Bhagavata Purana known as Śrīmad Bhāgavata Mahā Purāṇa, Śrīmad Bhāgavatam or Bhāgavata, is one of Hinduism's eighteen great Puranas. Composed in Sanskrit and available in all major Indian languages, it promotes bhakti to Krishna integrating themes from the Advaita philosophy and from the Dvaita philosophy; the origin of Śrīmad Bhāgavatam can be traced back to God Brahma who initiated Narada Rishi summarised in four verse called Chatur Sloki Bhagavatam. Narada Rishi submitted the same to Lord Veda Vyasa who elaborated to the presently available twelve skandhas and initiated to Sri Shukacharya. Lord Veda Vyasa has recorded the following narrations of Śrīmad Bhāgavatam in seven days or in Saphaha format in the Puranas being worthy: Sri Shukacharya narrated Śrīmad Bhāgavatam for seven days to Parakshit Raja on the banks of Ganga and present Haridwar. Gokarna narrated Śrīmad Bhāgavatam for seven days on the banks of river Tungabhadra. Narada Rishi organized Śrīmad Bhāgavatam for seven days at Ananda on the banks of Ganga wherein Sanatkumara narrated.
Sri Sutacharya, present during the first narration of Sri Shukacharya to Parakshit Raja narrated Śrīmad Bhāgavatam to Sri Saunaka Rishi in Naimisaranya in an elaborate way and for a long period of time. The Bhagavata Purana discusses a wide range of topics including Cosmology, Geography, Legend, Dance and Culture; as it begins, the forces of evil have won a war between the benevolent devas and evil asuras and now rule the universe. Truth re-emerges as Krishna, – first makes peace with the demons, understands them and creatively defeats them, bringing back hope, justice and happiness – a cyclic theme that appears in many legends; the Bhagavata Purana is a revered text in a Hindu tradition that reveres Vishnu. The text presents a form of religion that competes with that of the Vedas, wherein bhakti leads to self-knowledge and bliss; however the Bhagavata Purana asserts that the inner nature and outer form of Krishna is identical to the Vedas and that this is what rescues the world from the forces of evil.
An oft-quoted verse is used by some Krishna sects to assert that the text itself is Krishna in literary form. The date of composition is between the eighth and the tenth century AD, but may be as early as the 6th century AD. Manuscripts survive in numerous inconsistent versions revised through the 18th century creating various recensions both in the same languages and across different Indian languages; the text consists of twelve books totalling 332 chapters and between 16,000 and 18,000 verses depending on the recension. The tenth book, with about 4,000 verses, has been the most popular and studied, it was the first Purana, translated into a European language, when a French translation of a Tamil version appeared in 1788 and introduced many Europeans to Hinduism and 18th-century Hindu culture during the colonial era. "Purana" means "ancient, old". Bhagavata means "devoted to, follower of Bhagavat – the "sacred, divine". An alternative interpretation of Bhagavata is "devotees of the Adorable One".
Bhagavata Purana therefore means "Ancient Tales of Followers of the Lord". The composer of this work, Lord Veda Vyasa, in his second verse has described the Subject and the Fruit of studying and named it as Srimad Bhagavatam. Sri is used for abundance or richness; such Sri hence called Srimad. Bhagavata means Sacred or Divine or Holy; the holy or divine verses brings an abundance of happiness, Knowledge, in Vedas and Vedanta, Vairagya to the reader or listener and hence is called Srimad Bhagavatam. The Bhagavata is recognized as the best-known and most influential of the Puranas and, along with the Itihasa and other puranas, is sometimes referred to as the "Fifth Veda", it is important in Indian religious literature for its emphasis on the practice of devotion as compared to the more theoretical approach of the Bhagavad Gita. It is the source of many popular stories of Krishna's childhood told for centuries on the Indian subcontinent and of legends explaining Hindu festivals such as Holi and Diwali.
