfeit his ship Hope. In the 1798 act creating the Mississippi Territory, Congress allowed slaves to be imported from the rest of the United States to Mississippi Territory, exempted the territory from the part of the 1787 Northwest Ordinance that abolished slavery in the Northwest Territory after 1800.

However, the same act abolished the importation of slaves to the Mississippi Territory from "foreign parts". The penalty for illegally importing slaves from abroad to the territory was a fine of $300. In the Slave Trade Act of 1800, Congress outlawed U. S. citizens' investment in the trade, the employment of U. S. citizens on foreign vessels involved in the trade. On December 2, 1806, in his annual message to Congress reprinted in most newspapers, President Thomas Jefferson denounced the "violations of human rights" attending the international slave trade and called for its criminalization on the first day, possible, he said: I congratulate you, fellow-citizens, on the approach of the period at which you may interpose your authority constitutionally, to withdraw the citizens of the United States from all further participation in those violations of human rights which have been so long continued on the unoffending inhabitants of Africa, which the morality, the reputation, the best interests of our country, have long been eager to proscribe.

The House and Senate agreed on a bill, approved on March 2, 1807, called An Act to prohibit the importation of slaves into any port or place within the jurisdiction of the United States and after the first day of January, in the year of our Lord, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Eight. The bound measure regulated the coastwise slave trade. President Thomas Jefferson signed the bill into law on March 2, 1807. Many in Congress believed the act would doom slavery in the South; the role of the Navy was expanded to include patrols off the coasts of South America. The effective date of the Act, January 1, 1808, was celebrated by Peter Williams, Jr. in "An Oration on the Abolition of the Slave Trade" delivered in New York City. While there are no exact figures known, historians estimate that up to 50,000 slaves were illegally imported into the United States after 1808 through Spanish Florida and Texas, before those states were admitted to the Union. However, South Carolina Governor Henry Middleton estimated in 1819 that 13,000 smuggled African slaves arrived every year.

Carl C. Cutler's classic book on American clipper ships records: The act outlawing the slave trade in 1808 furnished another source of demand for fast vessels, for another half century ships continued to be fitted out and financed in this trade by many a respectable citizen in the

Pig in a poke

A pig in a poke is a thing, bought without first being inspected, thus of unknown authenticity or quality. The idiom is attested in 1555: A "poke" is a bag, so the image is of a concealed item being sold. Starting in the 19th century, this idiom was explained as a confidence trick where a farmer would substitute a cat for a suckling pig when bringing it to market; when the buyer discovered the deception, he was said to "let the cat out of the bag", that is, to learn of something unfortunate prematurely, hence the expression "letting the cat out of the bag", meaning to reveal that, secret. The French idiom acheter chat en poche and the Dutch een kat in de zak kopen refer to an actual scam of this nature, as do many other European equivalents, while the English expression refers to the appearance of the trick; the English idiom "sold a pup" refers to a similar con. In common law, buyers have the right to inspect goods before purchase. A poke is a sack or bag, from French poque, the etymon of "pocket", "pouch", "poach".

Poke is still in regional use. Pigs were brought to market for sale in a cloth bag, a poke; the English colloquialisms such as turn out to be a pig in a poke or buy a pig in a poke mean that something is sold or bought without the buyer knowing its true nature or value when buying without inspecting the item beforehand. The phrase can be applied to accepting an idea or plan without a full understanding of its basis. Similar expressions exist in other European languages, most of them referring to the purchase of a cat in a bag. In the April 1929 edition of the literary magazine London Aphrodite, a story by Rhys Davies, titled "A Pig in a Poke", was published, in which a Welsh collier takes a woman from London for his wife and regrets it. Cultural references to pigs Green goods scam Lipstick on a pig E. Cobham Brewer, Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898. Funk, Charles Earle, A Hog on Ice: & Other Curious Expressions. HarperResource, 2002. ISBN 0-06-051329-2

Samuil (village)

