The Honda Vigor was a premium sedan, sold in Japan through the Honda Verno dealer network from 1981 to 1995 derived from the Honda Accord, sold in North America from June 1991 to 1994 as the Acura Vigor. Early Vigors were more upmarket versions of the Accord and served as Honda's flagship until the arrival of the Honda Legend. In 1989, the Vigor would differentiate itself further from the Accord with unique styling and an available longitudinal five-cylinder engine, a twin to the Vigor was introduced with the Honda Inspire, available at Honda Clio dealerships, it was replaced in North America with the Acura TL and in Japan with the Honda Saber/Inspire, which were the same vehicle sold through different networks. The Vigor was developed during what was known in Japan as the Japanese asset price bubble or "bubble economy". Beginning September 25, 1981, Honda produced a variant of the Honda Accord badged as the Honda Vigor for Japan only; the first generation Vigor was a higher grade 4-door sedan and 3-door hatchback, with the 1.8 L engine as the only engine available, using Honda's CVCC-II system.
The Vigor was a sportier, faster, "vigorous" Accord with a higher level of equipment over the more sedate Accord. Due to the higher level of luxury oriented equipment, the Vigor help "set the stage" for the market to accept a luxury equipped car from Honda, which appeared in 1985 with the Honda Legend; the Vigor competed with the Nissan Laurel in Japan. The rear lighting implementation consisted of the license plate installed in the bumper, with a black trim piece between the rear tail lights and the word "Vigor" inscribed; the Accord installed the rear license plate between the rear tail lights. This engine used the SOHC 3-valve-per-cylinder CVCC-II setup, mated to a 5-speed manual or 4-speed automatic transmission with a lockup torque converter. Vehicles with a manual transmission and the CVCC carburetor earned 13.6 km/L based on Japanese Government emissions tests using 10 different modes of scenario standards, 110 PS, 23 km/L at maintained speeds at 60 km/h. Vehicles with PGM-FI earned 13.2 km/L based on Japanese Government emissions tests using 10 different modes of scenario standards, with 130 PS, 22 km/L maintained speeds at 60 km/h.
Japanese buyers were liable for a higher level of annual road tax over other Honda products with smaller engines. Items that were optional on the Accord, such as cruise control, air conditioning with automatic fan speed control and thermostatically monitored temperature, power windows with driver's one touch express down, power steering were standard on the Vigor. A trip computer that displayed mileage, driving time, fuel economy that Honda called in sales brochure literature as "Electronic Navigator" was standard on the Vigor. All Vigors were equipped with ELR seatbelts. One of the optional items on the Vigor was an Electro Gyrocator, the world's first automatic in-car navigation system. Other items included digital instrumentation, four-wheel Anti-lock brakes, a choice of stereo systems from Alpine Electronics and Pioneer, alloy wheels, adjustable thigh support on the front passenger seat; as of 1985, trim levels that were offered were the MG, ME, ME-R for the sedan. Earlier trim packages were the VXR, VX, VL, all using the CVCC-II induction setup.
Honda's fuel injection system was offered on the VTL-i, VT-i. As the hatchback continued to be manufactured as an Accord only, the Vigor hatchback was available with the trim packages MX-T, the ME-T until it was replaced by the Honda Integra 2-door hatchback in 1984. Earlier trim packages for the Vigor hatchback were the TXL, TX, TU using the carburetor, the TT-i with fuel injection. Vehicles that were installed with fuel injection no longer used the CVCC system; some of the standard equipment on the MX-T hatchback and the MG and ME sedans included cruise control, 2 position 4 Wheel auto leveling suspension, fuel usage computer, AM/FM cassette stereo and two Coaxial loudspeakers, flow through ventilation, velour interior with split folding rear seats, a rear cargo cover for the hatchbacks. The higher trim level ME-T hatchback and the ME-R included delayed interior illumination, four coaxial speakers with the stereo system, power windows and locks, disc brakes front and rear, speed sensitive power steering.
