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Adaptive radiation

In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches. Starting with a recent single ancestor, this process results in the speciation and phenotypic adaptation of an array of species exhibiting different morphological and physiological traits; the prototypical example of adaptive radiation is finch speciation on the Galapagos, but examples are known from around the world. Four features can be used to identify an adaptive radiation: A common ancestry of component species: a recent ancestry. Note that this is not the same as a monophyly in which all descendants of a common ancestor are included. A phenotype-environment correlation: a significant association between environments and the morphological and physiological traits used to exploit those environments. Trait utility: the performance or fitness advantages of trait values in their corresponding environments.

Rapid speciation: presence of one or more bursts in the emergence of new species around the time that ecological and phenotypic divergence is underway. Adaptive radiation tends to take place under the following conditions: A new habitat has opened up: a volcano, for example, can create new ground in the middle of the ocean; this is the case in places like the Galapagos. For aquatic species, the formation of a large new lake habitat could serve the same purpose. An extinction event could achieve this same result, opening up niches that were occupied by species that no longer exist; this new habitat is isolated. When a volcano erupts on the mainland and destroys an adjacent forest, it is that the terrestrial plant and animal species that used to live in the destroyed region will recolonize without evolving greatly. However, if a newly formed habitat is isolated, the species that colonize it will be somewhat random and uncommon arrivals; the new habitat has a wide availability of niche space. The rare colonist can only adaptively radiate into as many forms.

Darwin's finches are an often-used textbook example of adaptive radiation. Today represented by 15 species, Darwin's finches are Galapagos endemics famously adapted for a specialized feeding behavior. Darwin's finches are not finches in the true sense, but are members of the tanager family Thraupidae, are derived from a single ancestor that arrived in the Galapagos from mainland South America just 3 million years ago. Excluding the Cocos finch, each species of Darwin's finch is widely distributed in the Galapagos and fills the same niche on each island. For the ground finches, this niche is a diet of seeds, they have thick bills to facilitate the consumption of these hard materials; the ground finches are further specialized to eat seeds of a particular size: the large ground finch is the largest species of Darwin's finch and has the thickest beak for breaking open the toughest seeds, the small ground finch has a smaller beak for eating smaller seeds, the medium ground finch has a beak of intermediate size for optimal consumption of intermediately sized seeds.

There is some overlap: for example, the most robust medium ground finches could have beaks larger than those of the smallest large ground finches. Because of this overlap, it can be difficult to tell the species apart by eye, though their songs differ; these three species occur sympatrically, during the rainy season in the Galapagos when food is plentiful, they specialize little and eat the same accessible foods. It was not well-understood why their beaks were so adapted until Peter and Rosemary Grant studied their feeding behavior in the long dry season, discovered that when food is scarce, the ground finches use their specialized beaks to eat the seeds that they are best suited to eat and thus avoid starvation; the other finches in the Galapagos are uniquely adapted for their particular niche. The cactus finches have somewhat longer beaks than the ground finches that serve the dual purpose of allowing them to feed on Opuntia cactus nectar and pollen while these plants are flowering, but on seeds during the rest of the year.

The warbler-finches have pointed beaks for eating insects. The woodpecker finch has a slender beak; the mechanism by which the finches diversified is still an area of active research. One proposition is that the finches were able to have a non-adaptive, allopatric speciation event on separate islands in the archipelago, such that when they reconverged on some islands, they were able to maintain reproductive isolation. Once they occurred in sympatry, niche specialization was favored so that the different species competed less directly for resources; this second, sympatric event was adaptive radiation. The haplochromine cichlid fishes in the Great Lakes of the East African Rift form the most speciose modern example of adaptive radiation; these lakes are believed to be home to about 2,000 different spec

Piana degli Albanesi

Piana degli Albanesi is a comune with 6,128 inhabitants in the Metropolitan City of Palermo, Sicily. The comune is situated on a mountainous plateau and encircled by high mountains, on the eastern side of the imposing Mount Pizzuta, the city, mirrored on a large lake, is 24 km from the provincial capital; the town is the most important center of the Albanians of Sicily, as well as the largest and most populous colony of Arbëreshë and it is the episcopal see of the Eparchy of Piana degli Albanesi, constituency of the Italo-Albanian Church whose jurisdiction covers all Albanians of Sicily who practice the Byzantine rite. The community, after five centuries from its foundation, has maintained many ethnic elements of Albanian culture like language, religious ritual, traditional costumes and folklore; the inhabitants are the descendants of Albanian families, including nobles and relatives of Skanderbeg, that settled in Southern Italy during the Ottoman Turkish conquest of the Balkans. In the modern age it had a significant role in the revolutionary uprisings for the national unification of Italy, for the Albanian National Awakening movementin the struggle for liberation from the Turkish-Ottoman rule and for regional movements of the Fasci Siciliani dei Lavoratori, furthermore it is infamous for the Portella della Ginestra massacre.

