Johann Adam Weishaupt was a German philosopher, law professor, founder of the Order of the Illuminati, a secret society. Adam Weishaupt was born on 6 February 1748 in Ingolstadt in the Electorate of Bavaria. Weishaupt's father Johann Georg Weishaupt died. After his father's death he came under the tutelage of his godfather Johann Adam Freiherr von Ickstatt who, like his father, was a professor of law at the University of Ingolstadt. Ickstatt was a proponent of the philosophy of Christian Wolff and of the Enlightenment, he influenced the young Weishaupt with his rationalism. Weishaupt began his formal education at age seven at a Jesuit school, he enrolled at the University of Ingolstadt and graduated in 1768 at age 20 with a doctorate of law. In 1772 he became a professor of law; the following year he married Afra Sausenhofer of Eichstätt. After Pope Clement XIV’s suppression of the Society of Jesus in 1773, Weishaupt became a professor of canon law, a position, held by the Jesuits until that time.
In 1775 Weishaupt was introduced to the empirical philosophy of Johann Georg Heinrich Feder of the University of Göttingen. Both Feder and Weishaupt would become opponents of Kantian idealism. At a time, when there was no end of making game of and abusing secret societies, I planned to make use of this human foible for a real and worthy goal, for the benefit of people. I wished to do what the heads of the ecclesiastical and secular authorities ought to have done by virtue of their offices... On 1 May 1776 Johann Adam Weishaupt founded the "Illuminati" in the Electorate of Bavaria, he adopted the name of "Brother Spartacus" within the order. Encyclopedia references vary on the goal of the order, such as New Advent saying the Order was not egalitarian or democratic internally, but sought to promote the doctrines of equality and freedom throughout society; the actual character of the society was an elaborate network of counter-spies. Each isolated cell of initiates reported to a superior, whom they did not know: a party structure, adopted by some groups.
Weishaupt was initiated into the Masonic lodge "Theodor zum guten Rath", at Munich in 1777. His project of "illumination, enlightening the understanding by the sun of reason, which will dispel the clouds of superstition and of prejudice" was an unwelcome reform, he used Freemasonry to recruit for his own quasi-masonic society, with the goal of "perfecting human nature" through re-education to achieve a communal state with nature, freed of government and organized religion. Presenting their own system as pure masonry and Adolph Freiherr Knigge, who organised his ritual structure expanded the secret organisation. Contrary to Immanuel Kant's famous dictum that Enlightenment was the passage by man out of his'self-imposed immaturity' through daring to'make use of his own reason, without the guidance of another,' Weishaupt's Order of Illuminati prescribed in great detail everything which the members had obediently to read and think, so that Dr. Wolfgang Riedel has commented that this approach to illumination or enlightenment constituted a degradation and twisting of the Kantian principle of Enlightenment.
Riedel writes:'The independence of thought and judgement required by Kant... was prevented by the Order of the Illuminati's rules and regulations. Enlightenment takes place here, if it takes place at all under the direction of another, namely under that of the "Superiors". Weishaupt's radical rationalism and vocabulary were not to succeed. Writings that were intercepted in 1784 were interpreted as seditious, the Society was banned by the government of Karl Theodor, Elector of Bavaria, in 1784. Weishaupt fled Bavaria, he received the assistance of Duke Ernest II of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, lived in Gotha writing a series of works on illuminism, including A Complete History of the Persecutions of the Illuminati in Bavaria, A Picture of Illuminism, An Apology for the Illuminati, An Improved System of Illuminism. Adam Weishaupt died in Gotha on 18 November 1830, he was survived by his second wife, Anna Maria, his children Nanette, Ernst, Karl and Alfred. Weishaupt was buried next to his son Wilhelm who preceded him in death in 1802.
