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Adin Steinsaltz

Rabbi Adin Even-Israel Steinsaltz is an Israeli Chabad Chasidic rabbi, philosopher, social critic, publisher, hailed by Time magazine as a "once-in-a-millennium scholar." He has devoted his life to making the Talmud accessible to all Jews. Published in modern Hebrew, with a running commentary to facilitate learning, his Steinsaltz edition of the Talmud has been translated into English, French and Spanish. Beginning in 1989, Steinsaltz published several tractates in Hebrew and English of the Babylonian Talmud in an English-Hebrew edition; the first volume of a new English-Hebrew edition, the Koren Talmud Bavli, was released in May 2012, has since been brought to completion. Steinsaltz is a recipient of the Israel Prize for Jewish Studies, President's Medal, Yakir Yerushalayim. Adin Steinsaltz was born in Jerusalem in 1937 to Avraham Steinsaltz and Leah, his father was a great-grandson of the first Slonimer Rebbe, Avrohom Weinberg, was a student of Hillel Zeitlin. Avraham and Leah Steinsaltz met through Zeitlin.

They immigrated to Israel in 1924. Avraham Steinsaltz, a devoted communist and member of Lehi went to Spain in 1936 to fight with the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War. Adin was born the following year. Steinsaltz became a baal teshuva during his teenage years and learned from rabbi Shmuel Elazar Heilprin, he studied mathematics and chemistry at the Hebrew University, in addition to rabbinical studies at Yeshivas Tomchei Tmimim in Lod and with rabbis Dov Ber Eliezrov and Shmaryahu Noach Sasonkin. Following graduation, he established several experimental schools after an unsuccessful attempt to start a neo-Hassidic community in the Negev desert, and, at the age of 24, became Israel's youngest school principal. In 1965, he founded the Israel Institute for Talmudic Publications, began his monumental work on the Talmud, including translation into Hebrew, English and various other languages; the Steinsaltz editions of the Talmud include translation from the original Aramaic and a comprehensive commentary.

Steinsaltz completed his Hebrew edition of the entire Babylonian Talmud in November 2010, at which time Koren Publishers Jerusalem became the publisher of all of his works, including the Talmud. While not without criticism, the Steinsaltz edition is used throughout Israel, the United States, the world. Over two million volumes of the Steinsaltz Talmud have been distributed to date. Controversial Talmud passages obscured, omitted or confined to footnotes in English translations like the Soncino Talmud, receive full exposition in the Steinsaltz Talmud. Random House halted publication of the Steinsaltz Talmud after less than one-third of the English translation had been published; the Steinsaltz editions of the Talmud have opened up the world of Talmud study to thousands of people outside the walls of the traditional yeshiva, including women, who traditionally were not taught Talmud. Regarding the access that his work provides, Steinsaltz says: "I never thought that spreading ignorance has any advantage, except for those who are in a position of power and want to deprive others of their rights and spread ignorance in order to keep them underlings."

Steinsaltz's classic work of Kabbalah, The Thirteen Petalled Rose, was first published in 1980, now appears in eight languages. In all, Steinsaltz has authored some 60 books and hundreds of articles on subjects including Talmud, Jewish mysticism, Jewish philosophy, historical biography, philosophy. Many of these works have been translated into English by his close personal friend, now deceased, Yehuda Hanegbi, his latest book is a memoir-biography on the Lubavitcher Rebbe, rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, published by Maggid Books. Continuing his work as a teacher and spiritual mentor, Steinsaltz established Yeshivat Mekor Chaim alongside rabbis Menachem Froman and Shagar in 1984, Yeshivat Tekoa in 1999, he serves as president of the Shefa Middle and High Schools. He has served as scholar in residence at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D. C. and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. His honorary degrees include doctorates from Yeshiva University, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Bar Ilan University, Brandeis University, Florida International University.

Steinsaltz is Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshivat Hesder Tekoa. Being a follower of rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson of Chabad-Lubavitch, he went to help Jews in the Soviet Union assisting Chabad's shluchim network. Involved in the future of the Jews in the former Soviet Union, Steinsaltz serves as the region's Duchovny Ravin, a historic Russian title which indicates that he is the spiritual mentor of Russian Jewry. In this capacity, Steinsaltz travelled to Russia and the Republics once each month from his home in Jerusalem. During his time in the former Soviet Union, he founded the Jewish University, both in Moscow and Saint Petersburg; the Jewish University is the first degree-granting institution of Jewish studies in the former Soviet Union. In 1991, on Schneersohn's advice, he changed his family name from Steinsaltz to Even-Israel. Besides Chabad, Steinsaltz is inspired by the teachings of the Kotzker Rebbe, he was in close contact with the fifth Gerrer Rebbe, Yisroel Alter, his brother and successor, Simcha Bunim Alter.