The Bhagavata declares itself the essence of derivative Smritis. Here Vedas are like seeds, Brahma Sutra, Bhagavad Gita, Vishnu Sahasaranama is like trunk, leaves, flowers; the fruit and its Juice being Srimad Bhagavata. As Srimad Bhagavata has the substance of Vedas and Mahabarata, it has high significance; the Srimad Bhagavatam is the essence of all the Vedanta literature. One who has enjoyed the nectar of its rasa never has any desire for anything else; the text has played a significant role in Chaitanya's Krishna-bhakti in Bengal, in the 15th–16th century Ekasarana Dharma in Assam, a panentheistic tradition whose proponents and Madhavdeva, acknowledge that their theological positions are rooted in the Bhagavata Purana, purged of doctrines that find no place in Assamese Vaishnavism and adding a monist commentary instead. In northern and western India the Bhagavata Purana has influenced the Hari Bhakti Vilasa and Haveli-style Krishna temples found in Braj region near Mathura-Vrindavan; the text complements the Pancharatra Agama texts of Vaishnavism.
While the text focu
Varuna is a Vedic deity associated with the sky also with the seas as well as Ṛta and Satya. He is found in the oldest layer of Vedic literature such as hymn 7.86 of the Rigveda. He is mentioned in the Tamil grammar work Tolkāppiyam, as the god of sea and rain. In the Hindu Puranas, Varuna is the god of oceans, his vehicle is a Makara and his weapon is a Pasha, he is the guardian deity of the western direction. In some texts, he is the father of the Vedic sage Vasishtha. Varuna is found in Japanese Buddhist mythology as Suiten, he is found in Jainism.. The theonym Varuṇa is a derivation from the verbal vṛ by means of a suffigal -uṇa-, for an interpretation of the name as "he who covers or binds", in reference to the cosmological ocean or river encircling the world, but in reference to the "binding" by universal law or Ṛta. Georges Dumézil made a cautious case for the identity of Varuna and the Greek god Ouranos at the earliest Indo-European cultural level; the etymological identification of the name Ouranos with the Sanskrit Varuṇa is based in the derivation of both names from the PIE root *ŭer with a sense of "binding" – the Indic king-god Varuṇa binds the wicked, the Greek king-god Ouranos binds the Cyclopes.
While the derivation of the name Varuṇa from this root is undisputed, this derivation of the Greek name is now rejected in favour of derivation from the root *wers- "to moisten, drip". In the earliest layer of the Rigveda, Varuna is the guardian of moral law, one who punishes those who sin without remorse, who forgives those who err with remorse, he is mentioned in many Rigvedic hymns, such as 1.25, 2.27 -- 30, 8.8, 9.73 and others. His relationship with waters and oceans is mentioned in the Vedas. Vedic poets describe him as an aspect and one of the plural perspectives of the same divine or spiritual principle. For example, hymn 5.3 of the Rigveda states: Varuna and Mitra are the gods of the societal affairs including the oath, are twinned Mitra-Varuna. Both Mitra and Varuna are classified as Asuras in the Rigveda, although they are addressed as Devas as well. Varuna, being the king of the Asuras, was adopted or made the change to a Deva after the structuring of the primordial cosmos, imposed by Indra after he defeats Vrtra.
According to Doris Srinivasan, a professor of Indology focusing on religion, Varuna-Mitra pair is an ambiguous deity just like Rudra-Shiva pair. Both have wrathful-gracious aspects in Indian mythology. Both Varuna and Rudra are synonymous with "all comprehensive sight, knowledge", both were the guardian deity of the north in the Vedic texts, both can be offered "injured, ill offerings", all of which suggest that Varuna may have been conceptually overlapping with Rudra. Further, the Rigvedic hymn 5.70 calls Mitra-Varuna pair as states Srinivasan. According to Samuel Macey and other scholars, Varuna had been the more ancient Indo-Aryan deity in 2nd millennium BCE, who gave way to Rudra in the Hindu pantheon, Rudra-Shiva became both "timeless and the god of time". In Vajasaneyi Samhita 21.40, Varuna is called the patron deity of physicians, one who has "a hundred, a thousand remedies". His capacity and association with "all comprehensive knowledge" is found in the Atharvaveda. Varuna finds a mention in the early Upanishads, where his role evolves.