With some differences in the equipment available between the Accord and the Vigor, the vehicle was the same. Producing a vehicle with two different names allowed Honda to sell the car at different sales channels in Japan; the equipped Vigor 2-door hatchback offered cargo carrying flexibility over the first generation Nissan Leopard coupe, not a hatchback, an approach shared with the first and second generation Toyota Supra. Here is a Japanese television commercial for the Vigor In 1997, Honda reused this approach to add an enhanced version of the mainstay Accord, by duplicating their efforts achieved on this generation Honda Vigor, naming the new car the Honda Torneo. June 4, 1985 saw the introduction of the redesigned Vigor as a four-door sedan only; as before, the Vigor was a luxury Accord. The 1.8 L B18A four-cylinder engine was now offered with dual carburetors and a larger 2.0 L B20A engine was offered Honda's PGM-FI, with the 1.8 L A18A engine as the basic offering. The Vigor had minor cosmetic differences from the Accord, using a different front grille and rear tail lights, as well as a higher specific
Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, trucks, buses and vans. The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design. Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design; the task of the design team is split into three main aspects: exterior design, interior design, color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of automotive design.
Design focuses not only on the isolated outer shape of automobile parts, but concentrates on the combination of form and function, starting from the vehicle package. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic utility features as well. In particular, vehicular electronic components and parts will give more challenges to automotive designers who are required to update on the latest information and knowledge associated with emerging vehicular gadgetry dashtop mobile devices, like GPS navigation, satellite radio, HD radio, mobile TV, MP3 players, video playback, smartphone interfaces. Though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models; the designer responsible for the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions and surfaces of the vehicle. Exterior design is first done by a series of manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management.
Industrial plasticine and or digital models are developed from, along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full-sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the clay model is first designed in a computer program and "carved" using the machine and large amounts of clay. In times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, the clay model is still the most important tool to evaluate the design of a car and, therefore, is used throughout the industry; the designer responsible for the vehicles' interior develops the proportions, shape and surfaces for the instrument panel, door trim panels, pillar trims, etc. Here the emphasis is on the comfort of the passengers; the procedure here is the same as with exterior design. The color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle; these include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, so on.
Color, contrast and pattern must be combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience. Designers work with the exterior and interior designers. Designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as: industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for projects two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from this research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry; the designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models. The design team develops graphics for items such as: badges, dials, kick or tread strips, liveries; the sketches and rendering are transformed into 3D Digital surface modelling and rendering for real-time evaluation with Math data in initial stages. During the development process succeeding phases will require the 3D model developed to meet the aesthetic requirements of a designer and well as all engineering and manufacturing requirements.
The developed CAS digital model will be re-developed for manufacturing meeting the Class-A surface standards that involves both technical as well as aesthetics. This data will be further developed by Product Engineering team; these modelers have a background in Industrial design or sometimes tooling engineering in case of some Class-A modelers. Autodesk Alias and ICEM Surf are the two most used software tools for Class-A development. Several manufacturers have varied development cycles for designing an Automobile, but in practice these are the following. Design and User Research Concept Development sketching CAS Clay modeling Interior Buck Model Vehicle ergonomics Class-A Surface Development Colour and Trim Vehicle GraphicsThe design process occurs concurrently with other product Engineers who will be engineering the styling data for meeting performance and safety regulations. From mid-phase and forth interactions between the designers and product engineers culminates into a finished product be manufacturing ready.
Apart from this the Engineering team parallelly works in the following areas. Product Engineering, NVH Development team, Prototype
Honda K engine
The Honda K-series engine is a line of four-cylinder four-stroke car engine introduced in 2001. The K-series engines are equipped with DOHC valvetrains and use roller rockers to reduce friction; the engines use a distributorless ignition system with a coil for each spark plug. This system forgoes the use of a conventional distributor-based ignition timing system in favor of a computer-controlled system that allows the ECU to control ignition timings based on various sensor inputs; the cylinders have cast iron sleeves similar to the B- and F-series engines, as opposed to the FRM cylinders found in the H- and newer F-series engines found only in the Honda S2000. Similar to B series, the K-series car engines have two short blocks with the same design. K20 uses the short block with a deck height of 212mm where K23 and K24 block has a deck height of 231.5mm. Two versions of the Honda i-VTEC system can be found on a K-series engine, both versions can come with variable timing control on the intake cam.
