The Adamawa Region is a constituent region of the Republic of Cameroon. It borders the Centre and East regions to the south, the Northwest and West regions to the southwest, Nigeria to the west, the Central African Republic to the east, the North Region to the north; this mountainous area forms the barrier between Cameroon's forested savanna north. At 64,000 km² in land area, the Adamawa is the third largest of Cameroon's ten regions; the land is sparsely populated, however, as most is devoted to the rearing of cattle. The Muslim Fulbe form the major ethnic group, though Tikar and other peoples are present in lesser numbers; the Adamawa's oldest populations were various Paleo-Sudanese peoples. These were displaced or absorbed by invading Sudanese groups in the 8th or 9th century; these included the Mbum, Kutin, Laka-Mbere, Doayo, Fali and Tupuri. The Kanem-Bornu Empire of Lake Chad had relations with these tribes, they called the area Mabina. The Kanem-Bornu introduced Islam to the region between 1349 and 1385 by way of the Islamic centre at Kano in present-day Nigeria.
However, no more than a few rulers, nobles or merchants converted. Many more tribes entered the territory from the region of Chad between the 17th centuries; these included the Semi-Bantu tribes, such as the Bamileke, Kom, Tikar and Wimbam. The Bantu came as well, examples being Maka and Njem. Other groups who came were the Gbaya, from the present CAR, the Vute, from the Lake Chad region; the Vute were region's first iron workers, they founded the towns of Mbamnyang and Tibaré. The Semi-Bantu peoples moved south before settling near the headwaters of the Mbam River sometime between the 17th and 19th centuries; the Bantu settled east of them, south of the Adamawa Plateau. One or all of these populations founded Banyo and Ngaoundéré. Meanwhile, the Bantu and Semi-Bantu invasions drove the longer-established Sudanese peoples north; the Mbum, Ndoro and Laka-Mbere moved to the present-day province's northern reaches, while the other Sudanese migrated farther. This period marked the highest population for the Adamawa territory until modern times.
However, one event had drastic consequences for the region: the arrival of the Fulbe. Early Fulbe settlers entered the Adamawa from present-day Nigeria or northern Cameroon as early as the 13th century; these settlers and nomads were never numerous and they held subservient status to other tribes. Over time, the steady stream of Fulbe immigrants allowed Fulbe communities to spring up in many areas; these early Fulbe converted to Islam sometime in the 17th century, beginning with the settled, or town, Fulbe. In 1804, Fulbe in the territory and beyond were growing disenchanted with submission to pagan tribes, they were hungry for larger territories that they could use for cattle grazing. The Fulbe leader Usman dan Fodio called a jihad. Usman named his lieutenant Modima Adam Al-Hasan, or Modibo Adama, lamido of Fumbina, Adama raised an army in the territory. Adama's forces proved all but unstoppable, he conquered major Vute centres at Tibaré in 1835, which he renamed Banyo and Tibati. At Adama's death in 1847, Fulbe horsemen controlled territory from the Niger River to the west and the Logone to the east and from the Sahara to the north and the Sanaga River to the south to form the Sokoto Caliphate.
Adama's emirate was divided into districts under governors. Fighting against native peoples continued for many years. Around 1830, the Fulbe conquered the Mbum village of Delbé, which they renamed Ngaoundéré, after a nearby hill. Many Mbum remained, though many others migrated north; the town became the seat of the lamidat of Ardo Ndjobdi. Beginning around 1835, Fulbe immigrants streamed into the newly conquered territories in large numbers. By 1850, the Fulbe were entrenched in northern Cameroon. Native populations were placed under the rule of the local lamidos. Native populations were forced to face enslavement, or flee. Fulbe merchants accepted salt and horses from North Africa in exchange for slaves for sale in the Muslim empires to the north. A smaller number of slaves went south for the trans-Atlantic market; those groups who resisted had no choice but to flee to the unforgiving mountains or else to the jungle south. Those groups who were immediate neighbours to the warring Fulbe, such as the Vute and Gbaya, dislodged others who lay in their path, such as Cameroon's Bantu peoples.
The Fulbe jihads thus served as the single most important event in the peopling of southern Cameroon. The jihad only served to depopulate Cameroon's north, however; the Fulbe invaders did not set up new settlements. Rather, they used their conquered lands as pasture for their cattle. Many of these groups were still migrating when they came into contact with Cameroon's new colonisers: The Germans. British explorers were the first Europeans to enter Adamawa territory when they came in 1822; the German Dr. Gustav Nachtigal was the first Westerner to explore the region extensively, which he did between 1869 and 1873. Nachtigal kept a keen eye out to notice what groups lived in the region, what their relations were like with their neighbours, what resources could be exploited from the area; the British Eduard E. Flegel followed Nachtigal i
Clean Juice is an American restaurant franchise that serves smoothies and acai bowls. There are around 100 locations either in development or in operation in 16 states in the United States; the company is headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina. Clean Juice was founded by in 2014 by husband and wife and Kat Eckles; the first location in Huntersville, North Carolina in June 2015. In April 2016, another location opened in South Charlotte with a third location opening in Concord, North Carolina in August 2016. By that month, Clean Juice had signed its first 5 franchising agreements after launching its franchising platform earlier that summer, its first franchised location opened in Carrollwood, Florida in March 2017. By July of that year, there were 5 franchised locations in operation with another 58 in development. A total of 10 stores were operational by September 2017. In 2018, the company began using LevelUp; that year, the company surpassed 100 franchise units either in development or in operation in 16 states.