In verse 3.9.26 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, for example, he is stated to be the god of the western quarter, but one, founded on "water" and dependent on "the heart" and the fire of soul. In the Katha Upanishad, Aditi is identified to be same as the goddess earth, she is stated in the Vedic texts to be the mother of Varuna and Mitra along with other Vedic gods, in Hindu mythology she as mother earth is stated to be mother of all gods. In Yajurveda it is said: "In fact Varuna is Vishnu and Vishnu is Varuna and hence the auspicious offering is to be made to these deities." || 8.59 || Rama interacts with Varuna in the Hindu epic Ramayana. For example, faced with the dilemma of how to cross the ocean to Lanka, where his abducted wife Sita is held captive by the demon king Ravana, Rama performs a pravpavesha to Varuna, the Lord of Oceans, for three days and three nights, states Ramesh Menon. Varuna does not respond, Rama arises on the fourth morning, enraged, he states to his brother Lakshamana that "even lords of the elements listen only to violence, Varuna does not respect gentleness, peaceful prayers go unheard".
With his bow and arrow, Rama prepares to attack the oceans to burn up the waters and create a bed of sand for his army of monkeys to cross and thus confront Ravana. Lakshmana appeals to Rama, translates Menon, that he should return to "peaceful paths of our fathers, you can win this war without laying waste the sea". Rama shoots his weapon sending the ocean into flames; as Rama increases the ferocity of his weapons, Varuna arises out of the oceans. He bows to Rama, stating that he himself did not know how to help Rama because the sea is deep, vast and he cannot change the nature of sea. Varuna asked Rama to remember that he is "the soul of peace and love, wrath does not suit him". Varuna promised to Rama that he will not disturb him or his army as they build a bridge and cross over to Lanka; the Tolkāppiyam, a Tamil grammar work from 3rd century BCE divides the people of ancient Tamilakam into 5 Sangam landscape divisions: kurinji, paalai and neithal. Each landscape are designated with different gods.
Vedanta or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy. Vedanta means "end of the Vedas", reflecting ideas that emerged from the speculations and philosophies contained in the Upanishads, it does not stand for one unifying doctrine. Rather it is an umbrella term for many sub-traditions, ranging from dualism to non-dualism, all of which developed on the basis of a common textual connection called the Prasthanatrayi; the Prasthanatrayi is a collective term for the Principal Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita. All Vedanta schools, in their deliberations, concern themselves with the following three categories but differ in their views regarding the concept and the relations between them: Brahman – the ultimate metaphysical reality, Ātman / Jivātman – the individual soul or self, Prakriti – the empirical world, ever-changing physical universe and matter; some of the better known sub-traditions of Vedanta include Advaita and Dvaita. Most other Vedantic sub-traditions are subsumed under the term Bhedabheda.
Over time, Vedanta adopted ideas from other orthodox schools like Yoga and Nyaya, through this syncretism, became the most prominent school of Hinduism. Many extant forms of Vaishnavism and Shaktism have been shaped and influenced by the doctrines of different schools of Vedanta; the Vedanta school has had a central influence on Hinduism. The word Vedanta means the end of the Vedas and referred to the Upanishads. Vedanta was concerned with the jñānakāṇḍa or Vedic knowledge part called the Upanishads; the denotation of Vedanta subsequently widened to include the various philosophical traditions based on to the Prasthanatrayi. The Upanishads may be regarded as the end of Vedas in different senses: These were the last literary products of the Vedic period; these mark. These were debated last, in the Brahmacharya stage. Vedanta is one of the six orthodox schools of Indian philosophy, it is called Uttara Mīmāṃsā, the'latter enquiry' or'higher enquiry'. Pūrva Mīmāṃsā deals with the karmakāṇḍa or rituals part in the Vedas.
The Upanishads, the Bhagavadgita and the Brahma Sutras constitute the basis of Vedanta. All schools of Vedanta propound their philosophy by interpreting these texts, collectively called the Prasthanatrayi three sources; the Upanishads, or Śruti prasthāna. The Brahma Sutras, or Nyaya prasthana / Yukti prasthana; the Bhagavad Gita, or Smriti prasthāna. The Brahma Sutras attempted to synthesize the teachings of the Upanishads; the diversity in the teaching of the Upanishads necessitated the systematization of these teachings. This was done in many ways in ancient India, but the only surviving version of this synthesis is the Brahma Sutras of Badarayana. All major Vedantic teachers, including Shankara, Ramanuja, Nimbarka and Madhva, have composed commentaries not only on the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras, but on the Bhagavad Gita; the Bhagavad Gita, due to its syncretism of Samkhya and Upanishadic thought, has played a major role in Vedantic thought. The Upanishads present an associative philosophical inquiry in the form of identifying various doctrines and presenting arguments for or against them.
