Seaman A. Knapp
Seaman Asahel Knapp was a Union College graduate, Phi Beta Kappa member, college instructor, administrator, who took up farming late in life, moving to Iowa to raise general crops and livestock. The first seeds of what would become an abiding interest in farm demonstration were planted after he became active in an organization called "The Teachers of Agriculture," attending their meetings at the Michigan Agricultural College in 1881 and the Iowa Agricultural College in 1882. Knapp was so impressed with this teaching method that he drafted a bill for the establishment of experimental research stations, introduced to the 47th Congress, laying the foundation for a nationwide network of agricultural experiment stations. Knapp served as the second president of Iowa Agricultural College from 1883 to 1884, but his interest in agricultural demonstration work did not occur until 1886, when he moved to Louisiana and began developing a large tract of agricultural land in the western part of this state.
He founded Vinton, naming the town after his hometown Vinton, Iowa. Knapp could neither persuade local farmers to adopt the techniques he had perfected on his farm nor enlist farmers from the North to move to the region to serve collectively as a sort of educational catalyst. What he could do, he reasoned, was to provide incentives for farmers to settle in each township with the proviso that each, in turn, would demonstrate to other farmers what could be done by adopting his improved farming methods; the concept worked. Northern farmers began moving into the region, native farmers began buying into Knapp's methods. By 1902, Knapp was employed by the government to promote good agricultural practices in the South. Based on his own experience, Knapp was convinced that demonstrations carried out by farmers themselves were the most effective way to disseminate good farming methods, his efforts were aided by the onslaught of the boll weevil, a voracious cotton pest whose presence was felt not only in Louisiana but throughout much of the South.
Damage associated with this pest instilled fear among many merchants and growers that the cotton economy would disintegrate around them. In the view of many, a farm demonstration at the Walter G. Porter farm, now a National Historic Landmark in Terrell, set up by the Department of Agriculture at the urging of concerned merchants and growers, was the first in a series of steps that led to passage of the legislation that formalize Cooperative Extension work. USDA officials were so impressed with the success of this demonstration that they appropriated $250,000 to combat the weevil — a measure that involved the hiring of farm demonstration agents. By 1904, some 20 agents were employed in Texas and Arkansas; the movement appeared to be spreading to neighboring Mississippi and Alabama. Knapp is commemorated in Washington, D. C. by a bridge linking the U. S. Department of Agriculture Administration Building to the U. S. Department of Agriculture South Building across Independence Avenue, he is interred at Iowa State University Cemetery, Story, Iowa, USA.
Bradford Knapp, a son of Seaman Knapp, was the President of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute, now known as Auburn University from 1928 to 1933 and the second president of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. Kenyon L. Butterfield Works by or about Seaman A. Knapp at Internet Archive
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 to 1877 in American history. It was a significant chapter in the history of American civil rights; the term has two applications: the first applies to the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the American Civil War. Reconstruction ended the remnants of Confederate secession and ended slavery, making the newly-free slaves citizens with civil rights ostensibly guaranteed by three new Constitutional amendments. Three visions of Civil War memory appeared during Reconstruction: the reconciliationist vision, rooted in coping with the death and devastation the war had brought. Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson both took moderate positions designed to bring the South back into the Union as as possible, while Radical Republicans in Congress sought stronger measures to upgrade the rights of African Americans, including the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, while curtailing the rights of former Confederates, such as through the provisions of the Wade–Davis Bill.
Johnson, a former Tennessee Senator, former slave owner, the most prominent Southerner to oppose the Confederacy, followed a lenient policy toward ex-Confederates. Lincoln's last speeches show that he was leaning toward supporting the enfranchisement of all freedmen, whereas Johnson was opposed to this. Johnson's interpretations of Lincoln's policies prevailed until the Congressional elections of 1866; those elections followed outbreaks of violence against blacks in the former rebel states, including the Memphis riots of 1866 and the New Orleans riot that same year. The subsequent 1866 election gave Republicans a majority in Congress, enabling them to pass the 14th Amendment, take control of Reconstruction policy, remove former Confederates from power, enfranchise the freedmen. A Republican coalition came to power in nearly all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U. S. Army and the Freedmen's Bureau; the Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, set up schools and churches for them.
Thousands of Northerners came south as missionaries, teachers and politicians. Hostile whites began referring to these politicians as "carpetbaggers". In early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature; the first bill extended the life of the bureau established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens with equality before the law. After Johnson vetoed the bills, Congress overrode his vetos, making the Civil Rights Act the first major bill in the history of the United States to become law through an override of a presidential veto; the Radicals in the House of Representatives, frustrated by Johnson's opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges. The action failed by one vote in the Senate; the new national Reconstruction laws – in particular laws requiring suffrage for freedmen – incensed white supremacists in the South, giving rise to the Ku Klux Klan.