The VTEC system on engines like the K20A3 only operate on the intake cam. At high rpm, both intake valves open to improve engine breathing. In engines such as the K20A2 found in the Acura RSX Type-S, the VTEC system operates on both the intake and exhaust valves, allowing both to benefit from multiple cam profiles. A modified K24 engine is used in motorsports, such as Formula 3. Applications Additional notes K20A Chromoly flywheel, higher-tensile strength connecting rods, high-compression pistons, stiffer valve springs, higher-lift hollow camshafts with more duration, 2007–2011 cylinder-head intake-port and exhaust-port surface polishing used in NSX-R; the JDM K20A type-R engine block would be removed from production assembly line by an experienced Honda engine technician to torque the connecting rod bolts to factory specification by hand using micrometer to measure connecting rod bolt stretching. The JDM K20A type-R engine block would be returned to the production assembly line to complete the engine building process.
Similar to K20A3 and K20A1 Found in: 2002-2005 Honda Integra- 2000-2005 Honda Stream S 2000-2005 Honda Stream S 2005-2010 Honda Edix 2005-2008 Honda Accord Sedan 2005-2008 Honda Accord Wagon 2006-2010 Honda Civic Sedan DOHC i-VTEC Power and Torque may vary by the Compression Ratio, Intake manifold, Exhaust manifold Power: 155 hp@6500rpm. Applications Additional notes K20Z3; the K20Z3 has traditional performance VTEC cams on the exhaust cams. Variable valve timing technology is included on the intake but not the exhaust cams; the added valve timing control corresponds to the added "i" in i-VTEC. Additional notes This version of the K engine uses a Mitsubishi TD04HL-15T turbocharger with a dual path turbine housing, optimizing low end response while allowing better high end flow. Maximum boost pressure is 13.5psi. The engine includes iVTEC and VTC technologies and comes mated to a version of Honda's 5-speed automatic with SH-AWD. Applications Applications Additional notes K24A2 Increased intake flow: Intake valve + 1 mm oversize Intake cam High lift lobe with 0.9 mm more lift and 12 degrees more duration Throttle body increased from 60–64 mm Radius on some intake pipes increased from 70–80 mm Increased exhaust flow Exhaust Head pipe increased from 60–65 mm Higher flow catalytic converter Main exhaust pipe increased from 54–57 mm Rear pipes increased in diameter from 42.5 to 45 mm Block improvements: Additional air passages in crankcase for reduced pumping losses Others Stronger connecting rods New crankshaft with more counterbalance weight Revised pistons with more valve-piston clearance Under-piston oil squirters Direct Injection, iVTEC This section inaccurately suggested that the 2016-2017+ Acura ILX engine K24V7 and the K24W7 of the Acura TLX are the same engine, although they may be closely related sharing identical internal architecture and components, they are different engines with different Honda internal engine code designations.
This may be due to different transmissions, as the 2016-2017+ ILX uses its own specific 8-speed dual-clutch auto with a torque converter, as well as different exhaust and accessory packaging due to their differing chassis. Applications Applications Applications Honda engine pages: i-VTEC DOHC, 2.0L DOHC i-VTEC K Series VTEC Breakdown: K Series VTEC Breakdown
The term cab forward refers to various rail and road vehicle designs that place the driver's compartment farther towards the front than is common practice. In steam locomotive design, a cab forward design will have the driver's compartment placed forward of the boiler at the front of the engine. On a coal-fired locomotive, the fireman's station remains on the footplate behind the firebox so as to be next to the tender. On an oil-fired locomotive, the fireman's station could be in the forward cab; this type of design was though not used throughout Europe in the first half of the 20th century in conjunction with an enclosed body design and/or streamlining. Visibility is improved from the cab, fumes from the chimney do not fill a forward cab in tunnels. However, the crew's prospects in the event of a collision are worse, if the driver and fireman are in separate places it is difficult for them to communicate, just as in autotrains. In Germany, Borsig in Berlin built a one-off streamlined cab forward DRG Class 05 4-6-4 in 1937, with further development stopped by World War II.
