Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
John Adams was an American statesman, diplomat and Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. Before his presidency he was a leader of the American Revolution that achieved independence from Great Britain, served as the first vice president of the United States. Adams was a dedicated diarist and corresponded with many important figures in early American history including his wife and adviser and his letters and other papers are an important source of historical information about the era. A lawyer and political activist prior to the revolution, Adams was devoted to the right to counsel and presumption of innocence, he defied anti-British sentiment and defended British soldiers against murder charges arising from the Boston Massacre. Adams was a Massachusetts delegate to the Continental Congress and became a principal leader of the Revolution, he assisted in drafting the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and was its foremost advocate in Congress.
As a diplomat in Europe, he helped negotiate the peace treaty with Great Britain and secured vital governmental loans. Adams was the primary author of the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780, which influenced the United States' own constitution, as did his earlier Thoughts on Government. Adams was elected to two terms as vice president under President George Washington and was elected as the United States' second president in 1796. During his single term, Adams encountered fierce criticism from the Jeffersonian Republicans and from some in his own Federalist Party, led by his rival Alexander Hamilton. Adams signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts and built up the Army and Navy in the undeclared "Quasi-War" with France; the main accomplishment of his presidency was a peaceful resolution of this conflict in the face of public anger and Hamilton's opposition. During his term, he became the first president to reside in the executive mansion now known as the White House. In his bid for reelection, opposition from Federalists and accusations of despotism from Republicans led to Adams's loss to his former friend Thomas Jefferson, he retired to Massachusetts.
He resumed his friendship with Jefferson by initiating a correspondence that lasted fourteen years. He and his wife generated a family of politicians and historians now referred to as the Adams political family, which includes their son John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States. John Adams died on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, hours after Jefferson's death. Surveys of historians and scholars have favorably ranked his administration. John Adams was born on October 1735 to John Adams Sr. and Susanna Boylston. He had two younger brothers and Elihu. Adams was born on the family farm in Massachusetts, his mother was from a leading medical family of Massachusetts. His father was a deacon in the Congregational Church, a farmer, a cordwainer, a lieutenant in the militia. John Sr. supervised the building of schools and roads. Adams praised his father and recalled their close relationship. Adams's great-grandfather Henry Adams emigrated to Massachusetts from Braintree, England around 1638.
Though raised in modest surroundings, Adams felt pressured to live up to his heritage. His was a family of Puritans, who profoundly affected their region's culture and traditions. By the time of John Adams's birth, Puritan tenets such as predestination had waned and many of their severe practices moderated, but Adams still "considered them bearers of freedom, a cause that still had a holy urgency." Adams recalled that his parents "held every Species of Libertinage in... Contempt and horror," and detailed "pictures of disgrace, or baseness and of Ruin" resulting from any debauchery. Adams noted that "As a child I enjoyed the greatest of blessings that can be bestowed upon men – that of a mother, anxious and capable to form the characters of her children."Adams, as the eldest child, was compelled to obtain a formal education. This began at age six at a dame school for boys and girls, conducted at a teacher's home, was centred upon The New England Primer. Shortly thereafter, Adams attended Braintree Latin School under Joseph Cleverly, where studies included Latin, rhetoric and arithmetic.
Adams's early education included incidents of truancy, a dislike for his master, a desire to become a farmer. All discussion on the matter ended with his father's command that he remain in school: "You shall comply with my desires." Deacon Adams hired a new schoolmaster named Joseph Marsh, his son responded positively. At age sixteen, Adams entered Harvard College in 1751; as an adult, Adams was a keen scholar, studying the works of ancient writers such as Thucydides, Plato and Tacitus in their original languages. Though his father expected him to be a minister, after his 1755 graduation with an A. B. degree, he taught school while pondering his permanent vocation. In the next four years, he began to seek prestige, craving "Honour or Reputation" and "more defference from fellows", was determined to be "a great Man." He decided to become a lawyer to further those ends, writing his father that he found among lawyers "noble and gallant achievements" but, among the clergy, the "pretended sanctity of some absolute dunces."
His aspirations conflicted with his Puritanism, prompting reservations about his self-described "trumpery" and failure to share the "happiness of fellow men."As the French and Indian War began in 1754, Ada
Shawnee State Park (Ohio)
Shawnee State Park is a state park in Scioto County, United States. The park is in the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains near the Ohio River in Southern Ohio on State Route 125, just north of Friendship, it is surrounded by Shawnee State Forest. Shawnee State Park was once a hunting ground for the Shawnee Indians; the park was first opened in 1922 as Theodore Roosevelt state game preserve. The game preserve was converted into a state park during the Great Depression by the Civilian Conservation Corps; the park is open to a host of outdoor recreational activities including golf, swimming and boating. The Shawnee State Golf Course and Marina are both located on US 52 just west of Friendship. Roosevelt Lake and Turkey Creek Lake, both part of the Shawnee State Park, are both close to the lodge on State Route 125. Shawnee State Park Ohio Department of Natural Resources Shawnee State Park Map Ohio Department of Natural Resources
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Adams County Courthouse (Ohio)
The Adams County Courthouse is located at 110 West Main Street in West Union, United States. Adams County was formed in 1797 as the fourth county of the Northwest Territory which would soon form the state of Ohio; the first county seat was in Manchester but no courthouse was built at that location. The first official county seat of the territory was Adamsville and the county officials met in various locations, as, like Manchester, no courthouse was constructed; the Ohio General Assembly moved the county seat to West Union, the current county seat, plans for a courthouse were drafted. This first courthouse was a simple log structure of oak, poplar and blue ash; the courthouse had a footprint of 30 feet by 24 feet. This structure was replaced in 1811 by a brick building; this building stood two stories high with a pitched roof resting on an unadorned entablature. A cupola could be seen around the town; the building remained until 1876. It was around this time; the present courthouse replaced the courthouse of 1876 after a fire wiped out the structure and all of the court records.