During 1867-69 the Klan murdered Republicans and outspoken freedmen in the South, including Arkansas Congressman James M. Hinds. Elected in 1868, Republican President Ulysses S. Grant supported Congressional Reconstruction and enforced the protection of African Americans in the South through the use of the Enforcement Acts passed by Congress. Grant used the Enforcement Acts to combat the Ku Klux Klan, wiped out, although a new incarnation of the Klan would again come to national prominence in the 1920s. President Grant was unable to resolve the escalating tensions inside the Republican Party between the Northerners on the one hand, those Republicans hailing from the South on the other. Meanwhile, "redeemers", self-styled conservatives in close cooperation with a faction of the Democratic Party opposed Reconstruction, they alleged widespread corruption by the "carpetbaggers", excessive state spending, ruinous taxes. Meanwhile, public support for Reconstruction policies, requiring continued supervision of the South, faded in the North after the Democrats, who opposed Reconstruction, regained control of the House of Representatives in 1874.
In 1877, as part of a Congressional bargain to elect Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as president following the disputed 1876 presidential election, U. S. Army troops were withdrawn from the three states; this marked the end of Reconstruction. Historian Eric Foner argues: What remains certain is that Reconstruction failed, that for blacks its failure was a disaster whose magnitude cannot be obscured by the genuine accomplishments that did endure. In different states Reconstruction ended at different times. In recent decades most historians follow Foner in dating the Reconstruction of the South as starting in 1863 rather than 1865; the usual ending for Reconstruction has always been 1877. Reconstruction policies were debated in the North when the
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle 13 miles from the border with Alabama, the county seat of Escambia County, in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 51,923, down from 56,255 at the 2000 census. Pensacola is the principal city of the Pensacola metropolitan area, which had an estimated 461,227 residents in 2012. Pensacola is a sea port on Pensacola Bay, protected by the barrier island of Santa Rosa and connects to the Gulf of Mexico. A large United States Naval Air Station, the first in the United States, is located southwest of Pensacola near Warrington; the main campus of the University of West Florida is situated north of the city center. The area was inhabited by Muskogean language peoples; the Pensacola people lived there at the time of European contact, Creek people visited and traded from present-day southern Alabama. Spanish explorer Tristán de Luna founded a short-lived settlement in 1559. In 1698 the Spanish established a presidio in the area, from which the modern city developed.
The area changed hands several times. During Florida's British rule, fortifications were strengthened, it is nicknamed "The City of Five Flags", due to the five governments that have ruled it during its history: the flags of Spain, Great Britain, the United States of America, the Confederate States of America. Other nicknames include "World's Whitest Beaches", "Cradle of Naval Aviation", "Western Gate to the Sunshine State", "America's First Settlement", "Emerald Coast", "Red Snapper Capital of the World", "P-Cola"; the original inhabitants of the Pensacola Bay area were Native American peoples. At the time of European contact, a Muskogean-speaking tribe known to the Spanish as the Pensacola lived in the region; this name was not recorded until 1677, but the tribe appears to be the source of the name "Pensacola" for the bay and thence the city. Creek people Muskogean-speaking, came from present-day southern Alabama to trade, so the peoples were part of a broader regional and continental network of relations.
The best-known Pensacola culture site in terms of archeology is the Bottle Creek site, a large site located 59 miles west of Pensacola north of Mobile, Alabama. This site has at least 18 large earthwork mounds, its main occupation was from 1250 AD to 1550. It was a gateway to their society; this site would have had easy access by a dugout canoe, the main mode of transportation used by the Pensacola. The area's written recorded history begins in the 16th century, with documentation by Spanish explorers who were the first Europeans to reach the area; the expeditions of Pánfilo de Narváez in 1528 and Hernando de Soto in 1539 both visited Pensacola Bay, the latter of which documented the name "Bay of Ochuse". In the age of sailing ships Pensacola was the busiest port on the Gulf of Mexico, having the deepest harbor on the Gulf. In 1559, Tristán de Luna y Arellano landed with some 1,500 people on 11 ships from Mexico; the expedition was to establish an outpost called Santa María de Ochuse by Luna, as a base for Spanish efforts to colonize Santa Elena But the colony was decimated by a hurricane on September 19, 1559, which killed an unknown number of sailors and colonists, sank six ships, grounded a seventh, ruined supplies.
The survivors struggled to survive, most moving inland to what is now central Alabama for several months in 1560 before returning to the coast. Some of the survivors sailed to Santa Elena, but another storm struck there. Survivors made their way to Cuba and returned to Pensacola, where the remaining fifty at Pensacola were taken back to Veracruz; the Viceroy's advisers concluded that northwest Florida was too dangerous to settle. They ignored it for 137 years. In the late 17th century, the French began exploring the lower Mississippi River with the intention of colonizing the region as part of La Louisiane or New France in North America. Fearful that Spanish territory would be threatened, the Spanish founded a new settlement in western Florida. In 1698 they established a fortified town near what is now Fort Barrancas, laying the foundation for permanent European-dominated settlement of the modern city of Pensacola; the Spanish built three presidios in Pensacola: Presidio Santa Maria de Galve: the presidio included fort San Carlos de Austria and a village with church.
