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Addis Ababa

Addis Ababa or Addis Abeba known as Finfinne, is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia. According to the 2007 census, the city has a population of 2,739,551 inhabitants; as a chartered city, Addis Ababa serves as the capital city of Oromia. It is where the African Union is headquartered and where its predecessor the Organisation of African Unity was based, it hosts the headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, as well as various other continental and international organizations. Addis Ababa is therefore referred to as "the political capital of Africa" for its historical and political significance for the continent; the city lies a few miles west of the East African Rift which splits Ethiopia into two, through the Nubian Plate and the Somali Plate. The city is populated by people from different regions of Ethiopia, it is home to Addis Ababa University. Entoto is one of a handful of sites put forward as a possible location for a medieval imperial capital known as Barara.

This permanent fortified city was established during the early-to-mid 15th century, it served as the main residence of several successive emperors up to the early 16th-century reign of Lebna Dengel. The city was depicted standing between Mounts Zikwala and Menegasha on a map drawn by the Italian cartographer Fra Mauro in around 1450, it was razed and plundered by Ahmed Gragn while the imperial army was trapped on the south of the Awash River in 1529, an event witnessed and documented two years by the Yemeni writer Arab-Faqih; the suggestion that Barara was located on Mount Entoto is supported by the recent discovery of a large medieval town overlooking Addis Ababa located between rock-hewn Washa Mikael and the more modern church of Entoto Maryam, founded in the late 19th century by Emperor Menelik. Dubbed the Pentagon, the 30-hectare site incorporates a castle with 12 towers, along with 520 meters of stone walls measuring up to 5-meter high; the site of Addis Ababa was chosen by Empress Taytu Betul and the city was founded in 1886 by Emperor Menelik II.

Menelik, as a King of the Shewa province, had found Mount Entoto a useful base for military operations in the south of his realm, in 1879 he visited the reputed ruins of a medieval town and an unfinished rock church that showed proof of the medieval empire's capital in the area before the campaigns of Ahmad ibn Ibrihim. His interest in the area grew when his wife Taytu began work on a church on Mount Entoto, Menelik endowed a second church in the area. However, the immediate area did not encourage the founding of a town for lack of firewood and water, so settlement began in the valley south of the mountain in 1886. Taytu built a house for herself near the "Filwoha" hot mineral springs, where she and members of the Showan Royal Court liked to take mineral baths. Other nobility and their staff and households settled in the vicinity, Menelik expanded his wife's house to become the Imperial Palace which remains the seat of government in Addis Ababa today; the name changed to Addis Ababa and became Ethiopia's capital when Menelik II became Emperor of Ethiopia.

The town grew by bounds. One of Emperor Menelik's contributions that are still visible today is the planting of numerous eucalyptus trees along the city streets. Following all the major engagements of their invasion, Italian troops from the colony of Eritrea entered Addis Ababa on 5 May 1936. Along with Dire Dawa, the city had been spared the aerial bombardment practiced elsewhere and its railway to Djibouti remained intact. After the occupation the city served as the Duke of Aosta's capital for unified Italian East Africa until 1941, when it was abandoned in favor of Amba Alagi and other redoubts during the Second World War's East African Campaign; the city was liberated by Major Orde Wingate and negus Haile Selassie for Ethiopian Gideon Force and Ethiopian resistance in time to permit Emperor Haile Selassie's return on 5 May 1941, five years to the day after he had left. Following reconstruction, Haile Selassie helped form the Organisation of African Unity in 1963 and invited the new organization to keep its headquarters in Addis Ababa.

The OAU was dissolved in 2002 and replaced by the African Union, headquartered in the city. The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa has its headquarters in Addis Ababa. Addis Ababa was the site of the Council of the Oriental Orthodox Churches in 1965. Ethiopia has been called the original home of mankind because of various humanoid fossil discoveries like the Australopithecine Lucy. Northeastern Africa, the Afar region in particular, was the central focus of these claims until recent DNA evidence suggested origins in south central Ethiopian regions like present-day Addis Ababa. After analysing the DNA of 1,000 people around the world and other scientists claimed people spread from what is now Addis Ababa 100,000 years ago; the research indicated that genetic diversity decreases the farther one's ancestors traveled from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Addis Ababa lies at an elevation of 2,355 metres and is a grassland biome, located at 9°1′48″N 38°44′24″E; the city forms part of the watershed for the Awash.

From its lowest point, around Bole International Airport, at 2,326 metres above sea level in the southern periphery, Addis Ababa rises to over 3,000 metres in the Entoto Mountains to the north. The city is divided into 10 boroughs, called subcities, 99 wards; the 10 subcities are: Ad

Clanwilliam (County Tipperary)

Clanwilliam is a barony in County Tipperary, Ireland. This geographical unit of land is one of 12 baronies in County Tipperary, its chief town is Tipperary. The barony lies between Kilnamanagh Lower to the north and Offa West to the south and Middle Third to the east, it is administered by Tipperary County Council. Baronies were created after the Norman invasion of Ireland as divisions of counties and were used the administration of justice and the raising of revenue. While baronies continue to be defined units, they have been administratively obsolete since 1898. However, they continue to be used in land registration and in specification, such as in planning permissions. In many cases, a barony corresponds to an earlier Gaelic túath; when County Tipperary was split into North and South Ridings in 1836, Clanwilliam was allocated to the south riding. However, the neighbouring barony of Kilnamanagh was split into Upper and Lower half-baronies, being allocated to the north and south ridings respectively.