The design speed was 175 km/h, but its conventional layout sister 05 002 set a new world speed record for steam locomotives on May 11, 1936, after reaching 200.4 km/h on the Berlin–Hamburg line hauling a 197 t train, a record it lost two years to the British LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard. In 1944, the streamlining was removed, but the 05 003 had by already lost its cab forward layout. After the war, it pulled express trains in West Germany until 1958, it was scrapped in 1960. The state-owned Italian Ferrovie dello Stato had several cab forward locomotives, Class 670, 671, 672; these 4-6-0 engines had a three-axle tender, were nicknamed "mucca". The engines were used to haul passenger trains on the Milan-Venice railway. Matthias N. Forney was issued a patent in the late 1860s for a new locomotive design, he had set out to improve the factor of adhesion by putting as much of the boiler’s weight as possible on the driving wheels, omitting the pilot wheels from beneath the front of the boiler. Such a design would not have been stable at high speeds on the rather uneven tracks which were common at the time.
Instead, he extended the locomotive frame behind the cab, placing a four-wheel truck beneath the water tank and coal bunker. In conventional Whyte notation, this resulted in a 0-4-4T locomotive, but when run in reverse it was a 4-4-0 tank locomotive, with the track stability of that popular wheel arrangement, along with unobstructed visibility for the engineer, improved dispersal of smoke and steam. Forney's design proved ideal for the small quick locomotives for elevated and commuter railroads, he licensed the patent design to many manufacturers. Large numbers of Forneys served in New York City, Boston and elsewhere, but were superseded at the end of the nineteenth century by electrification and the development of subways. Ariel and Puck were two-foot gauge locomotives built to the Forney cab-forward design for the Billerica and Bedford Railroad in 1877 by Hinkley Locomotive Works of Boston; the best known example of the cab-forward design in the United States, the Southern Pacific Cab-Forward placed the cab at the front by the simple expedient of turning the entire locomotive, minus the tender, by 180 degrees.
This arrangement was made possible by burning fuel oil instead of coal. The cab forward design was used by the Southern Pacific Railroad; the design was able to deal with the peculiar problems of its routes. The 39 long tunnels and nearly 40 miles of snow sheds of the Sierra Nevada Mountains could funnel dangerous exhaust fumes back into the crew compartment of a conventional locomotive. After a number of crews nearly asphyxiated, the locomotive was run in reverse; this meant. The tender put crewmen on the wrong sides of the cab for seeing signals; the tenders were not designed to be pushed at the lead of the train. Southern Pacific commissioned Baldwin Locomotive Works to build a prototype cab-forward locomotive ordered more units before the prototype had arrived. All of the cab-forwards were oil-burning locomotives, which meant there was little trouble involved putting the tender at what would be the front of the locomotive; the oil and water tanks were pressurized so that both would flow even on uphill grades.
Visibility from the cab was superb, such that one crewman could survey both sides of the track. There were concerns about what would happen to the crew in the event of a collision, at least one fatal accident occurred on the Modoc Line in Herlong, California when a moving locomotive struck a flat car. Turning the normal locomotive arrangement around placed the crew well ahead of the exhaust fumes, insulating them from that hazard. One problematic aspect of the design, was the routing of the oil lines. A nuisance under most conditions, it resulted in at least one fatal accident; this occurred in 1941 when a cab-forward with leaking steam and oil lines entered the tunnel at Santa Susana Pass, near Los Angeles. The tunnel was on a grade, as the slow-moving train ascended the tunnel, oil on the rails caused the wheels to slip and spin; the train slipped backwards and a coupler knuckle broke, separating the air line, causing an emergency brake application and stal
Honda Integra DC5
The Honda Integra DC5 is the fourth and final generation of the Honda Integra compact car, introduced in Japan on April 13, 2001, produced from July 2001 to July 2006. It was introduced in North America for the 2002 model year as the Acura RSX. In concordance with the introduction of the Integra's platform mate, the seventh-generation Civic being introduced in 2000, the Integra joined the Civic in abandoning Honda's traditional double-wishbone suspension at both ends and adopted MacPherson struts in the front and trailing arm type suspension in the rear along with the new K-series engine supplanting the B-series; the K-series engine features intelligent VTEC, which electronically adjusts valve lift, valve duration and valve timing, giving the 2.0 L engine a flatter torque curve relative to previous VTEC implementations which only adjusted valve lift and valve duration. The Integra DC5 received a facelift in the 2005 model year; the headlight and taillight assemblies lost the so-called'teardrop' shape.