They form Vedanta interprets them through rigorous philosophical exegesis. Varying interpretations of the Upanishads and their synthesis, the Brahma Sutras, led to the development of different schools of Vedanta over time of which three, five or six are prominent. Bhedabheda, as early as the 7th century CE, or the 4th century CE; some scholars are inclined to consider it as a "tradition" rather than a school of Vedanta. Upadhika, founded by Bhaskara in the 9th Century CE Svabhavikabhedabheda or Dvaitādvaita, founded by Nimbarka in the 7th century CE Achintya Bheda Abheda, founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Advaita, many scholars of which most prominent are Gaudapada and Adi Shankaracharya Vishishtadvaita, prominent scholars are Nathamuni, Yāmuna and Ramanuja Dvaita, founded by Madhvacharya Suddhadvaita, founded by Vallabha The history of Vedanta is divided into two periods: one prior to the composition of the Brahma Sutras and the other encompassing the schools that developed after the Brahma Sutras were written.
Little is known of schools of Vedanta existing before the composition of the Brahma Sutras. It is clear that Badarayana, the writer of Brahma Sutras, was not the first person to systematize the teachings of the Upanishads, as he quotes six Vedantic teachers before him – Ashmarathya, Audulomi, Kashakrtsna and Atreya. References to other early Vedanta teachers – Brahmadatta, Pandaya and Dravidacharya – are found in secondary literature of periods; the works of these ancient teachers have not survived, but based on the quotes attributed to them in literature, Sharma postulates that Ashmarathya and Audulomi were Bhedabheda scholars and Brahmadatta were Advaita scholars, while Tanka and Dravidacharya were either Advaita or Vishistadvaita scholars. Badarayana summarized and interpreted teachings of the Upanishads in the Brahma Sutras called the Vedanta Sutra "written from a Bhedābhed
Prithvi or Prithvi Mata "the Vast One" is the Sanskrit name for the earth as well as the name of a devi in Hinduism and some branches of Buddhism. She is known as Bhūmi, she is Dyaus Pita both. As Pṛthvī Mātā she is complementary to Dyaus Pita. In the Rigveda and Sky are addressed in the dual as Dyavapṛthivi, she is associated with the cow. Prithu, an incarnation of Viṣṇu, milked her in cow's form, she is a national personification in Indonesia. In Buddhist texts and visual representations, Pṛthvī is described as both protecting Gautama Buddha and as being his witness for his enlightenment. Prithvi appears in Early Buddhism in the Pāli Canon, dispelling the temptation figure Mara by attesting to Gautama Buddha's worthiness to attain enlightenment; the Buddha is depicted performing the bhūmisparśa or "earth-touching" mudrā as a symbolic invocation of the goddess. The Pṛthvī Sūkta is a hymn of the Atharvaveda. Vasudhara Phra Mae Thorani Doniger O'Flaherty, Wendy, ed.. The Rig Veda: An Anthology: One Hundred and Eight Hymns.
Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780140449891. Shaw, Miranda Eberle. Buddhist Goddesses of India. Princeton University Press. P. 27. ISBN 978-0-691-12758-3. Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend by Anna Dallapiccola Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Traditions by David Kinsley
Brahma is a creator god in Hinduism. He is known as Svayambhu or the creative aspect of Vishnu, Vāgīśa, the creator of the four Vedas, one from each of his mouths. Brahma is consort of Saraswati and he is the father of Four Kumaras, Daksha and many more. Brahma is sometimes identified with the Vedic god Prajapati, he is known as Vedanatha, Chaturmukha Svayambhu, etc, as well as linked to Kama and Hiranyagarbha, he is more prominently mentioned in the mythologies in the Puranas. In the epics, he is conflated with Purusha. Although, Brahma is part of the Brahma-Vishnu-Shiva Trimurti, ancient Hindu scriptures mention multiple other trinities of gods or goddesses which do not include Brahma. Several Puranas describe him as emerging from a lotus, connected to the navel of Lord Vishnu. Other Puranas suggest that he is born from Shiva or his aspects, or he is a supreme god in diverse versions of Hindu mythology. Brahma, along with other deities, is sometimes viewed as a form of the otherwise formless Brahman, the ultimate metaphysical reality in Vedantic Hinduism.