Samuil is a village in northeastern Bulgaria, part of Razgrad Province, located in the geographic region of Ludogorie. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Samuil Municipality, which lies in the southeastern part of the Province; as of December 2009, the village has a population of 1,543 inhabitants. Samuil lies among the Samuil Heights in the Ludogorie Plateau, near the second highest hill in the Danubian Plain; the population consists of Bulgarians and Romani. The area was inhabited by the Getae and the Romans in Antiquity and by the Slavs and Bulgars in the Middle Ages, it was part of the First Bulgarian Empire and the Second Bulgarian Empire, but fell under Ottoman rule as early as 1388. The construction of Baron Hirsch's Rousse-Kaspichan-Varna railway line in 1867-1868 turned the small village of Ishiklar into a railway station of local importance, with the first settlers being Greek merchants and harvesters. After the Liberation of Bulgaria, many Bulgarians settled in the village, renamed to Gara Samuil and to Samuil in honour of the medieval tsar Samuil of Bulgaria.

Samuil municipality covers an area of 250 square kilometres and includes the following 14 places: Ethnic Turks constitute 75% of the population, Bulgarians being 14% and Roma 11%. Samuil municipality website

Ajit Balakrishnan

Ajit Balakrishnan is an Indian entrepreneur, business executive and administrator. He is the founder, current Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of, an internet company based in Mumbai. Balakrishnan was Chairman of the Board of Governors of Indian Institute of Management Calcutta for two five-year terms ending in March 2017. Balakrishnan holds a Bachelor of Science from the University of Kerala and a Post Graduate Diploma in Management with Master in Business studies from Indian Institute of Management Calcutta. Balakrishnan's first business was Rediffusion, now known as Rediffusion DY&R, which he co-founded when he was 22. In 1995, he founded, which became a successful internet site, was listed on NASDAQ in 2001. He writes a column in Business Standard and has written a book published by Macmillan Publishers called The Wave Rider, he has co-authored a research paper, Generic Framework for a Recommendation System using Collective Intelligence, with Alkesh Patel, presented at the International Conference on Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, 2009.

Balakrishnan served as the Chairman of the Board of Governors of IIM Calcutta for two five-year terms ending in March 2017. He presently serves on the Governing Council of Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, he was named as Mobile Association of India. He has served as the Chairman of the Govt of India, Ministry of Information Technology Working Group on Internet Governance and Proliferation, he chaired a Committee appointed by India's Ministry of Human Resource Development on'Research and Faculty Enhancement at the 7 IIMs'. He has in the past served as a member of the Central Advisory Board of Education of the Government of India; the Wave Rider


Vaileka known as Rakiraki town is an urban centre in Fiji, in the Rakiraki region of Ra Province. It had a population of 3,361 at the last to date, it is not a "town," however: that term is reserved for urban centres with organized municipal governments. The status of the area may be changed; the Fiji Times reported on 4 October 2006 that Uraia Waqa, Chairman of the Rakiraki Local Government Authority, had called for Vaileka to be incorporated as a Town, to be known as Rakiraki Town, in order to attract government investment. Local Government and Urban Development Minister Chaitanya Lakshman was reported to be sympathetic to the proposal; the Penang Sugar Mill is being operated by the Fiji Sugar Corporation on the banks of the Penang River, about one kilometer outside of the township. Vaileka is twinned with Irish town Kenmare since 2015

Cove lighting

Cove lighting is a form of indirect lighting built into ledges, recesses, or valances in a ceiling or high on the walls of a room. It directs light up towards the ceiling and down adjacent walls, it may be used as primary lighting, or for aesthetic accent to highlight decorative ceilings. Cove lighting is valued because it hides the fixtures, because it provides a even light. One method of installing cove lighting is by using T5 fluorescent tubes. T5 luminaires are an energy-efficient alternative to larger luminaires because they save on materials. An better energy-efficient alternative is to use LED strips, mounted on an aluminium profiles for optimum heat dissipation, with prismatic covers. With a dimming controller, the cove lighting can be dimmed. A wide range of LEDs are available, from warm white and colour changing RGB modules. Lighting specialists recommend installing cove lighting at least 18 inches from the ceiling and 6 feet 8 inches from the floor. In kitchens, cove lights can be installed on the top of kitchen cabinets.

Luminaire strips should overlap the tubes to reduce the shadow effect at the lamp ends