This made the assemblies flush with the bumpers. In Japan, the Integra was introduced in two versions, the Integra iS and the Integra Type R; the JDM iS/Type S, the same as the base Acura RSX, featured the K20A3 engine with an output of 160 hp and is offered with either a 5-speed automatic or a 5-speed manual transmission. Integra iS is offered in 2002-2004 model years with 15-inch steel wheels with covers, or optional 16-inch 5-spoke alloy wheels. JDM Type S was offered in 2005-2006 model years, was equipped with a 17-inch 5-spoke alloy wheels shared with the Acura RSX Type-S; the Integra Type R, sold in Japan had reduced weight, a 220 PS / 164 kW / 217 hp K20A I4 engine, 6-speed close-ratio manual transmission, as well as a helical limited slip differential, stiffer springs and shocks, high intensity discharge projector headlights, aluminum pedal set, 4-piston front Brembo brake calipers, 17-inch 5 double spoke wheels on Bridgestone Potenza tires, Recaro suede seats/matching interior, leather wrapped MOMO steering wheel, body trim, front strut bar, more.
The Type R lacked many of the luxury features in the Type S, true to its racing heritage. The C package on the Type R added various accessories like the rear window wiper, remote control, folding mirrors. JDM Integras iS had one interior colour, available for the first model year. After 2002, Titanium interiors became available for all exterior colours. Type S had redesigned leather seats. Type R had choices of black/blue/red interiors, depending on exterior colours. Refreshed Integra Type R had the option of the trunk lip spoiler. Integra iS and Type S were available with sunroof, navigation systems. Additional interior and exterior accessories were available from Honda's Modulo line. Modulo accessories offered include interior trim, aero kits, wing spoilers, alloy wheels, push button start, upgraded speakers, navigation. Australia had four models of the Integra, they were named Integra, Integra Luxury, Integra Type R and Integra Type S. The base Integra was the JDM Integra iS, while the Luxury added accessories like leather seats and side driver/passenger airbags.
Australian Type Rs did not have full JDM specifications, they lacked the Brembo braking system, K20A 220PS engine, the 17-inch 5-spoke alloy wheels. However, the Australian Type R does still retain the JDM's helical limited slip differential, full Type R interior /aero; the Honda Integra Type R was dropped in 2004, was replaced by the Integra Type S. The Type S was mechanically identical to the USDM Acura RSX Type-S, but badged like the JDM Type S; when the Integra was refreshed in 2005, Integra base model was dropped. The only trims available in 2006 was Integra Luxury and Type S. Black interior was the only colour available for the redesign. For the oceanic redesign extra strengthening was given to fit a higher safety regulations. New Zealand only had two models, the Integra VTi and Type R. Integra VTi came with alloy wheels as standard, but was otherwise the same as JDM Integra iS. Type R was replaced by the Type-S like Australia in 2004. NZDM Type R models are the same as AUDM, but did not have ABS.
Two models were available in the US: RSX and RSX Type-S. The RSX had numerous standard features such as cruise control, 4-wheel ABS, power windows and a power moonroof; the RSX used the 160 hp K20A3 engine throughout the entire production run. Sport cloth seats were standard with optional perforated leather interior. An optional 16-inch 7-spoke alloy wheel was available, similar to the USDM 15-inch DC2 Integra Type R alloy wheels; the RSX was available with either a 5-speed manual transmission or a 5-speed automatic with Sequential SportShift and Grade Logic Control. The RSX Type-S had a 200 hp K20A2 or 210 hp K20Z1 in 2005-2006 and a close-ratio 6-speed manual transmission. An aut
Acura is the American luxury vehicle marque of Japanese automaker Honda. The brand was launched in the United States and Canada on 27 March 1986, marketing luxury and high-performance vehicles, it was introduced to Hong Kong in 1991, Mexico in 2004, China in 2006, Russia in 2014 and Kuwait in 2015, is sold in Ukraine. Honda's plan to introduce Acura to the Japanese domestic market in 2008 was delayed, due to economic reasons, withheld as a result of the 2008 financial crisis. Acura holds the distinction of being the first American-Japanese automotive luxury brand; the creation of Acura coincided with the introduction of a JDM Honda dealership sales channel, called Honda Clio, which sold luxury vehicles, joining established Honda Verno, followed by Honda Primo the following year. In its first few years of existence, Acura was among the best-selling luxury marques in the US. Though sales were down in the mid-to-late 1990s, the brand experienced a revival in the early 2000s, due to drastic redesigns and the introductions of new models.