Between 1944 and 1945, which lasted fifty days, Piana degli Albanesi became an Independent People's Republic. Driven by the romantic principles, Piana degli Albanesi contributed to the advancement of culture and Albanian literature with a large group of intellectuals, decisive process of literary history of Albania, it is considered the place of origin of Arbëreshe literature, the birthplace of the first work of the Albanian diaspora, initiator – in the early 17th century – of the first European school in which he taught in the Albanian language. From the town come the university founders of "Albanian Language and Literature" in Naples and Palermo and is headquartered, since 1945, the "Italo-Albanian Seminary" in Palermo, its ancient tradition musics and songs Byzantine is part of the ""Registro Eredità Immateriali della Sicilia" recognized by UNESCO. The municipal government uses bilingual documents and road signs in Albanian and Italian under existing Italian legislation on protecting ethnic and linguistic minorities.

Piana degli Albanesi has been variously called in history. In the licentia populandi granted on January 13, 1487 to the Albanian exiles, Piana degli Albanesi is called Casale Planicili Archiepiscopatus Montisregalis or Piana dell'Arcivescovo, but since its construction the town was known in Latin Nobilis Planae Albanensium Civitas; this denomination changed into Nobilis Planae Graecorum Albanensium Civitas, with the insertion of Graecorum which indicated the Byzantine rite professed by the Albanian population. In the centuries, erroneously, in the cadastral and habitual use of the neighboring Sicilian populations, the name of Piana dei Greci remained, it was known and called by the populations of the nearby villages Casale di lu Mercu territorii Montisregalis, Badia, La Chiana or Piana delli Greci. Its inhabitants and the Albanians of the other colonies of Sicily, identified it as Sheshi, Fusha e Arbreshëvet and Hora e Arbëreshëvet; the name of Piana dei Greci, following the royal decree and the intellectual and popular will to change the name because it did not highlight the Albanian origin, from August 30, 1941 it was modified into Piana degli Albanesi.

A few months by decree of the Sacred Congregation for the Eastern Churches of October 25, 1941 the name of Planen Graecorum was changed ecclesiastically to Planen Albanensium. The inhabitants call the town in their Albanian dialect Hora e Arbëreshëvet translatable into the "Plain of the Albanians". Arbëreshë people call it Hora, an Albanian word meaning "homeland", deriving from the Greek homophone χώρα, meaning land, countryside, a plain, is a typical word of Toskë Albanians and Arvanites of Greece; some elders still use to say Hora e t'Arbëreshëvet. The inhabitants figuratively said they were Bar i Sheshit and call themselves singular arbëresh-i/e, plural arbëreshë-t; the municipality of Piana degli Albanesi is committed to establishing, in accordance with international protocols, relations of cultural exchange with the institutions of the Republic of Albania and Kosovo in the former Yugoslavia and the other Albanian communities present in Europe and internationally. Piana degli Albanesi is twinned with: Tirana, since 1954.

The Municipality, in collaboration with the Italian-Albanian communities, proposes initiatives to the State, the Region and the Province for the protection of ethnic-linguistic minorities sanctioned by the Constitution, by national and regional laws in force. The municipality of Piana degli Albanesi is part of the following supra-municipal organizations: Unione dei Comuni Albanesi di Sicilia BESA – Lidhja and Bashkivet Arbëreshe të Siçilisë BESA, municipality leader.

Andrija Štampar

Andrija Štampar was a distinguished scholar in the field of social medicine from Croatia. Štampar was born 1 September 1888 in Brodski Drenovac, at the time part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in modern Požega-Slavonia County. From 1898 to 1906, he attended grammar school in Vinkovci. During his secondary schooling, Štampar was a brilliant pupil and, at that time, he wrote his first literary attempt, published in the periodical Pobratim in 1902, he enrolled at the Medical School in Vienna in 1906, at the time the most important medical center in the world. As a medical student, he initiated the editing of medical papers and wrote pamphlets and articles with the intention of educating people in health matters. In 1909 in Nova Gradiška he started publishing the series called Public Health Library discussing numerous topics regarding health and prevention. On 23 December 1911, he was awarded the title of Doctor of General Medicine. On 1 January 1912, Dr. Štampar started working at the town hospital at Karlovac and remained at this post till 8 August 1913.