In an alternate version, some Puranas state him to be the father of Prajapatis. According to some, Brahma does not enjoy popular worship in present-age Hinduism and has lesser importance than the other members of the Trimurti and Shiva. Brahma is revered in ancient texts, yet worshiped as a primary deity in India. Few temples dedicated to him exist in India. Brahma temples are found outside India, such as at the Erawan Shrine in Bangkok; the origins of Brahma are uncertain, in part because several related words such as one for Ultimate Reality, priest are found in the Vedic literature. The existence of a distinct deity named. A distinction between spiritual concept of Brahman, deity Brahma, is that the former is a genderless abstract metaphysical concept in Hinduism, while the latter is one of the many masculine gods in Hindu tradition; the spiritual concept of Brahman is far older, some scholars suggest deity Brahma may have emerged as a personal conception and visible icon of the impersonal universal principle called Brahman.
In Sanskrit grammar, the noun stem. Contrasted to the neuter noun is the masculine noun brahmán, whose nominative singular form is Brahma; this singular form is used as the proper name of Brahma. One of the earliest mentions of Brahma with Vishnu and Shiva is in the fifth Prapathaka of the Maitrayaniya Upanishad composed in late 1st millennium BCE. Brahma is first discussed in verse 5,1 called the Kutsayana Hymn, expounded in verse 5,2. In the pantheistic Kutsayana Hymn, the Upanishad asserts that one's Soul is Brahman, this Ultimate Reality, Cosmic Universal or God is within each living being, it equates the Atman within to be Brahma and various alternate manifestations of Brahman, as follows, "Thou art Brahma, thou art Vishnu, thou art Rudra, thou art Agni, Vayu, thou art All."In the verse, Brahma and Shiva are mapped into the theory of Guṇa, qualities and innate tendencies the text describes can be found in all living beings. This chapter of the Maitri Upanishad asserts that the universe emerged from darkness, first as passion characterized by action qua action, which refined and differentiated into purity and goodness.
Of these three qualities, Rajas is mapped to Brahma, as follows: While the Maitri Upanishad maps Brahma with one of the elements of Guṇa theory of Hinduism, the text does not depict him as one of the trifunctional elements of the Hindu Trimurti idea found in Puranic literature. The post-Vedic texts of Hinduism offer multiple theories of cosmogony; these include Sarga and Visarga, ideas related to the Indian thought that there are two levels of reality, one primary, unchanging and other secondary, always changing, that all observed reality of the latter is in an endless repeating cycle of existence, that cosmos and life we experience is continually created, dissolved and re-created. The primary creator is extensively discussed in Vedic cosmogonies with Brahman or Purusha or Devi among the terms used for the primary creator, while the Vedic and post-Vedic texts name different gods and goddesses as secondary creators, in some cases a different god or goddess is the secondary creator at the start of each cosmic cycle.