Steinsaltz has taken a cautious approach to interfaith dialogues. During a visit of a delegation of Roman Catholic cardinals in Manhattan in January 2004, he said that, "You do not have to raise over-expectations of a meeting

Bruno Müller

Obersturmbannführer Bruno Müller or Brunon Müller-Altenau served as an SS Lieutenant Colonel during the Nazi German invasion of Poland. In September 1939, he was put in charge of the Einsatzkommando EK 2, attached to Einsatzgruppe EG I of the Security Police, they were deployed in Poland along with the 14th Army of the Wehrmacht. Müller was head of the Gestapo office in Oldenburg from 1935 until World War II. During the invasion of Poland, he served as one of four captains of the mobile killing squads within Einsatzgruppe I, led by SS-Standartenführer Bruno Streckenbach. In total, eight Einsatzgruppen had been deployed in Poland, they were active until late 1940, composed of the Gestapo, Kripo and SD functionaries involved in extermination actions including Operation Tannenberg as well as Intelligenzaktion against the Polish cultural elites. Müller was appointed commander of the Gestapo Division 4 Krakau in the new General Government district two months after the attack. Müller conducted the operation Sonderaktion Krakau against the Polish professors in occupied Kraków.

On November 6, 1939 at the Jagiellonian University lecture room no. 56 of the Collegium Novum, he summoned all academics for a speech, where he announced their immediate arrest and internment. Among them were 105 professors and 33 lecturers from the Jagiellonian University, including its rector Tadeusz Lehr-Spławiński, 34 professors and doctors from Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, 4 from College of Commerce and 4 from Lublin and Wilno universities, as well as the President of Kraków, Dr Stanisław Klimecki, apprehended at home. All of them, 184 persons in total, were transported to prison at Montelupich, – some three days – to detention center in Wrocław, they were sent to Sachsenhausen concentration camp on the other side of Berlin two weeks and in March 1940 further to Dachau near Munich after a new'selection'. Following international protest involving prominent Italians including Benito Mussolini and the Vatican, surviving prisoners older than 40, were released on February 8, 1940. More academics were released later.

However, over a dozen died in captivity, including Stanisław Estreicher, several others right after their return, owing to emaciation. Müller served as the RKF chief of staff in Silesia in late 1940, replaced by SS-Obersturmbannführer Fritz Arlt in preparation for the Action Saybusch in Żywiec. Soon following the German attack on the Soviet Union, Müller was selected as leader of the Einsatzkommando "11b" attached to the 11th Army of the Wehrmacht, he operated along with the entire Einsatzgruppe D in the territory of Crimea in southern Ukraine. From there, they went to Southern Bessarabia and the Caucasus, his Einsatzgruppe D mobile killing unit, of which Einsatzkommando 11b was a part, became responsible for the murder of over 90,000 people, an average of 340 to 700 victims per day. Müller's activities in the region are not as well-documented as those of some other Nazi leaders. At the beginning of August 1941 he led the unit that massacred about 155 Jews, including women and children in the city of Bender in Moldova.

Müller, a heavy drinker, insisted that to be trusted, every one of his men first had to burn "the bridges to respectable society" by committing murder at least once. One account tells of how he modeled the killing process by shooting a two-year-old child and the child's mother told his officers to follow his example. In October 1941, four months after the commencement of Operation Barbarossa, Müller was replaced as leader of Einsatzkommando "11b" by SS-Obersturmbannführer Werner Braune, named by Commander Otto Ohlendorf in his killing tally sent to Berlin. Müller served at Rouen and Kiel before the end of World War II. In 1947 he was apprehended by the Allies and put on trial as a war criminal in December 1947, for his role in the atrocities committed in Nordmark at the KZ Hassee–Kiel slave labor camp where 500 prisoners died between May 1944 and the end of the war. Müller was sentenced to 20 years of hard labor, but was released 5 years due to amnesty laws, he died of natural causes in 1960 at the age of 54, after having worked as a salesman in West Germany for the remainder of his life.

Müller activities in occupied Kraków were portrayed in the award-winning film Katyń made in 2007 by Andrzej Wajda.

Coherent state

In physics in quantum mechanics, a coherent state is the specific quantum state of the quantum harmonic oscillator described as a state which has dynamics most resembling the oscillatory behavior of a classical harmonic oscillator. It was the first example of quantum dynamics when Erwin Schrödinger derived it in 1926, while searching for solutions of the Schrödinger equation that satisfy the correspondence principle; the quantum harmonic oscillator and hence, the coherent states arise in the quantum theory of a wide range of physical systems. For instance, a coherent state describes the oscillating motion of a particle confined in a quadratic potential well; the coherent state describes a state in a system for which the ground-state wavepacket is displaced from the origin of the system. This state can be related to classical solutions by a particle oscillating with an amplitude equivalent to the displacement; these states, expressed as eigenvectors of the lowering operator and forming an overcomplete family, were introduced in the early papers of John R. Klauder, e. g.