He enrolled in the Croatian Medical Association, an organization of physicians, published a few articles in their journal. By a decree of the Župan, of the Požega District, he was appointed district health officer of Nova Gradiška in 1913. In 1919, he attended the Congress of Inter-Allied Countries for Social Hygiene in Paris giving a lecture on children's health, it showed at that time. Andrija Štampar is universally known as "the man of action". At age 31 he was named principal of the Department of Public Health in Belgrade. Thanks to Štampar's endeavours, a special Institute of Social Medicine was founded affiliated with the University of Zagreb School of Medicine. From 1924 he was the member of several international expert committees, which through his efforts received grants from the Rockefeller Foundation. King Alexander's dictatorship put a stop to his work at the Ministry of Public Health in 1930 and, in 1931, he was put on the retired list by the King's decree and came into personal conflict with King Alexander due to his refusal to enter the government.

He was offered the portfolio of the Minister of the Interior, but he refused and asked for free elections as a condition. From 1931 to 1933, Štampar was permanently employed as the expert of the Health Organization of the League of Nations, he entered upon a new kind of work. From October 1931 till January 1932, Štampar was in the United States and Canada as the guest of the Rockefeller Foundation; the League of Nations entrusted him with the task of acquainting himself with the work of a special American Committee dealing with the costs of medical care. He spent time in China, from 1933 to 1936; the Health Organization sent him as an advisor to help the Chinese health administration in the control of the mass infectious diseases that cropped up after devastating floods in 1931. Dr. Štampar has come to China to help our Government in its work on reconstruction based on the plan of technical cooperation with the League of Nations. He went round several provinces, from Kansu and Shanghai in the West to Kwangtung and Kwangsi in the South, made a valuable contribution to the reconstruction of our villages in the field of rural health protection services.

On his departure we wish to give this to him as a remembrance of his work in China, hoping he will come to visit us again. -- Ching Feng In 1936, he received an offer from the Secretary General of the League of Nations for the post of an expert at the Health Organization in Geneva. In 1938, he received an invitation from Harvard University in Boston. After Boston, he toured a great part of North America and lectured on hygiene and social medicine at a series of universities; the International Health Conference held in New York in the summer of 1946 was attended by the official representatives of 51 nations. With only a few minor alterations, they accepted the draft of the World Health Organization; the First World Health Assembly was called with the ratification of the WHO Constitution. It was in session from 24 June to 24 July 1948. in Geneva, Štampar was elected as the first President of the Assembly unanimously. At the 8th regular session of WHO in Mexico City, in 1955, Štampar was awarded the Leon Bernard Foundation Prize and Medal, the greatest international recognition of merit in the field of social medicine.

A statue has been dedicated to Dr. Štampar in Morocco for his work in curing malaria. Andrija Štampar founded the School of Public Health in Zagreb in 1927. By the decree of 5 March 1939, eight years after his election as full professor of Hygiene and Social Medicine in Zagreb, he became a professor at Zagreb University. Elected by the Council of the Medical School in Zagreb, Štampar became the Dean of the School for the academic year 1940/41. With the energy so characteristic of him, he set to work on the reform of medical training. On the third day of the occupation of Zagreb, Štampar was arrested by the Ustaša police. Released, he was arrested again by the German police and sent to Graz, where he was imprisoned and interned until the arrival of the Soviet Red Army. On his return in May 1945, he resumed his duty as Professor of Hygiene and Social Medicine at the Medical School and became head of the School of Public Health in Zagreb.Štampar was the Rector of Zagreb University for the academic

Arthur Fiedler

Arthur Fiedler was a long-time conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra, a symphony orchestra that specializes in popular and light classical music. With a combination of musicianship and showmanship, he made the Boston Pops one of the best-known orchestras in the United States. Fiedler was sometimes criticized for over-popularizing music when adapting popular songs or editing portions of the classical repertoire, but he kept performances informal and sometimes self-mocking to attract a bigger audience. Fiedler was born in Boston, the son of Johanna and Emanuel Fiedler, his parents were Austrian Jewish immigrants. His father was a violinist who played in the Boston Symphony Orchestra, his mother was a pianist, he grew up in Boston, attended Boston Latin School until his father retired in the early 1900s, they moved to Vienna, Austria, in 1910. The family soon moved again, to Berlin, where from 1911 to 1915 young Fiedler studied violin at the Royal Academy of Music under Willy Hess. Fiedler returned to Boston at the beginning of World War I.