Clean Juice sells fruit smoothies and juices with select food items like acai bowls, almond toast, oat bowls, avocado toast. All of their ingredients have been certified 100% organic by the United States Department of Agriculture. Official website
Arnold Hill Academy is a mixed secondary school and sixth form located in the county of Nottinghamshire in the East Midlands. It teaches children from 11 to 18 - Years 7-13, it is located in Arnold but it serves children from various nearby areas including Killisick, Woodthorpe, Carlton, Sherwood. It has around 1600 pupils and over 100 teachers; the original designation was the Arnold County High School, opened in 1959 as a grammar school. Pupils came from about a ten-mile radius: the county was in an extensive school building programme, to cope with the post-war baby boom. Third year pupils from Arnold Girls Secondary School and Robert Mellors secondary School in Arnold in 1975 heralded the schools new Comprehensive status. On the 45-acre site, there was a lower school for first and second year pupils, the first batch of 120 third year pupils moved straight into the middle school, which consisted of 6 classrooms, six large house rooms, used for dining and house activities, between them, three kitchens.
The first headmaster was Dr J H Higginson, who wrote a book on the establishment of the school, entitled A School Is Born, which covered many aspects of the school. The first deputy head was W T N Thompson. Several of the younger initial teaching staff remained for many years; the school operated a house system where the'names' were living international identities - clockwise around the three sided middle school, these were: Gladys Aylward Ryder-Cheshire Pandit - Anton Makarenko, Eleanor Roosevelt and Albert Schweitzer. Pupils were encouraged to forge links with the countries represented by those housesA new school was built in the mid-1960s on the same site. In 1974, the separate schools occupying these premises were amalgamated to form Arnold Hill Comprehensive School. In September 2004 the school was forced to close for several months when a large fire destroyed 16 of the refurbished classrooms in the Lower School building; the school allowed sixth form students and GCSE pupils to return, but the reduced number of classrooms - smoke and structural damage meant that the entire Lower School building was uninhabitable, except the reception and hall area - prevented pupils from years 7, 8 & 9 from returning for several weeks.
Their return was delayed and rescheduled several times because of delays in the construction of the Portakabins, but they were returned to school. The large array of Portakabin buildings were known as "The Village". On 6 November 2007, a stripper performed at the school for a student's birthday. According to The Daily Telegraph, the student's mother hired the stripper as a birthday gift for her 16-year-old son as a mistake, intending to order a man in a gorilla suit; the stripper undressed to her undergarments before being asked to stop by a faculty member. A spokeswoman has said "There was an incident, we are aware of it, it is being dealt with." On Wednesday April 28, 2010 at 11:30pm a fire broke out in the Sixth Form block. Fire crews spent six hours tackling the fire but the Sixth Form block was destroyed by the blaze; the building was demolished. As of June 2010 a new Sixth Form building has been constructed using Portakabins; the construction of a new centre began in early 2011, now complete.
In June 2014, Arnold Hill Academy gained funding from the EFA to rebuild the Upper School site, built in 1959. The whole of the upper school grounds were demolished and remodeled into additional sports pitches and recreational areas; the new upper school building - now referred to as A Block - was established in the place of the old Rugby pitch and consists of three floors of classrooms, an assembly hall, a sports hall, a food servery and 70 individual toilets. Peter Plumb, Chief Executive of Moneysupermarket.com Matthew Newton, co-Founder of online women's clothing and fashion retailer Lavish Alice Vernon Coaker, Labour MP since 1997 for Gedling School Website Funding agreement of Trust 30 September 2011
First opened to the public in October, 2005, Government Canyon State Natural Area preserves 12,244 acres of rugged hills and canyons typical of the Texas Hill Country. It is designated a Natural Area, rather than a State Park, therefore the primary focus is maintenance and protection of the property's natural state. Accordingly and recreational activities may be restricted if the Texas Parks & Wildlife Department deems such action necessary to protect the environment; the reserve is located in northwestern Bexar County, protects a large pristine tract of Hill Country terrain and diverse species of plants & wildlife, the upper Culebra Creek/Leon Creek watershed, a critical aquifer recharge zone for the San Antonio Water System. Fauna: Among the many bird species present, GCSNA includes nesting habitats of the golden-cheeked warbler and the black-capped vireo, both of which are classified as endangered; as in much of the Hill Country, white-tailed deer are by far the most common large mammal on the property.