In the late 1980s, the success of the company's first flagship vehicle, the Legend, inspired fellow Japanese automakers Toyota and Nissan to launch their own luxury brands and Infiniti, respectively. The 1990 launch of the NSX, a mid-engine exotic sports car, offered a reliable and practical alternative to exotic European sports cars, introduced Honda's VTEC variable valve timing system to the North American market; the 1993 Legend coupé featured Honda's first use of a six-speed manual transmission, mated to a Type II engine. In the late 1990s, Acura produced a Type R version of its compact Integra coupé, which featured a reduced curb weight, a stiffer and lower suspension, a high-output VTEC engine. In the early 2000s, Acura introduced new models, including the company's first all-original SUV, the MDX, two models which replaced the Integra coupé and sedan, the RSX and TSX, respectively. Type-S versions of the RSX, CL, TL were added to the brand's lineup during that decade. Acura's 2005 RL flagship introduced a torque-vectoring all-wheel drive system.
The 2007 RDX, a crossover SUV, featured the first North American use of a turbocharged Honda engine. In the 2010s, Acura debuted more new models, including the ILX, TLX, RLX, the latter of which introduced Acura's Jewel Eye LED headlights. A second generation NSX was launched in 2016 and features a twin-turbocharged mid-engine, a nine-speed dual-clutch transmission, Sport Hybrid SH-AWD; the brand was created around the same time as Japanese rivals Nissan and Toyota developed their Infiniti and Lexus premium brands respectively. The Japanese government imposed voluntary export restraints for the U. S. market, so it was more profitable for Japanese automakers to export more expensive cars to the U. S. Following a decade of research, Honda opened 60 new dealerships in North America by 1986, to support its Acura automobile division. Acura was the first Japanese luxury brand, introduced under the slogan, "Acura. Precision Crafted Automobiles." Its initial offering consisted of two models: the executive class Legend and the compact class Integra, available as a five-door and three-door hatchback.
The Legend was the result of Project XX, a joint venture Honda entered into with the UK's Austin Rover Group. It was mechanically related to the Rover 800 series, while the Integra was an improvement of the Honda Quint hatchback; the success of these models the Legend, led to competing Japanese luxury brand ventures. The goal of the Legend was to compete with rivals Toyota Crown and the Nissan Cedric and Gloria, but due to its 1986 introduction worldwide, Toyota and other companies like Lincoln took notice of the markets reaction to the Legend and the Vigor and offered vehicles that addressed the executive size car. Toyota introduced the Lexus ES, Nissan introduced the Infiniti J30 and Ford utilized the Taurus platform and named their new sedan the Lincoln Continental. In 1987, Acura's first full year of sales, they sold 109,000 cars with the flagship Legend sedan accounting for 55,000 sales and the rest were of the smaller Integra. By 1990, Acura was selling 138,000 vehicles, including 54,000 Legends, compared to Mercedes-Benz's 78,000 cars and 64,000 each for BMW and Lexus.
In 1990, five years after the debut of the Legend and Integra, Acura introduced the NSX, a midship V6 powered, rear-wheel-drive sports car. The NSX, an acronym for "New Sports eXperimental", was billed as the first Japanese car capable of competing with Ferrari and Porsche; this vehicle served as an "image car" for both the Honda and Acura brands, heralding the introduction of Honda's VTEC technology. The NSX was the world's first all-aluminum production car, was marketed and viewed by some as the "Everyday Supercar" thanks in part to its ease of use and reliability, traits that were unheard of in the supercar segment at the time. With the release of the NSX, Acura introduced the "A-badge", a stylized pair of calipers—a tool used for exacting measurements to imply that Acura vehicles are built to precise and demanding standards. Despite a strong start in market acceptance for the Acura brand, sales suffered in the mid-to-late 1990s; some critics attributed this decline in part to less inspiring designs, which were re-branded Japanese-spec Hondas, such as the Acura Vigor in 1992.