After Weishaupt's Order of Illuminati was banned and its members dispersed, it left behind no enduring traces of an influence, not on its own erstwhile members, who went on in the future to develop in quite different directions. Weishaupt's character and intentions have been variously assessed; some took a negative view, such as Augustin Barruel, who despite writing that Weishaupt's goals were that "Equality and Liberty, together with the most absolute independence, are to be the substitutes for all rights and all property" saw this as more dangerous than beneficial, John Robison who regarded him as a'human devil' and saw his mission as one of malevolent destructiveness. Others took a more positive view, including Thomas Jefferson, who wrote in a letter to James Madison that "Barruel’s own parts of the book are the ravings of a Bedlamite" and considered Weishaupt as an "enthusiastic Philanthropist" who believed in the indefinite perfectibility of man and his intention was to "reinstate natural religion, by diffusing the light of his morality, to teach us to govern ourselves".
In his defense, Weishaup
The Ōtōkan lineage is a lineage of the Rinzai school of Zen. It was founded by Nanpo Shōmyō, who received the dharma in China in 1265 and returned to Japan in 1267, it is centered at the temple complexes of Myōshin-ji and Daitoku-ji in Kyoto, sometimes referred to as the "Myōshin-ji lineage" accordingly. It now consists of two main lines, the Inzan line and the Takujū line, which date to circa 1800; the Otokan lineage was founded by Nanpo Shōmyō 南浦紹明, who received transmission in China from the monk Xutang Zhiyu 虚堂智愚 in 1265, who returned to Japan in 1267. It was spread by his student Shuho Myocho and Kanzan Egen, who made it an influential school, it is today the only surviving lineage in the Rinzai school, is the most influential. It is the lineage to which Hakuin Ekaku belonged, from whom all contemporary Rinzai lineages descend, it is the lineage of the Ōbaku sect, related to Rinzai. Other Rinzai lineages existed, but no others survived the 19th century; the name Ōtōkan, traditionally written 應燈關, in modern Japanese written 応灯関, is analyzed as ō-tō-kan, is derived from the names of the first three patriarchs: the "ō" of Daiō, the "tō" of Daitō, the "kan" of Kanzan.
In detail: Daiō Kokushi 大應國師, Daitō Kokushi 大燈國師, Kanzan Egen 關山慧玄. The lineage is. Direct inheritance is given, with side branches not given; this lists the lineage from Nanpo Shōmyō through Hakuin Ekaku and his immediate disciples, branching with Inzan Ien and Takujū Kosen. Note that Shoju Rojin did not grant Hakuin Ekaku permission to teach, but today Hakuin is considered to have received dharma transmission from Shoju, since Hakuin himself regarded Shoju Rojin's influence in his understanding of Zen. Nanpo Shōmyō 南浦紹明, posthumous name Enzu Daiō Kokushi 圓通大應國師 simply Daiō Kokushi 大應國師 Shūhō Myōchō 宗峰妙超 known as Daitō Kokushi 大燈國師, founded Daitoku-ji Tettō Gikō Gongai Sōchū Kanzan Egen 關山慧玄, founder of Myōshin-ji Juō Sōhitsu Muin Sōin Tozen Soshin Toyo Eicho Taiga Tankyo Koho Genkun Sensho Zuisho Ian Chisatsu Tozen Soshin Yozan Keiyō Gudō Toshoku Shidō Bu'nan Shoju Rojin Hakuin Ekaku 白隠慧鶴 influential revivalist Gasan Jitō 峨山慈棹 At this point the lineage splits in two: Inzan Ien 隱山惟琰 Takujū Kosen 卓洲胡僊 Further generations are extensive, including all current Rinzai masters.