In 1915 he joined the Boston Symphony Orchestra under Karl Muck as a violinist. He worked as a pianist and percussionist. In 1924, Fiedler formed the Boston Sinfonietta, a chamber music orchestra composed of Boston Symphony members, started a series of free outdoor concerts. Fiedler was appointed the eighteenth conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra in 1930. While the position of conductor of the Boston Pops both prior to and after Fiedler tended to be a phase of a conductor's career, Fiedler made it his life's work, having the position for a half-century. With Fiedler's direction, the Boston Pops made more recordings than any other orchestra in the world, most of them for RCA Victor, with total sales exceeding $50 million, his recordings began in July 1935 at Boston's Symphony Hall with RCA Victor, including a world premiere recording of Jacob Gade's "Jalousie", which sold more than a million copies, the first complete recording of Rhapsody in Blue by George Gershwin. In 1946, he conducted the Boston Pops in one of the first American recordings devoted to excerpts from a film score, Dmitri Tiomkin's music for the David O. Selznick Technicolor epic Duel in the Sun.

RCA Victor released an album of ten-inch 78-rpm discs complete with photographs from the film. Fiedler's June 20, 1947, recording of Gaîté Parisienne by Jacques Offenbach was released by RCA as their first long-playing classical album, in 1950, he recorded the same music in 1954 in stereo and began making regular stereo recordings in 1956. A number of Fiedler's recordings were released as 45-rpm "extended play" discs, beginning in 1949, such as Tchaikovsky's Marche Slave and Ketèlbey's In a Persian Market. Besides recording light classics, Fiedler recorded music from Broadway shows and Hollywood film scores, as well as arrangements of popular music the Beatles, he and the Boston Pops recorded classical works that were favorites, but not considered as "light" as most of the pieces that he conducted. He made but a single recording with the Boston Symphony Orchestra: Dvorak's New World Symphony. There were recordings of chamber music by his Sinfonietta. Fiedler and the Boston Pops recorded for RCA Victor until 1970, when they switched to Deutsche Grammophon for classical releases with co-owned Polydor Records for his arrangements of pop music compositions and London Records.

His last album, devoted to disco, was titled Saturday Night Fiedler. Fiedler was associated with the San Francisco Pops Orchestra for 26 summers, conducted many other orchestras throughout the world, he was a featured conductor on several of NBC's The Standard Hour programs in 1950 and 1951, conducting the San Francisco Symphony in the War Memorial Opera House. In rare visiting performances, Fiedler accepted the invitation to conduct Don Caneva's John Hersey High School Bands after reviewing their latest recordings. Caneva said, “I was tremendously pleased and delighted when he said he would accept our invitation, after hearing a recent recording of the band." Fiedler ended up conducting twice for Caneva's bands in 1971 and 1972. In the final 1972 performance the band opened the Symphonic Winds portion of the concert with the "Festive Overture" by Dmitri Schostakovich, followed with the "American Salute" by Morton Gould. For the conclusion of this portion, Fiedler chose "The Finale From The New World Symphony" by Anton Dvorak.

He conducted Leroy Anderson's "Serenata" with the high school band. Fiedler had many different hobbies, he was fascinated by the work of firefighters and would travel in his own vehicle to large fires in and around Boston at any time of the day or night to watch the firefighters at work. He was made an "Honorary Captain" in the Boston Fire Department. A number of other fire departments badges; the official biography of Fiedler reports that the conductor once helped in the rescue efforts at the tragic Cocoanut Grove fire in Boston in 1942. An avid sailor, he volunteered during the early days of World War II for the Temporary Reserve of the U. S. Coast Guard and was a member of the Coast Guard Auxiliary. Fiedler conducted at the nationally televised opening ceremonies of Walt Disney World in 1971, he appeared on numerous telecasts on Evening at Pops, carried on PBS stations nationwide. In 1972, Fiedler was awarded a

Theresa Ikoko

Theresa Ikoko is an award-winning British playwright of Nigerian descent. Her play Girls, about three girls abducted by terrorists in northern Nigeria, won the National Theatre's Alfred Fagon Award and other awards. Ikoko grew up with eight siblings in the Hackney neighborhood of London. Ikoko has said that the label "poor" was put upon her and that communities that are poorer are misrepresented by the media as "problem areas" which ignores the potential of these areas and the fact that the negativity coming from these communities is a societal issue, she says that "poverty isn’t all about suffering and darkness," and describes her upbringing as "rich in joy."Ikoko earned an undergraduate degree in psychology from Royal Holloway, University of London and a master's degree in Criminology and Criminal Psychology from the University of Oxford. She has worked on social inclusion and community engagement projects with in prisons, including creative and performing arts workshops with incarcerated persons.

