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Adi Shamir

Adi Shamir is an Israeli cryptographer. He is a co-inventor of the Rivest–Shamir–Adleman algorithm, a co-inventor of the Feige–Fiat–Shamir identification scheme, one of the inventors of differential cryptanalysis and has made numerous contributions to the fields of cryptography and computer science. Born in Tel Aviv, Shamir received a Bachelor of Science degree in mathematics from Tel Aviv University in 1973 and obtained his Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Computer Science from the Weizmann Institute in 1975 and 1977 respectively. After a year as a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Warwick, he did research at Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1977–1980 before returning to be a member of the faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science at the Weizmann Institute. Starting from 2006, he is an invited professor at École Normale Supérieure in Paris. In addition to RSA, Shamir's other numerous inventions and contributions to cryptography include the Shamir secret sharing scheme, the breaking of the Merkle-Hellman knapsack cryptosystem, visual cryptography, the TWIRL and TWINKLE factoring devices.

Together with Eli Biham, he discovered differential cryptanalysis in the late 1980s, a general method for attacking block ciphers. It emerged that differential cryptanalysis was known — and kept a secret — by both IBM and the National Security Agency. Shamir has made contributions to computer science outside of cryptography, such as finding the first linear time algorithm for 2-satisfiability and showing the equivalence of the complexity classes PSPACE and IP. Shamir has received a number of awards, including the following: the 2002 ACM Turing Award, together with Rivest and Adleman, in recognition of his contributions to cryptography the Paris Kanellakis Theory and Practice Award. R. G. Baker Award the UAP Scientific Prize The Vatican's PIUS XI Gold Medal the 2000 IEEE Koji Kobayashi Computers and Communications Award the Israel Prize, in 2008, for computer sciences. An honorary DMath degree from the University of Waterloo 2017 Japan Prize in the field of Electronics and Communication for his contribution to information security through pioneering research on cryptography he was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 2018 for substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge.

He was elected a Member of the American Philosophical Society in 2019

Adokiye Amiesimaka

Adokiye Amiesimaka is a Nigerian footballer, who as a law student at the University of Lagos played for the Enugu Rangers Football Club, Sharks Football Club, African Continental Bank Football Club and the Nigeria national football team. Playing as a winger on the left of midfield, Adokiye’s pace and dribbling runs were a distinguishing feature of his footballing career. Adokiye was a member of the Nigerian side that won gold at the African Cup of Nations in 1980 and played at the soccer finals of the 1980 Summer Olympics, he represented Nigeria at the 1978 and 1982 FIFA World Cup Qualifiers. Adokiye attended CMS Grammar School, where as captain of the school’s soccer team he won Lagos State’s Principals’ Cup in a much-talked about final that featured St. Finbarr’s College, he went on to read law at the University of Lagos, A former Chairman of Sharks Football Club, Adokiye has the stadium in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State named after him. He is a former Attorney-General and Commissioner of Justice in Rivers State, having served as Director of Public Prosecution in the state.

In 2009, Adokiye, a columnist with The Punch newspaper was embroiled in controversy following his claim in his weekly column that some members of the Nigerian Under-17 football team were a lot older than their "official ages". The football authorities in Nigeria did not, follow up on this claim


Bözberg is a municipality in the district of Brugg in canton of Aargau in Switzerland. It ceased to exist in 1873, when it was split into the two new municipalities Oberbözberg and Unterbözberg. On 1 January 2013 the former municipalities of Gallenkirch, Oberbözberg and Unterbözberg merged to form the new municipality of Bözberg. Gallenkirch is first mentioned in 1338 as Gallenkilch. During the Middle Ages, Gallenkirch was part of the district of Hornussen under the city of Bad Säckingen. Religiously, until the Reformation the residents were part of the parish of Hornussen; the local chapel is no longer standing. Portions of the structure were incorporated into a building. After the Reformation the village became part of the reformed parish of Bözberg. Under Bernese rule the village was part of the Thalheim court. In the 19th and 20th century, several attempts to merge Gallenkirch into the village of Linn failed. However, since 1917, children attend the local school in Linn, other infrastructure problems are solved through inter-municipal cooperation.