Bansha, Limerick Junction, Newtown This table lists an historical geographical sub-division of the barony known as the civil parish. Earl of ClanwilliamClanwilliam Placenames Database of Ireland Walsh, Dennis. "Barony Map of Ireland". Retrieved 2007-02-13. Source given is "Ordnance survey"

Polysuccinimide

Polysuccinimide known as polyanhydroaspartic acid or polyaspartimide, is formed during the thermal polycondensation of aspartic acid and is the simplest polyimide. Polysuccinimide is soluble in some aprotic dipolar solvents, its reactive nature makes polysuccinimide a versatile starting material for functional polymers made from renewable resources. The name is derived from the salt of the structurally related succinate; the production of polysuccinimide was reported by Hugo Schiff as early as 1897. When dry aspartic acid was heated for about 20 hours at 190 °C to 200 °C, a colorless product was obtained. Above 200 °C, a weak yellowing occurs, the yield was quantitative. In the experiments by Hugo Schiff and low-molecular polymers were formed in a solid state reaction by polycondensation upon water elimination; this is the case in the absence of strong acids, which suppress the thermal decomposition of free amino end groups and thus chain interruption reactions. The formation of the polyimide polysuccinimide can be followed by the intensive absorption band in the infrared spectrum at 1714 cm−1.

Many process variants described in the patent literature yield besides a low degree of polymerization branched and yellow to brown discolored products. Recent work has focused on increasing the molar mass and achieving a linear chain structure while avoiding decomposition reactions. With a simple "oven process" in which a mixture or paste of crystalline aspartic acid and concentrated phosphoric acid or polyphosphoric acid in a thin layer is heated to 200 °C for 2 to 4 hours, polysuccinimide is produced with molar masses in the range of 30,000 g/mol and cream white shade; the implementation of the polycondensation in several steps, with other dehydrating substances or in the presence of solvents provides higher molecular weight products with molar masses in the range of 10,000 to 200,000 g/mol. However, the patent literature does not address the polymer morphology, in particular the degree of branching. A recent patent describes the simple preparation of high molecular weight colorless and linear, unbranched polysuccinimide.

For this purpose, aspartic acid, present as crystalline zwitterion and water-insoluble, is firstly dissolved with an aqueous, volatile acid and mixed with phosphoric acid as condensing agent. The resulting homogeneous solution is evaporated at 120 °C and the resulting glassy mass is polycondensed at 180 °C to 200 °C for at least one hour; the phosphoric acid is washed out and the dried polysuccinimide is converted by mild alkaline hydrolysis into water-soluble polyaspartic acid. The process provides reproducible polysuccinimide with molar masses above 100,000 g/mol. Synthetic routes for polysuccinimides based on maleic acid monoammonium salt, maleic anhydride and ammonia or based on the intermediately formed maleic acid monoamide achieved only low molar masses of a few 1,000 g/mol and yielded colored products; the same was the case for "green" process variants in supercritical carbon dioxide and while avoiding mineral acids as catalysts. Due to the lower cost of maleic anhydride and ammonia, starting materials produced from fossil raw materials, no L-aspartic acid is used in the production of the commercial product Baypure® polysuccinimide either.

Polysuccinimide is produced as an odourless, non-hygroscopic, cream-white to brown powder, soluble in aprotic dipolar solvents such as dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, dimethylsulfoxide, N-methylpyrrolidone, triethylene glycol or mesitylene/sulfolane mixtures. Polysuccinimide hydrolyses in water only slowly. In diluted alkaline media, hydrolysis takes place in α- and β-position of the succinimide ring structures and racemization follows at the chiral center of the aspartic acid, yielding the water-soluble sodium salt of the poly-DL-aspartic acid; the α form is formed to approx. 30 %, the β form to approx. 70 % in random arrangement along the polymer chain. In more basic solutions or with longer reaction times, the amide linkages in the polymer chain are attacked upon degradation of the molar mass; the presence of amide bonds makes the polyaspartic acid obtained in the hydrolysis biodegradable of highly crosslinked polysuccinimides. The polysuccinimide developed by Bayer AG and marketed by Lanxess AG under the brand name Baypure® DSP with an average molecular weight of 4,400 g/mol is hydrolyzed at elevated pH values and is thus swellable in crosslinked form or water-soluble in linear form.

The copoly- formed by partial hydrolysis and polyaspartic acid produced by partial hydrolysis is suitable as a long-lasting inhibitor against limescale deposition in water treatment and applications in the oil and mining industries, as a setting retarder for cement in the construction industry. Patent literature mentions polysuccinimide applications as chelating agents, inhibitors against scale formation, dispersant and fertilizer additives; the opening of the pyrrolidinedione ring structures in polysuccinimide via aminolysis with ammonia water produces poly--DL-asparagine, with hydrazine poly--DL-aspartylhydrazide and with functional amines, e.g. ethanolamine poly-, β)-DL-2-hydroxyethylaspartate. PHEA can be used a plasma expander with good biocompatibility and biodegradabili