SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Adidas

Adidas AG is a multinational corporation and headquartered in Herzogenaurach, that designs and manufactures shoes and accessories. It is the largest sportswear manufacturer in Europe, the second largest in the world, after Nike, it is the holding company for the Adidas Group, which consists of the Reebok sportswear company, 8.33% of the German football club Bayern Munich, Runtastic, an Austrian fitness technology company. Adidas' revenue for 2018 was listed at €21.915 billion. The company was started by Adolf Dassler in his mother's house. Dassler assisted in the development of spiked running shoes for multiple athletic events. To enhance the quality of spiked athletic footwear, he transitioned from a previous model of heavy metal spikes to utilising canvas and rubber. Dassler persuaded U. S. sprinter Jesse Owens to use his handmade spikes at the 1936 Summer Olympics. In 1949, following a breakdown in the relationship between the brothers, Adolf created Adidas, Rudolf established Puma, which became Adidas' business rival.

Adidas' logo is three stripes, used on the company's clothing and shoe designs as a marketing aid. The branding, which Adidas bought in 1952 from Finnish sports company Karhu Sports, became so successful that Dassler described Adidas as "The three stripes company". Adidas was founded by Adolf "Adi" Dassler who made sports shoes in his mother's scullery or laundry room in Herzogenaurach, Germany after his return from World War I. In July 1924, his older brother Rudolf joined the business, which became Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory; the electricity supply in Herzogenaurach was unreliable, so the brothers sometimes had to use pedal power from a stationary bicycle to run their equipment. Dassler assisted in the development of spiked running shoes for multiple athletic events. To enhance the quality of spiked athletic footwear, he transitioned from a previous model of heavy metal spikes to utilising canvas and rubber. In 1936, Dassler persuaded U. S. sprinter Jesse Owens to use his hand made spikes at the 1936 Summer Olympics.

Following Owens' four gold medals, the name and reputation of Dassler shoes became known to the world's sportsmen and their trainers. Business was successful and the Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of shoes every year before World War II; the Dassler factory, used for production of anti-tank weapons during the Second World War, was nearly destroyed in 1945 by US forces, but was spared when Adolf Dassler's wife convinced the GIs that the company and its employees were only interested in manufacturing sports shoes. American occupying forces subsequently became major buyers of the Dassler brothers' shoes; the brothers split up in 1947 after relations between them had broken down, with Rudolf forming a new firm that he called Ruda – from Rudolf Dassler rebranded Puma, Dassler forming a company formally registered as Adidas AG from Adi Dassler on 18 August 1949. An urban myth has promulgated the backronym All Day. Puma SE and Adidas entered into a bitter business rivalry after the split. Indeed, the town of Herzogenaurach was divided on the issue, leading to the nickname "the town of bent necks"—people looked down to see which shoes strangers wore.

The town's two football clubs were divided: ASV Herzogenaurach club was supported by Adidas, while 1 FC Herzogenaurach endorsed Rudolf's footwear. When handymen were called to Rudolf's home, they would deliberately wear Adidas shoes. Rudolf would tell them to pick out a pair of free Pumas; the two brothers never reconciled and although they are now buried in the same cemetery, they are spaced as far apart as possible. In 1948, the first football match after World War II, several members of the West German national football team wore Puma boots, including the scorer of West Germany's first post-war goal, Herbert Burdenski. Four years at the 1952 Summer Olympics, 1500 metres runner Josy Barthel of Luxembourg won Puma's first Olympic gold in Helsinki, Finland. At the 1960 Summer Olympics, Puma paid German sprinter Armin Hary to wear Pumas in the 100 meter sprint final. Hary had worn Adidas before and asked Adolf for payment; the German won gold in Pumas, but laced up Adidas for the medals ceremony, to the shock of the two Dassler brothers.

Hary hoped to cash in from both. In 1952, following the 1952 Summer Olympics, Adidas acquired its signature 3-stripe logo from the Finnish athletic footwear brand Karhu Sports, for two bottles of whiskey and the equivalent of 1600 euros. After a period of trouble following the death of Adolf Dassler's son Horst Dassler in 1987, the company was bought in 1989 by French industrialist Bernard Tapie, for ₣1.6 billion, which Tapie borrowed. Tapie was at the time a famous specialist of rescuing bankrupt companies, an expertise on which he built his fortune. Tapie decided to move production offshore to Asia, he hired Madonna for promotion. He sent, from Christchurch, New Zealand, a shoe sales representative to Germany and met Adolf Dassler's descendants and was sent back with a few items to promote the company there. In 1992, unable to pay the loan interest, Tapie mandated the Crédit Lyonnais bank to sell Adidas, the bank subsequently converted the outstanding debt owed into equity of the enterprise, unusual as per the prevalent French banking practice.

