Adobe is a building material made from earth and organic materials. Adobe is Spanish for mudbrick, but in some English-speaking regions of Spanish heritage, the term is used to refer to any kind of earth construction. Most adobe buildings rammed earth buildings. Adobe is among the earliest building materials, is used throughout the world. Adobe bricks are rectangular prisms small enough that they can air dry individually without cracking, they can be subsequently assembled, with the application of adobe mud to bond the individual bricks into a structure. There is no standard size, in different regions. In some areas a popular size measured 8 by 4 by 12 inches weighing about 25 pounds; the maximum sizes can reach up to 100 pounds. In dry climates, adobe structures are durable, account for some of the oldest existing buildings in the world. Adobe buildings offer significant advantages due to their greater thermal mass, but they are known to be susceptible to earthquake damage if they are not reinforced.
Cases where adobe structures were damaged during earthquakes include the 1976 Guatemala earthquake, the 2003 Bam earthquake, the 2010 Chile earthquake. Buildings made of sun-dried earth are common throughout the world Adobe had been in use by indigenous peoples of the Americas in the Southwestern United States and the Andes for several thousand years. Puebloan peoples built their adobe structures with handsful or basketsful of adobe, until the Spanish introduced them to making bricks. Adobe bricks were used in Spain from Iron Ages, its wide use can be attributed to its simplicity of design and manufacture, economics. A distinction is sometimes made between the smaller adobes, which are about the size of ordinary baked bricks, the larger adobines, some of which may be one to two yards long; the word adobe has existed for around 4000 years with little change in either pronunciation or meaning. The word can be traced from the Middle Egyptian word ɟbt "mud brick". Middle Egyptian evolved into Late Egyptian, Demotic or "pre-Coptic", to Coptic, where it appeared as τωωβε tōʾpə.
This was adopted into Arabic as الطوب aṭ-ṭawbu or aṭ-ṭūbu, with the definite article al- attached. Tuba, This was assimilated into the Old Spanish language as adobe via Mozarabic. English borrowed the word from Spanish in the early 18th century, still referring to mudbrick construction. In more modern English usage, the term "adobe" has come to include a style of architecture popular in the desert climates of North America in New Mexico, regardless of the construction method. An adobe brick is a composite material made of earth mixed with water and an organic material such as straw or dung; the soil composition contains sand and clay. Straw is useful in binding the brick together and allowing the brick to dry evenly, thereby preventing cracking due to uneven shrinkage rates through the brick. Dung offers the same advantage; the most desirable soil texture for producing the mud of adobe is 15% clay, 10–30% silt, 55–75% fine sand. Another source quotes 15–25% clay and the remainder sand and coarser particles up to cobbles 50 to 250 mm, with no deleterious effect.
Modern adobe is stabilized with Portland cement up to 10 % by weight. No more than half the clay content should be expansive clays, with the remainder non-expansive illite or kaolinite. Too much expansive clay results in uneven drying through the brick, resulting in cracking, while too much kaolinite will make a weak brick; the soils of the Southwest United States, where such construction has been used, are an adequate composition. Adobe walls are load bearing, i.e. they carry their own weight into the foundation rather than by another structure, hence the adobe must have sufficient compressive strength. In the United States, most building codes call for a minimum compressive strength of 300 lbf/in2 for the adobe block. Adobe construction should be designed so as to avoid lateral structural loads that would cause bending loads; the building codes require the building sustain a 1 g lateral acceleration earthquake load. Such an acceleration will cause lateral loads on the walls, resulting in shear and bending and inducing tensile stresses.
To withstand such loads, the codes call for a tensile modulus of rupture strength of at least 50 lbf/in2 for the finished block. In addition to being an inexpensive material with a small resource cost, adobe can serve as a significant heat reservoir due to the thermal properties inherent in the massive walls typical in adobe construction. In climates typified by hot days and cool nights, the high thermal mass of adobe mediates the high and low temperatures of the day, moderating the temperature of the living space; the massive walls require a large and long input of heat from the sun and from the surrounding air before they warm through to the interior. After the sun sets and the temperature drops, the warm wall will continue to transfer heat to the interior for several hours due
Geoffrey de Runcey was a 14th century chronicler and abbey servant who wrote a valuable, although now-incomplete journal of his travels around medieval East Anglia. Little is known about de Runcey's ancestry, but his name suggests that he originated from North Runcton, now in the town of King's Lynn in Norfolk, "Runcey" being an archaic spelling, it has been speculated that he was the son of a landowner, free tenant, or the illegitimate son of a priest, as despite not being ordained he was educated at Bury St. Edmunds Abbey and was in service with the monastery for the rest of his life, he is best known for his Chronicle from circa 1379. De Runcey appears to have been sent by the priory to spread the news of the death of the high abbot of Bury around the Benedictine monasteries of East Anglia, in the process coming into contact with many walks of life; the chronicle was to have been written as evidence that the task was accomplished. He died in 1384, he was interred at the priory of St Edmund, in Bury St. Edmunds, although his tomb was destroyed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries.