Additionally, wild turkeys, skunks, opossums, cottontail rabbits, jack rabbits, fox squirrels are present. Feral pigs, exotic axis deer, rock squirrels, ringtailed cats may be encountered. Bobcats, both red and grey foxes, mountain lions inhabit the area, but are seen by visitors. Flora: Primary vegetation includes the Ashe juniper known as "mountain cedar", several different species of oak sycamore, persimmon, mountain laurel, Texas madrone, maple, cedar elm, wild grape, several different types of brush, prickly pear, yucca and various grasses. A more extensive list of the fauna and flora present in the park can be found at the GCSNA Ranger Station. In September, 2009, the City of San Antonio transferred 3,000 acres of land to the TPWD for inclusion in the Natural Area to support long-term protection of the Edwards Aquifer, thereby increasing the total acreage within the reserve from 8,783 acres to 11,783 acres. Most in April, 2013, an additional 461 acres were added to GCSNA through a combination of funding from the City of San Antonio, Texas Parks & Wildlife, a US Fish & Wildlife Service endangered species grant, which brought the reserve's total area to 12,244 acres.
GCSNA is open to the public 4 days each week, weather permitting, offers 40 miles of hiking/biking trails, with over 500 feet of elevation change found within the reserve's boundaries. Entrance fee: $6 per adult. Beginning Friday, October 5, 2012 the Natural Area will allow overnight camping on Fridays and Saturdays in the "Front Country" section only. There are regular walk-in 50–60 yards campsites, two group walk-in campsites that allow up to 16 persons per site. TPWD urges all visitors to respect the LEAVE NO TRACE set of wilderness ethics when visiting the Natural Area: 1) Plan Ahead and Prepare, 2) Travel on Marked Trails Only, 3) Always Dispose of Waste Properly, 4) Leave Behind What You Find, 5) Never Build An Open Fire, 6) Respect All Wildlife, 7) Be Considerate of Other Visitors. Texas Parks & Wildlife: City of San Antonio Transfers Almost 3,000 Acres to Government Canyon My San Antonio: City gives 3,000 acres of Government Canyon to state Leon Springs Business Association: City land to go to Government Canyon My San Antonio: City earns praise for land transfer My San Antonio: 461 more acres for Government Canyon TPWD – Government Canyon State Natural Area Friends of Government Canyon Add'l TPWD info
There are many known portraits of Charles Darwin. Darwin came from a wealthy family and became a well-known naturalist and author, portraits were made of him in childhood and old age. Darwin's life spanned the development of photography, early portraits of Darwin are drawn or painted, while many portraits are monochrome photographs. After the publication and dissemination of the controversial On the Origin of Species in 1859, Darwin was the subject of numerous caricatures. Darwin's visage his iconic beard, continues to be culturally significant and recognisable into the 21st century. According to historian Janet Browne, Darwin's capacity to commission photographs of himself—and their widespread reproduction as carte de visite and cabinet card photographs—helped to cement the lasting connection between Darwin and the theory of evolution in popular thought as these portraits were reinterpreted in caricature. At that time few could afford to commission portrait photographs, this gave Darwin an advantage in gaining public recognition.
In his last decades as his illness progressed, Darwin expressed frustration about sitting for photographs. He turned down an opportunity in 1869 to sit for a portrait with Alfred Russel Wallace, explaining that sitting for photographs "is what I hate doing & wastes a whole day owing to my weak health. There are at least 53 known photographs of Darwin, according to Gene Kritsky, a scholar of Darwin photos. Charles Robert Darwin – National Portrait Gallery, London Photographs – The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online Darwiniana – Catalog of reproductions and derivatives of Darwin's image Darwin portraits – University of Oklahoma Libraries, History of Science Collections Charles Robert Darwin – Wellcome Images "Evolutionists Flock To Darwin-Shaped Wall Stain", The Onion, 5 September 2008
Live 04 is a live album by German electronica duo Mouse on Mars. It was released on Sonig in 2005. Heather Phares of AllMusic gave the album 4 stars out of 5, saying, "while it's still not quite the same as seeing Mouse on Mars in concert, that it manages to capture a fraction of the atmosphere and sweat of their shows makes it potent stuff indeed." Mark Richardson of Pitchfork gave the album an 8.0 out of 10, describing it as "a soundtrack to a raucous little party." All lyrics are written by Dodo Nkishi, Jan St. Werner, Andi Toma. Credits adapted from liner notes. Jan St. Werner – keyboards, electronics Andi Toma – bass guitar, electronics Dodo Nkishi – drums, vocals Live 04 at Discogs Live 04 at MusicBrainz