Constructed from 1910 to 1911 by architect T. S. Murray, the building was built from a bond passed that raised $50,000; the building was built with yellow bricks with unadorned rectangular windows. The entrances were lined with red brick pilasters supporting a pediment roof; the roof was flat with a balustrade. A rectangular tower rises from the center of the building and is crowned with four arches supporting a dome; the dome is unadorned and houses a four-faced clock. Renovation in 1975 saw a northern addition containing a courtroom, office space, the county sheriff's living quarters; the front portico was added and includes four bottom pilasters supporting a balcony, with four pilasters supporting the pediment above. The main entrance contains a unique decoration, a mounted head of the white-tailed deer found throughout Ohio; the 27-point buck was found frozen in a creek by local boys Steven & Donnie Swayne and Tommy Dryden, who carried the head of the deer back to town. The find caused much debate, as the wildlife officer for Adams County claimed the buck was found dead and did not belong to anyone.
After much debate and petitions, the head made its way to the courthouse in 1976 and has been proudly displayed in the courthouse since. Thrane, Susan W..
Brown County, Ohio
Brown County is a county in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 44,846; the county seat is Georgetown. The county was created in 1818 and is named for Major General Jacob Brown, an officer in the War of 1812, wounded at the Battle of Lundy's Lane. Brown County is part of OH-KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Among the early settlers to Brown County was Jesse Root Grant, father of Ulysses S. Grant, who built a home and set up a tannery in Georgetown where Ulysses grew up. Brown County was said to be the place of origin of the White Burley type of tobacco, grown in 1864 by George Webb and Joseph Fore on the farm of Captain Frederick Kautz near Higginsport from seed from Bracken County, Kentucky, he noticed it yielded a different type of light leaf shaded from white to yellow, cured differently. By 1866, he harvested 20,000 pounds of Burley tobacco and sold it in 1867 at the St. Louis Fair for $58 per hundred pounds. By 1883, the principal market for this tobacco was Cincinnati, but it was grown throughout central Kentucky and Middle Tennessee.
The type became referred to as burley tobacco, it was air-cured. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 493 square miles, of which 490 square miles is land and 3.4 square miles is water. Clinton County Highland County Adams County Mason County, Kentucky Bracken County, Kentucky Clermont County As of the census of 2000, there were 42,285 people, 15,555 households, 11,790 families residing in the county; the population density was 86 people per square mile. There were 17,193 housing units at an average density of 35 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.08% White, 0.92% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.08% from other races, 0.60% from two or more races. 0.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 29.5% were of American, 28.2% German, 10.7% English and 10.2% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 15,555 households out of which 37.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.30% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.20% were non-families.
20.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.60% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 30.30% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 11.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.80 males. The county's median household income was $38,303, the median family income was $43,040. Males had a median income of $32,647 versus $22,483 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,100. About 8.80% of families and 11.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.20% of those under age 18 and 9.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 44,846 people, 17,014 households, 12,379 families residing in the county; the population density was 91.5 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 19,301 housing units at an average density of 39.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.5% white, 0.9% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.2% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 27.0% were German, 14.2% were Irish, 12.5% were American, 9.7% were English. Of the 17,014 households, 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.2% were non-families, 22.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age was 39.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $45,887 and the median income for a family was $54,184. Males had a median income of $39,049 versus $30,890 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,167. About 9.0% of families and 12.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.2% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over.
Prior to 1928, Brown County was Democratic Party stronghold in presidential elections. 1928 to 1988 saw the county become a swing county, backing the national winner in all but 1944 & 1960. It has since become a Republican Party stronghold, with Jimmy Carter in 1976 representing the last Democratic win of the county at the presidential level. Brown County has three County Commissioners. Current Commissioners are:. Barry Woodruff, Daryll Gray, Tony Applegate. WRAC C103 Country 103.1 FM WAOL 99.5 The News Democrat The Brown County Press The County Free Press The Ripley Bee https://web.archive.org/web/20160715023447/http://www.ohiotownships.org/township-websites Lake Lorelei Lake Waynoka St. Martin National Register of Historic Places listings in Brown County, Ohio Brown County News Brown County Government