The state-owned bank had tried to get Tapie out of dire financial straits as a personal favour to Tapie, it is reported

Acornsoft

Acornsoft was the software arm of Acorn Computers, a major publisher of software for the BBC Micro and Acorn Electron. As well as games, it produced a large number of educational titles, extra computer languages and business and utility packages – these included word processor VIEW and the spreadsheet ViewSheet supplied on ROM and cartridge for the BBC Micro/Acorn Electron and included as standard in the BBC Master and Acorn Business Computer. Acornsoft was formed in late 1980 by Acorn Computers directors Hermann Hauser and Chris Curry, David Johnson-Davies, author of the first game for a UK personal computer and of the official Acorn Atom manual "Atomic Theory and Practice". David Johnson-Davies was managing director and in early 1981 was joined by Tim Dobson and Chris Jordan, Publications Editor. While some of their games were clones or remakes of popular arcade games, they published a number of original titles such as Aviator and Revs which went on to spawn entire genres. Acornsoft published text adventures by authors such as Peter Killworth, including Philosopher's Quest and Countdown to Doom, that remain regarded within the interactive fiction community.

Acornsoft ceased to operate as a separate company upon the departure of David Johnson-Davies in January 1986. Past this date, Acorn Computers used the Acornsoft name on office software it released in the VIEW family for the BBC Master series. In 1986 Superior Software was granted a licence to publish some Acornsoft games and rereleased many, individually and as compilations such as the Play It Again Sam and Acornsoft Hits series. By agreement, the Acornsoft name was used on the packaging of some of the subsequent Superior games. Superior chose not to take on Acornsoft's text adventure games, most of which were released in updated versions by Topologika along with some sequels from the same authors. Acornsoft titles extended their consistent branding to the software's loading screens. Acheton – A text adventure Arcadians – A Galaxian clone Aviator – A Spitfire flight simulator. With aliens... Bouncer – A Q*Bert clone Business Games – An educational package Carousel – A Carnival clone Castle of Riddles – A text adventure Countdown to Doom – A text adventure.

All games were compatible with the BBC Micro Model B. Games followed by Model A & B were compatible with both machines. Games followed by Electron were released separately for the Acorn Electron. Games are listed by their catalogue numbers which are the order of release of the BBC versions. G01 Philosopher's Quest G02 Defender deleted for legal reasons and re-released as Planetoid G02 Aviator released with G26-G28 but re-used the deleted Defender's number G03 Monsters G04 Snapper G05 Rocket Raid G06 Arcade Action 4 games: Invaders, Breakout and Snake G07 Sphinx Adventure G08 Cube Master G09 JCB Digger G10 Chess G11 Maze G12 Sliding-Block Puzzles G13 Meteors G14 Arcadians G15 Planetoid G16 Super Invaders G17 Castle of Riddles G18 Missile Base G19 Countdown to Doom G20 Draughts & Reversi G21 Snooker G22 Starship Command G23 Hopper G24 Carousel G25 Kingdom of Hamil G26 Crazy Tracer G27 Drogna G28 Free Fall G29 Meteor Mission G30 Gateway to Karos G31 Boxer G32 Tetrapod G33 Volcano G34 Black Box & Gambit – Ben Finn, developer of Black Box, went on to co-write Sibelius G35 Bouncer G36 The Seventh Star G37 Acheton G38 Elite G39 Firebug G40 Quondam G41 Labyrinth G42 Go G43 Revs G44 Revs 4 Tracks extra tracks for the main game G45 Elite original BBC Micro 6502 Second Proces