The Chronicle is, written in late Middle English, although in a second version, de Runcey or another hand appears to have translated sections into Latin for the newly chosen abbot's reading. This version is of a more decorated nature, his journal has proved useful for historians researching Fen customs before Cornelius Vermuyden's great drainage scheme of the 1630s, is notable for its whimsical, yet unusually secular outlook and lack of superstition. In particular his vivid account of stilt walkers has provided the foundation for many histories of the area: Stilltemen are yfounden inn the Fenn regionis…Althow theyye are triumfant, manny younge boyes are accustomed to falle manny tymes beforr theyye are trewly sucsesfull. Much of his original journal has been lost, although the remaining fragments are kept preserved at the Hillard Collection in Suffolk, the Wisbech Museum and a transcription into modern English of key parts of both manuscripts is available at the Chatteris Museum. Jocelyn de Brakelond, noted for his Chronicle of the Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds c.1173-1202 John de Taxster, chronicler from Bury c.1173-1265 Chronica Johannis de Oxenedes, another chronicle written at St Benet's Abbey, Norfolk.
Article about the Fens and stilt-walkers Wisbech Museum Chatteris Museum This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Dystopia is the fifteenth studio album by American thrash metal band Megadeth. It was released on frontman and guitarist Dave Mustaine's Tradecraft label via Universal on January 22, 2016; the album was produced by Mustaine and Chris Rakestraw and features cover artwork by Brent Elliot White. Prior to Dystopia's recording, longtime drummer Shawn Drover and guitarist Chris Broderick announced their departure from the band, it is the first album by the band since 2004's The System Has Failed not to feature the former, the first not to feature the latter since 2007's United Abominations. These roles have been filled by Lamb of God drummer Chris Adler and Angra guitarist Kiko Loureiro, respectively. Following the lukewarm response to the band's previous album, 2013's Super Collider, Dystopia received favorable reaction from critics, being considered a return to form for the band; the album holds a Metacritic score of 69/100 as of August 2016. The album debuted at number three on the Billboard 200 chart, making Dystopia the band's second highest charting album in the U.
S. after Countdown to Extinction, which peaked at number two in 1992. Additionally, the title track earned the band its first Grammy win at the 59th Grammy Awards after eleven unsuccessful nominations. In June 2013, Megadeth released its fourteenth studio album, Super Collider, to mixed critical reaction. In the months following the album's release and guitarist Dave Mustaine revealed that he and the rest of the band had begun to discuss a follow-up, an urgency somewhat influenced by the then-recent death of Slayer guitarist Jeff Hanneman, which had given Mustaine a sense of mortality. Over the course of 2014, the band announced its intentions to start pre–production on the album; the band had been working on new material since December 2013, in January 2014, Mustaine revealed that many riffs had been written for the record. In May 2014, prior to his departure, Drover revealed that he and Mustaine had entered the studio and began tracking some demo ideas; the band planned to record in August 2014 and release the album in 2015.
Instead, plans were only made to demo new material that October and start recording in January 2015. Mustaine elaborated that, due to a reduced tour schedule for summer 2014, the band had more time to focus on songwriting. Additionally, several hardships struck the band in 2014. In May, bassist David Ellefson lost his brother Eliot to cancer, following which, the band cancelled a number of scheduled shows. On October 4, Mustaine's Alzheimer's-afflicted mother-in-law went missing from a campground, her remains were discovered on November 26. Furthermore, drummer Shawn Drover and guitarist Chris Broderick announced their resignations from the band that November; the pair would emerge in a new band, Act of Defiance. Despite everything, Ellefson announced that the band was still intent on starting work on the album in early 2015. Ellefson additionally suggested that the album would "help determine" Broderick and Drover's replacements. In February 2015, Ellefson revealed that the album was "pretty much written".
The band entered Latitude South Studios in Leiper's Fork, Tennessee in April 2015, recording finished in July. It was unclear as to who would produce the album. Mustaine suggested that instead of rehiring Johnny K, who produced both Thirteen and Super Collider, the band would opt for a new producer. While Mustaine indicated an interest in working with producer Max Norman, who had mixed Rust in Peace and produced Countdown to Extinction and Youthanasia, it was revealed that Mustaine would be producing the effort along with Toby Wright. However, Wright was let go early on, Mustaine instead produced the album with Chris Rakestraw. While there was initial speculation that Mustaine and Ellefson might try to reunite the Rust in Peace-era lineup, there was no statement from the band on the matter, it came to light that the band had in fact been in discussions with former members Nick Menza and Marty Friedman, but were unable to reach an agreement. The opportunity would not arise again, as Menza died of a heart attack in May 2016.
During March 2015, several rock music news websites speculated that Lamb of God drummer Chris Adler would perform drums on the album, confirmed by the band. It was announced in the same month that Angra guitarist Kiko Loureiro joined the band. Mustaine revealed a track listing for the then-untitled album on July 27 and announced production of the album was completed a month later; the cover was done by New York artist Brent Elliott White, given the idea to go for a post-apocalyptic approach. Vic Rattlehead is depicted as a cyborg, with a virtual reality headset in place of the riveted visor, a headset instead of metal caps on the ears, a mouthpiece resembling a mask; the pose, holding the head of a cyborg resembling the Statue of Liberty and a katana, is an homage to Seven Samurai. The setting homages 12 Monkeys by having a deserted and destroyed city, Mad Max by putting Vic under the Sydney Harbour Bridge, The Walking Dead with the "drones meant to be like Michonne’s enslaved zombie buddies".
In the 2016 Burrn! magazine Readers' Pop Poll, the cover was awarded Best Album Cover. Mustaine elaborated on possible lyrical themes, revealing that he had been reading about world history and "crazy science stuff". Both Mustaine and Ellefson had indicated that the album would feature a different musical and stylistic approach from the previous album, including a move away from a radio-oriented sound, subsequently characterized as a move back towards a thrash-oriented sound. Mustaine stated his belief that the album sound and songwriting wo