In the quantum theory of light and other bosonic quantum field theories, coherent states were introduced by the work of Roy J. Glauber in 1963 and are known as Glauber states; the concept of coherent states has been abstracted. For this reason, the coherent states associated to the quantum harmonic oscillator are sometimes referred to as canonical coherent states, standard coherent states, Gaussian states, or oscillator states. In quantum optics the coherent state refers to a state of the quantized electromagnetic field, etc. that describes a maximal kind of coherence and a classical kind of behavior. Erwin Schrödinger derived it as a "minimum uncertainty" Gaussian wavepacket in 1926, searching for solutions of the Schrödinger equation that satisfy the correspondence principle, it is a minimum uncertainty state, with the single free parameter chosen to make the relative dispersion equal for position and momentum, each being small at high energy. Further, in contrast to the energy eigenstates of the system, the time evolution of a coherent state is concentrated along the classical trajectories.

The quantum linear harmonic oscillator, hence coherent states, arise in the quantum theory of a wide range of physical systems. They occur in the quantum theory of other bosonic quantum field theories. While minimum uncertainty Gaussian wave-packets had been well-known, they did not attract full attention until Roy J. Glauber, in 1963, provided a complete quantum-theoretic description of coherence in the electromagnetic field. In this respect, the concurrent contribution of E. C. G. Sudarshan should not be omitted. Glauber was prompted to do this to provide a description of the Hanbury-Brown & Twiss experiment which generated wide baseline interference patterns that could be used to determine stellar diameters; this opened the door to a much more comprehensive understanding of coherence. In classical optics, light is thought of as electromagnetic waves radiating from a source. Coherent laser light is thought of as light, emitted by many such sources that are in phase; the picture of one photon being in-phase with another is not valid in quantum theory.

Laser radiation is produced in a resonant cavity where the resonant frequency of the cavity is the same as the frequency associated with the atomic electron transitions providing energy flow into the field. As energy in the resonant mode builds up, the probability for stimulated emission, in that mode only, increases; that is a positive feedback loop in which the amplitude in the resonant mode increases exponentially until some non-linear effects limit it. As a counter-example, a light bulb radiates light into a continuum of modes, there is nothing that selects any one mode over the other; the emission process is random in space and time. In a laser, light is emitted into a resonant mode, that mode is coherent. Thus, laser light is idealized as a coherent state; the energy eigenstates of the linear harmonic oscillator are fixed-number quantum states. The Fock state is the most particle-like state. A coherent state distributes its quantum-mechanical uncertainty between the canonically conjugate coordinates and momentum, the relative uncertainty in phase and amplitude are equal—and small at high amplitude.

Mathematically, a coherent state | α ⟩ is defined to be the eigenstate of the annihilation operator â associated to the eigenvalue α. Formally, this reads, a ^ | α ⟩ = α | α ⟩. {\displaystyle |\alpha \

Cap-independent translation element

In molecular biology, a cap-independent translation element is an RNA sequence found in the 3'UTR of many RNA plant viruses. Eukaryotic mRNAs contain a 5' cap structure, required for efficient binding of translation initiation factors. Many viral mRNAs lack the 5' cap, animal virus mRNAs contain an internal ribosome entry site which functions in translation initiation. Many plant viral mRNAs contain a cap-independent translation element; these elements mediate initiation of translation of the proteins encoded in the mRNA by either recruiting translation inititation factors or the 60S ribosomal subunit to the viral RNA. In RNA2 of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus the cap-independent translation element is required for negative strand RNA synthesis. There are many different structural classes of cap-independent translation element, with no apparent structural or sequence similarity: Luteovirus cap-independent translation element Nicholson, BL. "Tombusvirus Y-Shaped Translational Enhancer Forms a Complex with eIF4F and Can Be Functionally Replaced by Heterologous Translational Enhancers".