Hafsid dynasty

The Hafsids were a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Berber descent who ruled Ifriqiya from 1229 to 1574. The ancestor of the dynasty was Abu Hafs Umar ibn Yahya al-Hintati, a Berber from the Hintata tribal confederation which belonged to the greater Masmuda confederation of Morocco, he was a member of a close companion of Ibn Tumart. His original Berber name was "Faskat u-Mzal Inti", changed to "Abu Hafs Umar ibn Yahya al-Hintati" since it was a tradition of Ibn Tumart to rename his close companions once they had adhered to his religious teachings, his son Abu Muhammad Abd al-Wahid ibn Abi Hafs, was appointed by the Almohad caliph Muhammad an-Nasir as governor of Ifriqiya, where he ruled from 1207 to 1221The Hafsids as governors on behalf of the Almohads faced constant threats from Banu Ghaniya who were descendants of Almoravid princes which the Almohads had defeated and replaced as a ruling dynasty. The Hafsids were Ifriqiya governors of the Almohads until 1229. After the split of the Hafsids from the Almohads under Abu Zakariya, Abu Zakariya organised the administration in Ifriqiya and built Tunis up as the economic and cultural centre of the empire.

At the same time, many Muslims from Al-Andalus fleeing the Spanish Reconquista of Castile and Aragon were absorbed. He conquered the Kingdom of Tlemcen in 1242 and made the Abdalwadids his vassals, his successor Muhammad I al-Mustansir took the title of Caliph. He extended the boundaries of his State by subjugating the central Maghreb, going so far as to impose his overlordship over the Kingdom of Tlemcen, northern Morocco and the Nasrids of Granada Spain; the Hafsids become independent in 1264. The successor of Abû Zakariya' Yahya, Abu' Abd Allah Muhammad al-Mustansir, proclaimed himself Caliph in 1256 and continued the policies of his father, it was during his reign. After landing at Carthage, the King died of dysentery in the middle of his army decimated by disease in 1270. In the 14th century the empire underwent a temporary decline. Although the Hafsids succeeded for a time in subjugating the empire of the Abdalwadids of Tlemcen, between 1347 and 1357 they were twice conquered by the Marinids of Morocco.

The Abdalwadids however could not defeat the Bedouin. During the same period plague epidemics caused a considerable fall in population, further weakening the empire. Under the Hafsids, commerce with Christian Europe grew however piracy against Christian shipping grew as well during the rule of Abd al-Aziz II. In 1429, the Hafsids attacked the island of Malta, took 3000 slaves although they did not conquer the island; the profits were used to support art and culture. However, piracy provoked retaliation from Aragon and Venice, which several times attacked Tunisian coastal cities. Under Utman the Hafsids reached their zenith, as the caravan trade through the Sahara and with Egypt was developed, as well as sea trade with Venice and Aragon; the Bedouins and the cities of the empire became independent, leaving the Hafsids in control of only Tunis and Constantine. In the 16th century the Hafsids became caught up in the power struggle between Spain and the Ottoman Empire-supported Corsairs; the Ottomans conquered Tunis in 1534 and held it for one year, driving out the Hafsid ruler Muley Hassan.

A year the King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Charles I and V seized Tunis, drove the Ottomans out and restored Muley Hassan as a Hapsburg tributary. Due to the Ottoman threat, the Hafsids were vassals of Spain after 1535; the Ottomans again held it for four years. Don Juan of Austria recaptured it in 1573; the Ottomans reconquered Tunis in 1574, Muhammad VI, the last Caliph of the Hafsids, was brought to Constantinople and was subsequently executed due to his collaboration with Spain and the desire of the Ottoman Sultan to take the title of Caliph as he now controlled Mecca and Medina. The Hafsid lineage survived the Ottoman massacre by a branch of the family being taken to the Canary Island of Tenerife by the Spanish. Abu Muhammad Abd al-Wahid ibn Abi Hafs Abu Muhammad Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Wahid Abu Zakariya Yahya Muhammad I al-Mustansir Yahya II al-Wathiq Ibrahim I Abd al-Aziz I Ibn Abi Umara Abu Hafs Umar I Muhammad I Abu Bakr I Aba al-Baqa Khalid an-Nasir Aba Yahya Zakariya al-Lihyani Muhammad II Abu Bakr II Abu Hafs Umar II Ahmad I Ibrahim II Abu al-Baqa Khalid Ahmad II Abd al-Aziz II Muhammad III Abu'Amr'Uthman Abu Zakariya Yahya II Abd al-Mu'min Abu Yahya Zakariya Muhammad IV Muhammad V Ahmad III Ottoman conquest Muhammad VI Almohad Caliphate List of Sunni Muslim dynasties