Takujū: Ryochu Nyoryu 良忠如隆, abbot of Manpuku-ji The two main schools today are Takujū and Inzan. These have a few differences in practice: Takujū works through the three major works of Mumonkan, Kattō-shū, Hekiganroku in that order, while Inzan mix the works, but still in a prescribed order. Takujū uses jakugo for all kōans, while Inzan uses it for most, but not all
Francesco Migliori known as Francesco Megliori was an Italian painter of the Baroque period, active in his native Republic of Venice. His training is not known, though an adherence to the style of the tenebrosi suggests the school of Antonio Molinari. Migliori first appears in the records of the painter's guild starting in 1711, his name appears in 1722 as the author of a series of paintings in the inventory for the gallery of Frederick Augustus I, Elector of Saxony. A first group of paintings depicts biblical subjects: Cain and Abel, the Sacrifice of Isaac, a Joseph Interprets the Dreams, a Lot and His Daughters, Cimon and Pero; the influence of Bencovich and Piazetta is evident. He sent two mythological scenes with Bacchus and Ariadne and the Rape of Europa. From this decade appear to be two altarpieces, depicting the Adoration of the Magi and the Transit of St. Joseph, which once had been attributed to Gaspare Diziani. By 1718 he completed the altarpiece of the Assumption for the altar of the Blessed Assumption School in San Stae.
About this time, he completed the altarpiece of the Crucifixion with Saints Lawrence and Rocco for the parish church of San Martino a Sambughè, in Treviso. In 1727-28 he completed the painted decoration of the organ doors of San Moise with a St. Cecilia and an Adoration of the Golden Calf. Another artist active in the decoration of the choir was Francesco Pittoni, he completed an altarpiece of St. Anthony Resuscitates Father Martino for a chapel at the right in the church, he painted a small canvas depicting Christ and the Samaritan and a Christ and Mary Magdalene now at Rovigo. By 1728, he began to perform extensive works in the decoration of San Marcuola. Beginning in April 1728, he is documented to have painted a series of canvases about the titular saints of Ermagora and Fortunato for the church of San Marcuola renovated by Giorgio Massari. By 1729-1731, he competed paintings for the sacristy of this church, depicting Fortunato Attends Ermagora's Martyrdom and the Baptism conferred by Ermagora to the martyred Saints Euphemia, Dorotea and Erasma, plus a ceiling canvas depicting the Glory of Saints Ermagora and Fortunato.
He painted a second subject for presbytery with the Fall of Manna. He painted a Virgin of Sorrows and St. Francis of Paola now on the sides of the pulpit, he painted the main altarpiece of the Assumption but that appears now replaced by a copy. He may have played a role in a cycle of the Passion of Christ for the adjacent oratory, but the one remaining painting is attributed to Nicolò Bambini. Entry on Francesco Migliori by M. Biffis in Treccani Encyclopedia
Ambient Guitar Noise: Volume 1 is the debut studio album of ambient, experimental guitar loop compositions by Matthew McCabe in a first recording as King Never. Recorded live in the studio over the course of one week, the album was released by Marathon Records on June 1, 2000 Influenced by 80s new wave and progressive rock such as The Police, King Crimson, The Fixx, King Never began as an outlet for Matt McCabe's explorations on guitar with real-time audio feedback techniques; the album was recorded live in studio with no overdubs. Handshake –:24 Loop 2 – 4:51 Loop 3 – 4:35 Loop 4 – 2:10 Loop 5 – 3:07 Loop 6 – 5:29 Loop 7 – 5:16 Loop 8 – 7:31 Loop 9 – 2:27 End Loop – 5:36 Matt McCabe: Guitar Mixed at Back Room Studios, Chico, CA on April 27, 1996 by Loren Alldrin and Matt McCabe Mastered at, Roseville, CA from May 27 to May 29, 2000 by Matt McCabe. Produced by Matt McCabe Art direction and design by Jeff Elbel Photography by Matt McCabe album info on KingNever.com Allmusic.com - Ambient Guitar Noise: Volume 1
Jarrod Keith Croker is an Australian professional rugby league footballer, the captain and goal-kicking centre for the Canberra Raiders in the NRL. He has played his entire career to date with the Canberra, with whom he became the 2012, 2015 and 2016 top point-scorer. Croker is Prime Minister's XIII, NRL All Stars and World All Stars representative. In 2016, Croker won the Dally M Captain of the year award. Croker is the Canberra Raiders top try highest point-scorer in their history. Croker was born in New South Wales Australia, he is distantly related to NSW and Australia player Jason Croker. Croker played his junior football for the Goulburn Stockmen before signing with the Canberra Raiders, he played for the New South Wales Schoolboys and Australian Schoolboys representative teams in 2007 before being selected for the New South Wales under-18s in 2008. Croker was part of the Canberra team that won the inaugural National Youth Competition in 2008, he played at centre and was involved in the try that won the Raiders the match 28-24 in golden point extra time.