While at Royal Holloway she contributed to a journal article on "how the conversation dynamics of women from ethnic majority and minority groups varied in different conversational contexts." Ikoko's first full-length play was Normal, produced as a staged reading as part of the Talawa Firsts' series in 2014. Ikoko came to greater attention and acclaim for her second full-length play, which won the Alfred Fagon Award for best new play in 2015. Girls went on to be produced by Talawa Theatre Company in partnership with HighTide Theatre amd Soho Theatre in 2016, before being revived for a tour in 2017 which took in shows at the 2017 Edinburgh Fringe. At the time Ikoko said: "This isn't the first play I've written; the first play I wrote, I didn’t know it was a play, it was just for me. I would read it over the phone to my friend and when I’d finished he said I had to show it to someone. Talawa Theatre Company found me and Michael Buffong put that play in a Talawa Firsts show, I got signed by my agent there.

A few months I was commissioned to work with Clean Break and Talawa. I make no exaggerations when I say Talawa took a chance on me. I had no training or experience or credentials, there was no one to offer a reference, but Michael believed in me. It took me forever though until the opening night of Girls at HighTide, for me to believe him.". Ikoko was one of five winners of the Channel 4 Playwrights Scheme for her play Girls, which earned Ikoko a year-long playwriting fellowship the HighTide Theatre. Ikoko received the George Devine Award for most promising playwright in 2016. Girls was produced at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, the HighTide Festival, at the Soho Theatre in 2016, it was Ikoko's first professionally produced play. The play addresses issues of kidnapping, forced religion and arranged marriage as well as themes of friendship and resilience. A review in The Times called the play "pungent", "provocative", "scorchingly intelligent and as powerful as a gut punch."Ikoko cites as inspirations playwrights debbie tucker green and Dennis Kelly, author Chinua Achebe, recording artist and activist Sister Souljah.

Speaking about her motivation for writing, she has said "As a writer, I want to write things that change the lives of 14 year old girls in school, of university students and of grown men behind prison doors."With Claire Wilson, she cowrote the screenplay for Sarah Gavron's 2019 film Rocks. Alfred Fagon Award for Best New Play, 2015, for Girls Channel 4 Playwrights Scheme, 2016, for Girls George Devine Award, 2016 The Race Card, 2013 Normal, 2014 Visiting Hours, 2014 Girls, 2015 Trailer for Girls

Mr. Fathead

Mr. Fathead is an album by saxophonist David Newman recorded in 1977 and released on the Warner Bros label. In his review for AllMusic, Alex Henderson stated: "Newman showed a lot of R&B fans that improvisatory horn solos weren't something to be afraid of. Improvisation, isn't something that you will hear a lot of on 1976's disappointing Mr. Fathead... For the most part, this erratic and unfocused LP isn't soul-jazz, most of the material is either disco-funk or lightweight instrumental pop.... for the most part, Mr. Fathead wastes Newman's considerable talents; this record is for completists". "Dance With Me" – 3:54 "Groovin' to the Music" – 5:51 "You Got Style" – 4:33 "Ebo Man" – 5:31 "Shiki" – 4:01 "Promise Me Your Love" – 4:34 "I Love Music" – 6:14 "Mashooganah" – 5:09 David Newman – tenor saxophone, alto saxophone, soprano saxophone, flute Bill Fischer – electric piano, arranger Arthur Jenkins – piano, arranger, conductor Pat Rebillotclavinet Jose Cruz – piano, electric piano Ben Lanzarrone – electric piano Jim Bossy, Burt Collins, Joseph Shepley – trumpet Buddy Morrowtrombone Jonathan Dorntuba Billy Slapin – clarinet, piccolo Richard Landry Richard Peck – tenor saxophone Luis Cruz, Jerry Friedman, Keith Lovingguitar Ron Carter, Bill Salterbass Anthony Jackson – bass guitar Nathaniel Gibbs, Jimmy Johnson, Andy Newmark, Jimmie Young – drums Ralph MacDonald, John Rodrieguez, Dom Um Romão, David Valentin – percussion David Carey – vibraphone, chimes tambourine Patti Austin, Benjamin Carter, Diane Cameron, William Eaton, Yvonne Fletcher, Frank Floyd Denise Flythe, Deborah McDuffie, Deborah McGriff, Bessye Ruth Scott – backing vocals Gregory P. Coverdale – vocal arranger String section: Ariana Bronne, Elliot Rosoff, Eugene Moye, Gene Orloff, Guy Lumia, Harold Kohon, Harry Zaratzian, Julien Barber, Kathryn Kienke, Marie Hence, Norman Carr, Sanford Allen, Thomas Kornacker, Tony Posk, Warren Laffredo, Yoko Matsuo - violin Selwart Clarke - viola