In Gallenkirch there is other economy. Today's inhabitants are commuters to the nearby industrial centers. Linn is first mentioned around 1303-08 as ze Linne. In 1307 it was mentioned as ze Lind; the name is connected with the 500- to 800-year-old, legendary Linden tree, east of Linn. In the Middle Ages it belonged to the vogtei of Elfingen. In 1460 it was incorporated as part of the court of Bözberg in the Canton of Bern, its inhabitants were part of the Elfingen-Bözen parish, after 1649 the Bözberg parish. Before the Reformation in 1528, it possessed a chapel. Agriculture was the major economic activity up into the middle of the 19th century. Due to declining opportunities in the mid-19th century, many of the farming families migrated away. By the end of the 20th century there were seven farms, while most other workers in the region were working in Brugg. Since the 1990s, Linn has been accessible by Postauto. Oberbözberg is first mentioned in 1189 as Bozeberch; until 1873, the municipality was part of Bözberg, which split into Unterbözberg.

Unterbözberg is first mentioned in 1189 as Bozeberch. The former municipalities that now make up Bözberg have a total combined area of 15.5 km2. Gallenkirch had an area, as of 2009, of 1.4 square kilometers. Of this area, 1.04 square kilometers or 74.3% is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.26 square kilometers or 18.6% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.1 km2 or 7.1% is settled. The former municipality is located west of the mountain pass through which the modern Bözbergstrasse runs. Gallenkirch is 5 kilometers from the district seat; the former municipality is bounded with Unterbözberg in the northeast, Linn to the south and Effingen to the northeast. Linn had an area, as of 2009, of 2.55 square kilometers. Of this area, 1.29 square kilometers or 50.6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 1.13 square kilometers or 44.3% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.12 km2 or 4.7% is settled. The former municipality is located on a plateau of the Bözberg and south-west of the pass over the mountain.

It consists of the linear village of Linn. Oberbözberg had an area, as of 2009, of 5.45 square kilometers. Of this area, 2.75 square kilometers or 50.5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 2.4 square kilometers or 44.0% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.26 square kilometers or 4.8% is settled, 0.02 km2 or 0.4% is either rivers or lakes. The former municipality consists of the linear village of Oberbözberg and the hamlet of Ueberthal as well as scattered farms. Unterbözberg had an area, as of 2009, of 6.12 square kilometers. Of this area, 3.28 square kilometers or 53.6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 2.32 square kilometers or 37.9% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.59 square kilometers or 9.6% is settled. The total population of Bözberg is 1,589; the historical population is given in the following chart: The village of Linn, the hamlet of Ueberthal and the village church of Bözberg are designated as part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites. Unterbözberg has an average of 136.4 days of rain or snow per year and on average receives 1,099 mm of precipitation.

The wettest month is June during which time Unterbözberg receives an average of 116 mm of rain or snow. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 11.9 days. The month with the most days of precipitation is May, with an average of 13.3, but with only 97 mm of rain or snow. The driest month of the year is October with an average of 77 mm of precipitation over 11.9 days

Mayor of Christchurch

The Mayor of Christchurch is the head of the municipal government of Christchurch, New Zealand, presides over the Christchurch City Council. The mayor is directly elected using a First Past the Post electoral system; the current mayor, Lianne Dalziel, was first elected in the October 2013 mayoral election and was re-elected in October 2016. The current deputy mayor is Andrew Turner. Christchurch was governed by the chairman of the town council. In 1868, the chairman became the city council's first mayor as determined by his fellow city councillors. Since 1875, the mayor is elected by eligible voters and, after an uncontested election, the first election was held in the following year. Christchurch became a city by Royal charter on 31 July 1856. Since 1862, chairmen were in charge of local government. Five chairmen presided in the initial years: The town council held a meeting on 10 June 1868 to elect its first mayor. In those days, councillors were elected for three-year terms, once a year elected one of their group as mayor, i.e. the position was not elected at large as is the case today.

The following councillors attended the 10 June meeting: William Wilson, James Purvis Jameson, T. Tombs, George Ruddenklau, Henry Thomson, W. A. Sheppard, William Calvert and John Anderson, who chaired the meeting. Thomson moved that Wilson be elected as the first mayor of Christchurch, Tombs seconded the motion; the chairman put the motion to the meeting and it was carried unanimously. With the meeting, the council had brought itself under the Municipal Corporations Act 1867. Hence, the last chairman became the first mayor in 1868; the first chairman became mayor 44 years in 1906. There have been 46 holders of the position; the longest-serving was Sir Hamish Hay. The shortest mayoralty was by Tommy Taylor in 1911. Wilson's term, at just over six months, was the second shortest. Vicki Buck and the current mayor, Lianne Dalziel, have been the only female mayors so far. Councillors elected one of their own as mayor towards the end of the year, the role was awarded to the most senior councillor. Most elections were unanimous, the newly elected mayor was regarded as the head of the council.