Journal of Virology. 87: 1872–1883. Doi:10.1128/JVI.02711-12. PMC 3554133. PMID 23192876

Battle of Miechów

The Battle of Miechów took place on February 17, 1863, near Miechów in Małopolska, during the January Uprising. Polish units under Apolinary Kurowski numbering around 2500 troops attacked the town in an attempt to gain control of the so-called border triangle - an area at the cross roads of the Austrian and Russian partitions which would have allowed the insurgents access to supplies and troops from outside the Congress Poland where the uprising proper was taking place, they were hoping to surprise Russian troops. However, Russian garrison was stronger than expected by insurgents. Either the Russian commander guessed the intent, or the strategic plan of the Poles was somehow betrayed; as a result, they bolstered their defenses. Initial engagements were favorable to the Poles; these included a successful charge by the Zouaves of Death, a unit organized by Francois Rochebrune and led by Wojciech Komorowski in this battle, on Russian positions in the local cemetery. However, charges by the Polish cavalry through the narrow streets of the town resulted in high casualties in the face of concentrated fire from the Russians and a panic of the Polish troops.

According to contemporary Russian reports, 200 insurrectionists died. There were some reports of atrocities, including the killing or burying alive of the wounded; as a measure of repression, the town was set on fire and local residents were forbidden to put it out. As a result of the engagement, Kurowski's unit ceased to exist. Rochebrune reformed his Zouaves in Kraków

Blacktail shiner

The blacktail shiner is a small freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae native to the United States. The blacktail shiner is a somewhat slender minnow with 8-9 rays on the anal fin, a prominent black spot at the base of the caudal fin; the back is yellowish-olive, the sides are silvery with hints of blue. Adults reach 4 inches in length; the blacktail shiner has a black caudal spot which distinguishes it from most other minnows. The caudal spot of the blacktail shiner may be faint in populations inhabiting turbid waters, they could be confused with the red shiner; the blacktail shiner occurs in Gulf of Mexico drainages from Suwannee River and Florida, to Rio Grande, Texas. Blacktail shiners are found in the southern United States west of the Appalachian Mountains; the species ranges east and west from north central Florida to West Texas, north to southern Illinois. In Texas, blacktail shiners are unknown in the Panhandle, being found from the Edwards Plateau eastward; the blacktail shiner has been found from the Rio Grande basin in Texas, east to the Suwannee River, north through the Mississippi River basin to the confluence of the Ohio River.

Two of the three recognized. The slender blacktail shiner, C. v. stigmaturus, is found in the upper Mobile River basin, while the eastern blacktail shiner, C. v. cercositgma, occurs in the lower Mobile River basin and coastal rivers draining the state. Intergradations between these subspecies have been recognized in the Alabama and Tallapoosa river systems; the blacktail shiner feeds on invertebrates. Its diet includes algae and aquatic and terrestrial insects. Aquatic insects and algae were the most common food items of blacktail shiners in the Blanco River, Texas. Blacktail shiners feed during the day. Blacktail shiners may serve as major food resource for piscivorous spotted bass during the summer in Village Creek, Texas; the blacktail shiner is most common in pools and runs of clear, sandy-bottomed, small to medium rivers in areas with sparse vegetation and strong current, but upland populations occur in creeks over substrates with more gravel and rubble. Populations in the western part of the species' range are found in turbid water.

Blacktail shiner mesohabitat is ubiquitously distributed among pools and riffles with silt and bedrock substrates. In the Blanco River, blacktail shiners were most abundant in swift runs in the spring and summer; the species occurred throughout the year in riffle and sandbank habitats in Texas. During summer, most individuals were collected from sandbank habitats. Individuals smaller than 17 millimeters were found predominately in riffle habitats during fall and winter. Juveniles occurred exclusively in sandbank mesohabitat during spring. Blacktail shiners are found in sandy or rocky areas of Lake Texoma in clearer water of the downstream area; the blacktail shiner hybridizes in Illinois. The lifespan of the blacktail shiner is up to 4 years in the Leaf River system, Mississippi and up to 5 years in the Blanco River, Texas. In Texas, the blacktail shiner spawning season is April through September. In Mississippi, it is late March through early October, with most females reproductive from April to early September.

In Village Creek, blacktail shiners revealed size distribution patterns consistent with a protracted spawning season. Prime spawning habitat for the blacktail shiner is in fractional crevices. Populations in reservoirs chose crevice sites in locations of much lower current speeds. In the Blanco River, blacktail shiners were observed depositing eggs underneath small boulders and large cobble in a bedrock riffle in the swiftest current velocities available. Males respond to sounds produced by spawning females and are able to distinguish these sounds from those produced by related female red shiners. Males are territorial. Breeding pair swims along the female deposits eggs. After spawning, the male doubles back and eats any eggs that failed to make it into the crevice. Small males try to fertilize eggs by spawning female. Both large and small males will enter another male's territory and deposit sperm in a crevice before the male courts a female to lay eggs in the crevice. One study in the Blanco River, Texas found.

Another study in southwestern Mississippi found that clutch sizes ranged between 139 and 459 ova in females 48.6–72.0 millimeters. Females