Brahma is a "secondary creator" as described in the Mahabharata and Puranas, among the most studied and described. Born from a lotus emerging from the navel of Vishnu after emerging on order of Shiva, Brahma creates all the forms in the universe, but not the primordial universe itself. In contrast, the Shiva-focussed Puranas describe Brahma and Vishnu to have been created by Ardhanarishvara, half Shiva and half Parvati, thus in most Puranic texts, Brahma's creative activity depends on the presence and power of a higher god. In the Bhagavata Purana, Brahma is portrayed several times as the one who rises from the "Ocean of Causes
According to Hindu mythology, Dakṣha is one of the sons of Lord Brahma, after creating the ten Manas Putras, created Daksha, Dharma and Agni from his right thumb, chest and eyebrows respectively. Daksa was a great Brahmin king. Pictures show him as a rotund and obese man with a stocky body, protruding belly, muscular with the head of an ibex-like creature with spiral horns. According to Vishnu Purana and Padma Purana and his wife Prasuti had 24 daughters; the names of these 24 daughters are: Sraddha Bhakti Dhriti Thushti Pushti Medha Kriya Buddhika Lajja Gauri Vapu Santi Siddhika Kirtti Khyati Sati Sambhuti Smriti Priti Kshama Sannati Anasuya Urjja Swaha Swadha. Of these, the 13 married to Dharma are: Sraddha, Dhriti, Pushti, Kriya, Lajja, Santi, Kirtti; the other 11 are: Khyati married to Bhrigu Sati to Shiva, Sambhuti to Marichi, Smriti to Angiras, Priti to Pulastya, Kshama to Pulaha, Sannati to Kratu, Anasuya to Atri, Urjja to Vasishtha, Swaha to Agni Swadha to Pitris. According to Matsya Purana and his wife Panchajani had 62 daughters, not one of whom resembled their father: 10 of those daughters were married to Dharma, 13 to sage Kashyapa, 27 to Chandra, 4 to Arishtanemi, 1 to Kama, 1 to lord Shiva, 2 to sons of sage Bhrigu, 2 to sage Angiras, 2 to Krisasva.
According to Padma Purana, when Daksha felt the number of women are still not sufficient, he decided to have 60 more daughters. Sati was the daughter married to Shiva; the 10 daughters married to Dharma are: Maruvati, Jami Lamba, Urjja, Mahurath and Vishva. The 13 daughters married to sage Kashyapa are: Aditi, Danu Arishta, Surabhi, Tamra, Ira, Vishva, Muni; the 27 daughters married to Chandra are: Kṛttikā, Rohinī, Mrigashīrsha, Ārdrā, Purbabhadrapada, Asleshā, Maghā, Svāti, Chitrā, Hasta, Rādha, Vishākhā, Anurādhā, Jyeshthā, Mūla, Purbashādha, Sravana, Satabhisha, Revati, Bharani. These 27 wives of Chandra are 27 Nakshatras. One of the daughters of Daksha was Sati. Daksha forbade it, but Sati disobeyed him and did so anyway, finding in Shiva a doting and loving husband. Daksha Yagna was an important turning point in the creation and development of sects in Hinduism It is the story behind the'Stala Purana' of Shakti Peethas. There are 51 Shakti Peethas shrines all over South Asia; the story replaced goddess Sati by Shree Parvati as Shiva's consort, lead to the story of Lord Ganesha and Lord Kartikeya.
Daksha intentionally avoided Shiva and Sati. Though discouraged by Shiva, who told her not to go to a ceremony performed by Daksha where she and her husband were not invited. Sati went to the ceremony alone, she was insulted by him in front of the guests. Sati, unable to bear further insult, immolated herself. Shiva, upon learning about the terrible incident, in his wrath invoked Virabhadra and Bhadrakali by plucking a lock of hair and thrashing it on the ground. Virabhadra and Bhoota ganas destroyed all the premises. Daksha was decapitated and the yagnja shaala was devastated in the rampage; the Bhutaganas' celebrated victory by plucking the beard of'Presiding Master' of the yagnja, Sage Bhrigu as a war souvenir. Daksha was forgiven and given life by fixing a ram's head and the yagna was allowed to complete, in all the divinities' presence; the story continues with the act of Vishnu pacifying Shiva, in deep grief in seeing the half burned corpse of his beloved wife. Vishnu embraced Shiva to pacify him.
Shiva unable to part with Sati wandered. Vishnu helped him get rid of this attachment by severing the corpse with his divine discus; the body parts of the corpse of Sati Devi fell in the places Shiva travelled. The places where the body parts Sati Devi's corpse fell came to be known as Shakti Peethas. Prajapati Kottiyoor, Draksharama Dakshayagnam Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend by Anna Dhallapiccola Lineage of Daksha, The Mahabharata/Book 1: Adi Parva/Section LXV
Saraswati is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, art and learning. She is a part of the trinity of Saraswati and Parvati. All the three forms help the trinity of Brahma and Shiva to create and regenerate-recycle the Universe, respectively; the earliest known mention of Saraswati as a goddess is in the Rigveda. She has remained significant as a goddess from the Vedic period through modern times of Hindu traditions; some Hindus celebrate the festival of Vasant Panchami in her honour, mark the day by helping young children learn how to write the letters of the alphabet on that day. The Goddess is revered by believers of the Jain religion of west and central India, as well as some Buddhist sects. Saraswati, is a Sanskrit fusion word of saras meaning "pooling water", but sometimes translated as "speech". Associated with the river or rivers known as Saraswati, this combination therefore means "she who has ponds and pooling water" or "she who possesses speech", it is a Sanskrit composite word of surasa-vati which means "one with plenty of water".