The garrison was moved to the mainland. During the early years of settlement, a tri-racial creole society developed; as a fortified trading post, the Spanish had men stationed here. Some married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issu
Martin C. Jischke
Martin Charles Jischke is a prominent American higher-education administrator and advocate, was the tenth president of Purdue University. Dr. Jischke has served as chairman and board member of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, as a board member of the American Council on Education, National Merit Scholarship Corporation, the Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land-Grant Universities, he has served as a board member for Kerr McGee Corporation, Wabash National Corporation, Duke Realty. He was the founding president of the Global Consortium of Higher Education and Research for Agriculture, is on the boards of directors of the Association of American Universities and the American Council on Competitiveness. Martin Jischke was born in Chicago, the son of a grocer, graduated from Proviso High School in Maywood, Illinois, a suburb on Chicago's west side. In 1963 he earned his bachelor's degree in physics with honors from Illinois Institute of Technology, where he serves on the Board of Trustees.
While at Illinois Institute of Technology he became a member of Delta Tau Delta International Fraternity. He received his master's and doctoral degrees in aeronautics and astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1968, he married his wife, Patricia "Patty" Fowler Jischke in 1970. They have two children, Charles, an audio engineer living in southern California, Marian, an engineer living in Indianapolis. Dr. Jischke, a specialist in fluid dynamics, has extensive expertise in heat transfer, fluid mechanics and high-speed aircraft and spacecraft, he is co-editor of one book and the author or co-author of 31 journal publications and 21 major technical reports. He has given more than 50 major technical presentations and lectures, has held research fellowships with NASA and the Donald W. Douglas Laboratory, he has received research grants from the National Science Foundation, U. S. Air Force, NASA, National Institutes of Health, National Severe Storms Laboratory and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
He served as a White House fellow and special assistant to the U. S. Secretary of Transportation from 1975 to 1976. Dr. Jischke is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. On Tuesday, February 28, 2006, Martin Jischke was appointed to President Bush's President's Council on Science and Technology|Council of Advisers on Science and Technology. Dr. Jischke was a member the faculty of the University of Oklahoma's School of Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering for 17 years, served as director of the school. During his time at the university, he was the principal advisor to 21 thesis students, he served as Chair of the Faculty Senate during the 1974–75 academic year, dean of the College of Engineering from 1981 to 1986, in 1985 Dr. Jischke was named the university's interim president. In 1986 Dr. Jischke was named chancellor of the University of Missouri–Rolla. Success in that role led him to the presidency of Iowa State University in 1991.
He raised money for scholarships. Dr. Jischke set records for private fundraising at the university each year he was there, surpassing $100 million annually; the Martin C. Jischke Honors Building at Iowa State is named after him. Dr. Jischke has received a number of prestigious awards for his accomplishments in science and education, his is a recipient of the American Society for Engineering Education Centennial Medallion and the Illinois Institute of Technology Professional Achievement Award. He received the Ukraine Medal of Merit from Ukraine's president for outstanding service by a foreign national; the Illinois Institute of Technology and the National Agricultural University of Ukraine have both awarded him honorary doctoral degrees. He is an honorary member of Mortar Board National College Senior Honor Society, having been tapped by the Barbara Cook chapter at Purdue University in 2006. In 2013, Jischke's alma mater, Illinois Institute of Technology, awarded him with its annual Alumni Medal, the alumni association's highest honor.
On August 14, 2000, Jischke became the tenth president of Purdue University, succeeding Steven C. Beering, who stepped down after 17 years as Purdue's president. From the beginning of his administration, Jischke established the goal of "making a great university into a preeminent university." To accomplish this goal and the Purdue University Board of Trustees developed a strategic plan for the university, proposed sweeping changes, introduced ambitious fundraising and construction agendas. The scope of the plan extended to the state of Indiana at large. Jischke and the trustees saw a stronger Purdue leading an economic resurgence for the entire state; the five-year strategic plan was adopted in November 2001. The plan called for data-driven decision making, focusing on collecting data on various performance benchmarks for comparison with peer institutions. Jischke advocated steps to improve diversity, expand interdisciplinary research, add 300 new faculty positions, engage government and business leaders to advance economic development.