Additionally, during this time Acura switched to an alphanumeric nomenclature formula, dropping the Legend and Integra titles, following the lead of the NS
High-intensity discharge lamp
High-intensity discharge lamps are a type of electrical gas-discharge lamp which produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube. This tube is filled with noble gas and also contains suitable metal or metal salts; the noble gas enables the arc's initial strike. Once the arc is started, it evaporates the metallic admixture, its presence in the arc plasma increases the intensity of visible light produced by the arc for a given power input, as the metals have many emission spectral lines in the visible part of the spectrum. High-intensity discharge lamps are a type of arc lamp. Brand new high-intensity discharge lamps make more visible light per unit of electric power consumed than fluorescent and incandescent lamps, since a greater proportion of their radiation is visible light in contrast to infrared. However, the lumen output of HID lighting can deteriorate by up to 70% over 10,000 burning hours.
Many modern vehicles use HID bulbs for the main lighting systems, some applications are now moving from HID bulbs to LED and laser technology. However, this HID technology is not new and was first demonstrated by Francis Hauksbee in 1705. Various types of chemistry are used in the arc tubes of HID lamps, depending on the desired characteristics of light intensity, correlated color temperature, color rendering index, energy efficiency, lifespan. Varieties of HID lamp include: Mercury-vapor lamps Metal-halide lamps Ceramic MH lamps Sodium-vapor lamps Xenon short-arc lampsThe light-producing element of these lamp types is a well-stabilized arc discharge contained within a refractory envelope arc tube with wall loading in excess of 3 W/cm². Mercury-vapor lamps were the first commercially available HID lamps, they produced a bluish-green light, but more recent versions can produce light with a less pronounced color tint. However, mercury-vapor lamps are falling out of favor and being replaced by sodium-vapor and metal-halide lamps.
Metal-halide and ceramic metal-halide lamps can be made to give off neutral white light useful for applications where normal color appearance is critical, such as TV and movie production, indoor or nighttime sports games, automotive headlamps, aquarium lighting. Low-pressure sodium-vapor lamps are efficient, they have an effective CRI of nearly zero. This makes them effective as photographic safelights. High-pressure sodium lamps tend to produce a much whiter light, but still with a characteristic orange-pink cast. New color-corrected versions producing a whiter light are now available, but some efficiency is sacrificed for the improved color. Like fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to maintain their arcs; the method used to strike the arc varies: mercury-vapor lamps and some metal-halide lamps are started using a third electrode near one of the main electrodes, while other lamp styles are started using pulses of high voltage. Replacements for the toxic mercury in the HID lamps have been investigated and are a matter of ongoing research.
Experiments show widespread future applications are expected. Some HID lamps make use of radioactive substances such as thorium; these isotopes help improve lamp operating characteristics. Krypton-85 is a gas and is found mixed in with the argon, in the arc tube of the lamp; the thorium, a solid, is used in the electrodes. These isotopes produce ionizing radiation of beta type; this radiation causes high ionization inside the lamp without being able to escape from the lamp. High ionisation makes arc starting via Townsend avalanche much easier. Moreover, the presence of thorium in electrodes reduces the work function which again results in easier arc starting and sustaining; the amount of gamma radiation produced by the isotopes that can escape from the lamp is negligible. HID lamps are used when high levels of light over large areas are required, when energy efficiency and/or light intensity are desired; these areas include gymnasiums, large public areas, movie theaters, football stadiums, outdoor activity areas, parking lots, pathways.
More HID lamps have been used in small retail and residential environments because of advances in reduced lumen bulbs. Ultra-high performance HID lamps are used in LCD or DLP projection TV sets or projection displays as well. HID lamps have made indoor gardening practical for plants that require high levels of direct sunlight in their natural habitat, they are used to reproduce tropical intensity sunlight for indoor aquaria. Most HID lamps produce significant UV radiation and require UV-blocking filters to prevent UV-induced degradation of lamp fixture components and fading of dyed items illuminated by the lamp. Exposure to HID lamps operating with faulty or absent UV-blocking filters causes injury to humans and animals, such as sunburn and arc eye. Many HID lamps are designed to extinguish if their outer UV-shielding glass envelope is broken. Beginning in the early 1990s, HID lamps have seen applications in automotive headlamps. Xenon, or high-intensity discharge, lighting provides brighter headlights and increases visibility of many peripheral objects left in the shadows by standard halogen lighting.
HID lamps are used in high-performance bicycle headlamps, as well as flashlights and other portable lights, because they produce a great amount of lig