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Adolph Zukor

Adolph Zukor was an Austro-Hungarian-born American film producer best known as one of the three founders of Paramount Pictures. Zukor was born to a Jewish family in Ricse, a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. At a young age he became an orphan so he decided to immigrate to the US, he sailed from Hamburg on the s/s Rugia on March 1 and arrived in New York City under the name Adolf Zuckery on March 16, 1891. Like most immigrants, he began modestly. After having landed in New York City, he started working in an upholstery shop. A friend got him a job as an apprentice at a furrier. Zukor stayed in New York City for two years; when he left to become a "contract" worker, sewing fur pieces and selling them himself, he was twenty years old and an accomplished designer. He was young and adventuresome, the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago drew him to the Midwest. There he started a fur business. In the second season of operation, Zukor's Novelty Fur Company expanded to 25 men and opened a branch. Historian Neal Gabler wrote, "one of the stubborn fallacies of movie history is that the men who created the film industry were all impoverished young vulgarians..."

Zukor didn't fit this profile. By 1903, he looked and lived like a wealthy young burgher, he earned the income of one, he had a commodious apartment at 111th Street and Seventh Avenue in New York City's wealthy German-Jewish section". In 1918, he moved to New City, Rockland County, New York, where he purchased 300 acres of land from Lawrence Abraham, heir to the A&S Department Stores. Abraham had built a sizable house, a nine-hole golf course and a swimming pool on this property. Two years Zukor bought an additional 500 acres, built a night house, guest house, movie theater, locker room, garages, staff quarters and hired golf architect A. W. Tillinghast to build an 18-hole championship golf course. Today, Zukor's estate is the private Paramount Country Club. In 1903, he became involved in the motion picture industry when his cousin, Max Goldstein, approached him for a loan to invest in a chain of theaters; these theaters were started by Mitchell Mark in New York and hosted Edisonia Hall. Mark needed investors to expand his chain of theaters.

Zukor gave Goldstein the loan and formed a partnership with Mark and Morris Kohn, a friend of Zukor's who invested in the theaters. Zukor and Kohn opened a penny arcade operating as The Automatic Vaudeville Company on 14th Street in New York City, they soon opened branches in Boston and Newark, with funding by Marcus Loew. In 1912, Adolph Zukor established Famous Players Film Company—advertising "Famous Players in Famous Plays"—as the American distribution company for the French film production Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth starring Sarah Bernhardt; the following year he obtained the financial backing of the Frohman brothers, the powerful New York City theatre impresarios. Their primary goal was to bring noted stage actors to the screen and Zukor went on to produce The Prisoner of Zenda, he purchased an armory on 26th Street in Manhattan and converted it into Chelsea Studios, a movie studio, still used today. In 1916, the company merged with Jesse L. Lasky's company to form Famous Players-Lasky.

The Paramount Pictures Corporation was formed to distribute films made by Famous Players-Lasky, a dozen smaller companies pulled into Zukor's corporate giant. The consolidations led to the formation of a nationwide film distribution system. In 1917, Zukor acquired 50% of Lewis J. Selznick's Select Pictures which led Selznick's publicity to wane. However, Selznick bought out Zukor's share of Select Pictures. Zukor shed most of his early partners. In 1919, the company bought 135 theaters in the Southern states, making the producing concern the first that guaranteed exhibition of its own product in its own theaters, he revolutionized the film industry by organizing production and exhibition within a single company. Zukor believed in stars, he signed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Zukor pioneered "Block Booking" for Paramount Pictures, which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions.

It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than 20 years. Zukor was the driving force behind Paramount's success. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2000 screens, he ran two production studios, one in Astoria, New York and the other in Hollywood, California. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, who had an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations, they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. Zukor was now turning out 60 features a year, he made deals to show them all in theaters controlled by Loew's Enterprises, continued to add more theaters to his own chain.

By 1920 he was in a position to charge. Thus he pioneered the concept, now the accepted practice in the film industry, by which the distributor charges the exhibitor a percentage of box-office receipts. Zukor, ever

Twin tail

A twin tail is a specific type of vertical stabilizer arrangement found on the empennage of some aircraft. Two vertical stabilizers—often smaller on their own than a single conventional tail would be—are mounted at the outside of the aircraft's horizontal stabilizer; this arrangement is known as an H-tail, as it resembles a capital "H" when viewed from rear - these were used on a wide variety of World War II multi-engine designs that saw mass production on the American B-24 Liberator and B-25 Mitchell bombers, the British Avro Lancaster and Handley-Page Halifax heavy bombers, on the Soviet Union's Petlyakov Pe-2 attack bomber. A special case of twin tail is twin boom tail or double tail where the aft airframe consists of two separate fuselages, "tail booms", which each have a rudder but are connected by a single horizontal stabilizer. Examples of this construction are the twin-engined Lockheed P-38 Lightning. Separating the control surfaces allows for additional rudder area or vertical surface without requiring a massive single tail.

On multi-engine propeller designs twin fin and rudders operating in the propeller slipstream give greater rudder authority and improved control at low airspeeds, when taxiing. A twin tail can simplify hangar requirements, give dorsal gunners enhanced firing area, in some cases reduce the aircraft's weight, it affords a degree of redundancy—if one tail is damaged, the other may remain functional. Most the twin vertical surfaces are attached to the ends of the horizontal stabilizer, but a few aircraft in aviation history—like the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, Mitsubishi G3M and Dornier Do 19 bombers, had their twin vertical surfaces mounted to the upper surface of the fixed stabilizer instead, at some distance inwards from the horizontal stabilizer's tips. Many canard aircraft designs incorporate twin tails on the tips of the main wing. Three or more tails are used, as on the Breguet Deux-Ponts, Lockheed Constellation and Boeing 314 Clipper. A unusual design can be seen on the E-2 Hawkeye, which has two additional vertical tails fixed to the horizontal stabilizer between the normal vertical twin-tail surfaces.

This arrangement was chosen for the stringent size limitations of carrier-based aircraft. Significant aircraft with twin tails include the Consolidated B-24 Liberator, Handley-Page Halifax, Avro Lancaster, P-38 Lightning; the arrangement is not limited to World War II-vintage aircraft, however. Many fighter aircraft, like the F-14 Tomcat, F-15 Eagle, Sukhoi Su-27, Mig-29, A-10 Thunderbolt II, make use of twin tail configurations, as do civilian and cargo designs like the Antonov An-14, Antonov An-22, Antonov An-28, Antonov An-38, Antonov An-225, Beechcraft 18, Beriev Be-12, ERCO Ercoupe, Short 330, Burt Rutan’s Long-EZ and SpaceShipOne. Cruciform tail Pelikan tail T-tail V-tail

Pine Gables

Pine Gables known as Logan House and Harris Inn, is a historic inn complex and national historic district located near Lake Lure, Rutherford County, North Carolina. The property encompasses 10 contributing buildings, 5 contributing sites, 3 contributing structures; the original log sections of the inn dates to about 1800, enlarged and modified in 1834, 1877, 1924. It is a 2 1/2 - frame building with high pitched gables in a vernacular Queen Anne style. On the property are the contributing Old Tearoom now used as a single family dwelling, a one-story stone structure, seven guest cabins, a craft shop, rock wall, three ponds, a segment of Old Highway 20, the shoreline of Lake Lure. Judge George Washington Logan, who owned the George W. Logan House at Rutherfordton, bought the inn in 1866 and it became known as the "Logan House". During the Great Depression, the inn and surrounding property was used to promote economic recovery as a Civilian Conservation Corps headquarters, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1999