One of the most visible expressions of his vision is Discovery Park, a $100 million multidisciplinary research and entrepreneurial complex on Purdue's West Lafayette campus. Jischke led the way in the "Campaign for Purdue," a $1.5 billion fund-raising operation, launched in September 2002 in support of the strategic plan. The campaign designated $200 million for student scholarships and fellowships, $200 million to attract and retain a quality faculty, $200 million for programs and centers, $600 million for facilities and equipment and $100 million in unrestricted funds; the plan
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
University of Michigan Law School
The University of Michigan Law School is the law school of the University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor. Founded in 1859, the school offers Juris Doctor, Master of Laws, Doctor of Juridical Science degree programs; the school has an enrollment of about 920 as well as 81 full-time faculty members. Michigan Law School ranks among the highest-rated law schools in the United States and the world. In the 2019 U. S. News ranking, Michigan Law is ranked 8th overall. Notable alumni include U. S. Supreme Court Justices Frank Murphy, William Rufus Day, George Sutherland, as well as a number of heads of state and corporate executives. Michigan Law has placed 41 of its alumni on United States Circuit Courts, over 100 of its graduates on federal Article III trial courts, 36 of its graduates on the Michigan Supreme Court, including 16 who served as Chief Justice. More than 170 Michigan law graduates have served in the United States Congress, including 20 United States Senators and more than 150 Congressional representatives.
Additionally, numerous graduates have served as state legislators. The Law School was founded in 1859, rose to national prominence. By 1870, Michigan was the largest law school in the country. In 1870, Gabriel Franklin Hargo graduated from Michigan as the second African-American to graduate from law school in the United States. In 1871 Sarah Killgore, a Michigan Law graduate, became the first woman to both graduate from law school and be admitted to the bar. Although the law school is part of the public University of Michigan, less than 2 percent of the law school's expenses are covered by state funds; the remainder is supplied by private gifts and endowments. As of 2009, Michigan Law is engaging in a $102 million enterprise, constructing an addition to the law building that remains loyal to the English Gothic style; this enterprise is funded by endowments and private gifts. 2009 marked the school's sesquicentennial celebration. As a part of the festivities, Chief Justice John Roberts visited the school and participated in the groundbreaking ceremony for the new building.
The Law Quadrangle is designed in the English Gothic style. Built between 1924 and 1933 by the architectural firm York and Sawyer with funds donated by attorney and alumnus William W. Cook, the Cook Law Quadrangle comprises four buildings: Hutchins Hall, the main academic building, named for former Dean of the Law School and President of the University, Harry Burns Hutchins The Legal Research Building. In 2007, the University of Michigan Reading Room was named 94th on a list of "American's Favorite Buildings." The building is one of only three law buildings on the list. John Cook Dormitory The Lawyer's Club, providing additional dormitory rooms and a meeting space for the residents of the Quad. In 2012, extensive renovations of the Lawyers Club were undertaken thanks in part to a $20 million gift from Berkshire Hathaway vice-chairman Charles T. Munger, was re-opened on August 19, 2013 for the Fall 2013 school year. Michigan Law was ranked third in the initial U. S. News & World Report law school rankings in 1987.
Michigan Law is one of the "T14" law schools, schools that have ranked within the top 14 law schools since U. S. News began publishing rankings. In the 2019 U. S. News ranking, Michigan Law is ranked 9th overall; the 2010 Super Lawyers rankings placed Michigan as second. Michigan Law is ranked 6th for Clinical Training and 6th for International Law. In a 2011 U. S. News "reputational ranking" of law schools by hiring partners at the nation’s top law firms, the University of Michigan Law School ranked 4th. Michigan Law ranked 15th among U. S. law schools, tied with the Georgetown University Law Center, for the number of times its tenured faculty's published scholarship was cited in legal journals during the period 2010 through 2014. Admission to Michigan Law is selective. For the class entering in the fall of 2012, 1,238 out of 5,062 applicants were offered admission, with 344 matriculating; the 25th and 75th LSAT percentiles for the 2018 entering class were 165 and 171 with a median of 169. The 25th and 75th undergraduate GPA percentiles were 3.55 and 3.89 with a median of 3.77.
97.5 percent of the graduating class of 2017 was employed by nine months after graduation. 86% of the class of 2017 secured positions as a judicial clerk or in private practice. The majority of Michigan Law grads work in New York, California, Washington, D. C. and Michigan. Michigan Law School students publish several law journals in addition to the Michigan Law Review, the sixth oldest legal journal in the U. S; these include: University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform Michigan Journal of International Law Michigan Journal of Gender and Law Michigan Journal of Race & Law Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review Michigan Journal of Environmental and Administrative Law Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review known as the Michigan Journal Private Equity and Venture Capital LawJournal membership is obtained through participation in writing competitions. Students may compete in intramural moot court competitions, the oldest of, the Henry M. Campbell Moot Court Competition, established in 1926 and first held in the 1927-1928 academic year.
Other moot court competitions include the Child Welfare Law Moot Court Competition, Criminal Law Moot Court Competition, the Entertainment Media and Arts Moot Court Competition, the Environmental Law Moot Court Compe