Croker broke into Canberra's first-grade side in 2009, making his debut in round 2 against the Sydney Roosters. In round 3, against the Parramatta Eels, Croker scored his first NRL try in the Raiders 16-18 loss at Parramatta Stadium, he went on to make 21 appearances in his rookie season, was the Raiders highest try scorer with 12 tries. On 3 September, Croker re-signed with the Raiders to the end of the 2012 season. Croker was again a regular in Canberra's 2010 side, making 25 appearances as Canberra finished 7th and made the NRL finals. However, it was a missed penalty goal from Croker. In a sudden-death finals match against the Wests Tigers, in front of a home crowd of 26,476, he pushed wide a 30-metre kick that would have tied the match at 26–26. Canberra's coach David Furner—himself a former Raiders goalkicker—defended Croker, arguing his goalkicking form had won a number of matches for the team during the season. Days Croker was selected for Australia's train-on squad for the Four Nations tournament.
Croker played in all of the Raiders 26 matches and was the club's highest point scorer with 5 tries and 53 goals. On 6 August, Croker re-signed with the Raiders until the end of the 2013 season, he finished the season as the Raiders highest point scorer with 9 tries and 53 goals in 23 matches. Croker was the NRL's leading points scorer in 2012 with a total of 226 points, scoring 16 tries and kicking 81 goals in 25 matches. In round 3, against the Roosters, Croker played his 100th NRL match in the Raiders 24-22 win, kicking the winning goal after scoring his second try in the final minutes of the match at Canberra Stadium. On 13 April, he re-signed with the Raiders to the end of the 2015 season. In round 25, against the New Zealand Warriors, Croker scored his first hat trick of tries and scored all of the club's points in the Raiders 50-16 loss at Mt Smart Stadium, he finished the season as the Raiders highest point with 52 goals. In February, Croker played in the Raiders Auckland Nines team. In round 24, against the Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks, Croker surpassed club legend Mal Meninga’s 864 club career points, taking him to third highest point scorer for the Raiders.
He finished the year as the highest point scorer and try scorer for the Raiders, scoring 18 tries and scoring 202 points. On 5 September, Croker re-signed with the Raiders until the end of the 2018 season, he was named as the 2014 Meninga Medallist for Raiders’ best and fairest player. On 12 October, Croker played for the Prime Minister's XIII team against Papua New Guinea, filling in for Raiders teammate Jack Wighton on the interchange bench after he was a late scratching. On 19 December, Croker was named by coach Ricky Stuart as the new captain for the Canberra Raiders following the departure of Terry Campese to Hull Kingston Rovers in the Super League. In the pre-season, Croker was captain of the Raiders Auckland Nines squad. On 13 February 2015, Croker played at centre for NRL All Stars against the Indigenous All Stars, kicking a goal in the 20-6 loss at Robina Stadium. On 3 May 2015, Croker played for Country Origin against City Origin, scoring a try in the 34-22 win at Wagga Wagga. In round 10, against the St George Illawarra Dragons, Croker played in 150th NRL match in the Raiders 32-18 loss at WIN Stadium.