The word Saraswati appears both as a significant deity in the Rigveda. In initial passages, the word refers to the Sarasvati River and is mentioned as one among several northwestern Indian rivers such as the Drishadvati. Saraswati connotes a river deity. In Book 2, the Rigveda describes Saraswati as the best of mothers, of rivers, of goddesses. अम्बितमे नदीतमे देवितमे सरस्वति — Rigveda 2.41.16Best of mothers, best of rivers, best of goddesses, Sarasvatī. Saraswati is celebrated as a feminine deity with healing and purifying powers of abundant, flowing waters in Book 10 of the Rigveda, as follows: अपो अस्मान मातरः शुन्धयन्तु घर्तेन नो घर्तप्वः पुनन्तु | विश्वं हि रिप्रं परवहन्ति देविरुदिदाभ्यः शुचिरापूत एमि || — Rigveda 10.17May the waters, the mothers, cleanse us, may they who purify with butter, purify us with butter, for these goddesses bear away defilement, I come up out of them pure and cleansed. — translated by John Muir In Vedic literature, Saraswati acquires the same significance for early Indians as that accredited to the river Ganges by their modern descendants.
In hymns of Book 10 of Rigveda, she is declared to be the "possessor of knowledge". Her importance grows in Vedas composed after Rigveda and in Brahmanas, the word evolves in its meaning from "waters that purify", to "that which purifies", to "vach that purifies", to "knowledge that purifies", into a spiritual concept of a goddess that embodies knowledge, music, muse, rhetoric, creative work and anything whose flow purifies the essence and self of a person. In Upanishads and Dharma Sastras, Saraswati is invoked to remind the reader to meditate on virtue, virtuous emoluments, the meaning and the essence of one's activity, one's action. Saraswati is known by many names in ancient Hindu literature; some examples of synonyms for Saraswati include Brahmani, Bharadi and Vachi, Kavijihvagravasini. Goddess Saraswati is known as Vidyadatri, Pustakdharini, Veenapani and Vagdevi. In the Hindi language, her name is written Hindi: सरस्वती. In the Telugu, Sarasvati is known as Chaduvula Thalli and Shārada.
In Konkani, she is referred to as Shārada, Pustakadhārini, Vidyadāyini. In Kannada, variants of her name include Sharade, Sharadamba, Vāni, Veenapani in the famous Sringeri temple. In Tamil, she is known as Kalaimagal, Kalaivāni, Vāni and Bharathi, she is addressed as Sāradā, Shāradā, Veenā-pustaka-dhārini, Vāgdevi, Vāgishvari, Vāni, Varadhanāyaki, Sāvitri, Gāyatri. In India, she is locally spelled as ￼￼Assamese_language:সৰস্বতী,Saraswati, Bengali: সরস্বতী, Saraswati?, Malayalam: സരസ്വതി, Saraswati?, Tamil: சரஸ்வதி, Sarasvatī?. In Odia as ସରସ୍ଵତୀ Saraswati. Outside Nepal and India, she is known in Burmese as Thurathadi or Tipitaka Medaw, in Chinese as Biàncáitiān, in Japanese as Benzaiten and in Thai as Suratsawadi or Saratsawadi. In Hindu tradition, Sarasvati has retained her significance as a goddess from the Vedic age up to the present day. In Shanti Parva of the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Saraswati is called the mother of the Vedas, as the celestial creative symphony who appeared when Brahma created the universe.
In Book 2 of Taittiriya Brahmana, she is called “the mother of eloquent speech and melodious music”. Saraswati is the active power of Brahma, she is mentioned in many minor Sanskrit publications such as Sarada Tilaka of 8th century CE as follows, May the goddess of speech enable us to attain all possible eloquence, she who wears on her locks a young mo