The system changed with the introduction of The Municipal Corporations Acts Amendment Act, 1875, as that legislation stipulated that mayors had to be elected at large. Fred Hobbs, the incumbent, was the only candidate nominated, so he was declared elected unopposed on 17 December 1875. James Gapes was the first mayor elected at large on 20 December 1876; the newly elected person was from that point the mayor-elect. Despite this, Taylor's death in 1911 resulted in councillors electing their fellow councillor John Joseph Dougall as mayor as required by the legislation for such cases. Mayors were appointed and elected for one year; this was changed to biennial elections "on the last Wednesday in April" with the Municipal Corporations Amendment Act, 1913. The act came into force in March 1915 and thus first applied at the April 1915 mayoral election; the Municipal Corporations Act, 1933 changed the mayoral term to three years, this commenced with the 1935 mayoral election. Five mayors have held non-consecutive terms: James Gapes Walter Cooper Charles Louisson Charles Gray Robert Macfarlane Three former mayors are alive: Vicki Buck Garry Moore Bob Parker The most recent deaths were: Ron Guthrey Hamish Hay The position of Deputy Mayor was established in 1917.

In the first meeting of the newly elected council on 7 May 1917, Alfred Williams was the first city councillor to be elected to the position. Five deputy-mayors were elected as mayors: John Beanland, James Arthur Flesher, Dan Sullivan, Ernest Andrews, George Manning. Four deputy-mayors were mayors before they served as deputies: Henry Thacker, John Archer, Robert Macfarlane, Vicki Buck. Since October 2016, the current deputy mayor is Andrew Turner, representing the Banks Peninsula ward. Hay, Hamish. Hay Days. Christchurch: Caxton Press. ISBN 0908563310

Rothbury, Michigan

Rothbury is a village in Grant Township, Oceana County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 432 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.99 square miles, of which 0.90 square miles is land and 0.09 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 432 people, 162 households, 110 families living in the village; the population density was 480.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 174 housing units at an average density of 193.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 86.1% White, 0.9% African American, 3.5% Native American, 1.9% from other races, 7.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.8% of the population. There were 162 households of which 36.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.1% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 8.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.1% were non-families. 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.11. The median age in the village was 34.5 years. 27.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 48.6% male and 51.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 416 people, 157 households, 118 families living in the village; the population density was 420.8 per square mile. There were 167 housing units at an average density of 168.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 92.07% White, 1.92% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 5.05% from other races, 0.72% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.13% of the population. There were 157 households out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.8% were non-families. 19.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 2.88.

In the village, the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.9 males. The median income for a household in the village was $30,357, the median income for a family was $32,917. Males had a median income of $31,944 versus $23,750 for females; the per capita income for the village was $14,846. About 13.7% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.6% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over. Double JJ Resort Ranch Airport Electric Forest 8. Rockbury, MI Electric Forest Double-J Three days in June

Newman University Church

The Church of Our Lady Seat of Wisdom known as Newman University Church or Catholic University Church, is a Catholic church in Dublin, Ireland. Groundbreaking took place on the site of the gardens of 87 St Stephen's Green in May 1855, it was founded by John Henry Newman for the newly-founded Catholic University of Ireland, designed by John Hungerford Pollen in a Byzantine Revival style, due to Newman's dislike of Gothic architecture. It was consecrated on Ascension Day 1856. On May 4, Newman preached in his sermon the essential place of the church in his plans for the university: "I wish in the same spots and the same individuals to be at once oracles of philosophy and shrines of devotion. Devotion is not a sort of finish given to the sciences. In 1907 it was the site of the funeral of the Fenian James Bermingham. During the 1916 Easter Rising British soldiers established a machine-gun post on the roof of the church. Future Taoiseach John A. Costello married Ida Mary O'Malley in the church in 1919.

Since 2016, the church has been stewarded by the University of Notre Dame, which uses the church as a base for the Notre Dame–Newman Center for Faith and Reason. The church is accessed by a Romanesque porch in polychromatic brick, with a belfry suspended over it. There is an atrium leading into the ante-church and sanctuary; the interior is richly decorated with a baldacchino over the altar. The semi-dome above the sanctuary was inspired by the apse of the Basilica of San Clemente al Laterano, Rome. There is an arcaded gallery with screens and an elaborate pulpit; the walls are decorated with serpentine from many parts of Ireland. The empty undercroft represents the empty tomb, just as at Westminster Cathedral. Official site