In round 13, against the Newcastle Knights, Croker notched a 1000 career points in the Raiders 44-22 win at Hunter Stadium. At the end of the season, Croker was the NRL's top point scorer with 236 points. On 26 September, Croker played for the Prime Minister's XIII against Papua New Guinea. In February 2016, Croker was named in the Raiders 2016 NRL Auckland Nines squad. On 13 February 2016, Croker played for the World All Stars against the Indigenous All Stars, playing at centre in the 12-8 win at Suncorp Stadium. On 8 May 2016, Croker again represented Country Origin against City Origin, kicking 5 goals in the 44-30 loss in Tamworth. In Round 10 against the St George Illawarra Dragons, Croker became the highest point scorer for the Raiders in the 16-12 golden point loss at Jubilee Oval. At the end of the season, Croker picked up the Provan Summons award as well as Dally M Captain of the Year and season's leading point scorer in a year were the Raiders fell one game short of the Grand Final. Croker played in all of the Raiders 27 matches, scoring 18 tries and kicking 112 goals in the 2016 NRL season.
After the season ended, Croker was named the Australia Four Nations train-on squad but dropped out due to a knee injury. On 10 February 2017, Croker played for the World All Stars against the Indigenous All Stars in the 2017 All Stars match, playing at centre in the 34-8 loss at Hunter Stadium. In Round 5 ag
Thomas Arthur Steitz was an American biochemist, a Sterling Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at Yale University, investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, best known for his pioneering work on the ribosome. Steitz was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry along with Venkatraman Ramakrishnan and Ada Yonath "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome". Steitz won the Gairdner International Award in 2007 "for his studies on the structure and function of the ribosome which showed that the peptidyl transferase was an RNA catalyzed reaction, for revealing the mechanism of inhibition of this function by antibiotics". Born in Milwaukee, Steitz studied chemistry as an undergraduate at Lawrence University in Appleton, graduating in 1962. While there he was a member of the fraternity, Delta Tau Delta, the Delta Nu chapter. In June 2010, the University renamed its chemistry building Thomas A. Steitz Hall of Science, he received a Ph. D. in biochemistry and molecular biology from Harvard University in 1966 where he worked under the direction of subsequent 1976 chemistry Nobel Prize winner William N. Lipscomb, Jr.
While at Harvard, after the training task of determining the structure of the small molecule methyl ethylene phosphate, Steitz made contributions to determining the atomic structures of carboxypeptidase A and aspartate carbamoyltransferase, each the largest atomic structure determined in its time. Steitz did postdoctoral research as a Jane Coffin Childs Postdoctoral Fellow at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology at the University of Cambridge during 1967–1970. Steitz started an assistant professorship at the University of California, but soon resigned, on the grounds that the institution would not accept his wife Joan into a faculty position because she was a woman. Both Tom and Joan Steitz joined the Yale faculty in 1970, where he continued to work on cellular and structural biology. Steitz and Peter Moore determined the atomic structure of the large 50S ribosomal subunit using X-ray crystallography, published their findings in Science in 2000. In 2009, Steitz was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his ribosome research.
He was a Macy Fellow at the University of Göttingen during 1976–1977 and a Fairchild Scholar at the California Institute of Technology during 1984-1985. Steitz was one of the founders of a company, Rib-X Pharmaceuticals, now Melinta Therapeutics for the development of new antibiotics based on the ribosome. Nobel Prize in Chemistry Elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 2011 Steitz was married to Joan A. Steitz, a distinguished molecular biologist, a Sterling Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at Yale, he lived with her in Branford and had one son, Jon. He died on October 2018 of complications during treatment of pancreatic cancer. Steitz, T. A. et al. "Determination of the Atomic-Resolution Crystal Structure of the Large Subunit from the Ribosome of Haloarcula marismortui. Steitz, T. A. et al. "The Atomic Resolution Crystal Structure of the Large Ribosomal Subunit from Haloarcula marismortui", NSLS Activity Report. History of RNA biology List of RNA biologists "Inquisitiveness of Milwaukee native leads to a Nobel Prize", The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel.
Thomas Steitz - MIPtalk.com interview http://blogs.lawrence.edu/news/2009/10/lawrence_university_graduate_a.html