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Adriatic Sea

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto to the northwest and the Po Valley; the countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Albania and Herzegovina, Italy and Slovenia. The Adriatic contains over 1,300 islands located along the Croatian part of its eastern coast, it is divided into three basins, the northern being the shallowest and the southern being the deepest, with a maximum depth of 1,233 metres. The Otranto Sill, an underwater ridge, is located at the border between the Adriatic and Ionian Seas; the prevailing currents flow counterclockwise from the Strait of Otranto, along the eastern coast and back to the strait along the western coast. Tidal movements in the Adriatic are slight, although larger amplitudes are known to occur occasionally; the Adriatic's salinity is lower than the Mediterranean's because the Adriatic collects a third of the fresh water flowing into the Mediterranean, acting as a dilution basin.

The surface water temperatures range from 30 °C in summer to 12 °C in winter moderating the Adriatic Basin's climate. The Adriatic Sea sits on the Apulian or Adriatic Microplate, which separated from the African Plate in the Mesozoic era; the plate's movement contributed to the formation of the surrounding mountain chains and Apennine tectonic uplift after its collision with the Eurasian plate. In the Late Oligocene, the Apennine Peninsula first formed, separating the Adriatic Basin from the rest of the Mediterranean. All types of sediment are found in the Adriatic, with the bulk of the material transported by the Po and other rivers on the western coast; the western coast is alluvial or terraced, while the eastern coast is indented with pronounced karstification. There are dozens of marine protected areas in the Adriatic, designed to protect the sea's karst habitats and biodiversity; the sea is abundant in flora and fauna—more than 7,000 species are identified as native to the Adriatic, many of them endemic and threatened ones.

The Adriatic's shores are populated by more than 3.5 million people. The earliest settlements on the Adriatic shores were Etruscan and Greek. By the 2nd century BC, the shores were under Rome's control. In the Middle Ages, the Adriatic shores and the sea itself were controlled, to a varying extent, by a series of states—most notably the Byzantine Empire, the Croatian Kingdom, the Republic of Venice, the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire; the Napoleonic Wars resulted in the First French Empire gaining coastal control and the British effort to counter the French in the area securing most of the eastern Adriatic shore and the Po Valley for Austria. Following Italian unification, the Kingdom of Italy started an eastward expansion that lasted until the 20th century. Following World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, the eastern coast's control passed to Yugoslavia and Albania; the former disintegrated during the 1990s. Italy and Yugoslavia agreed on their maritime boundaries by 1975 and this boundary is recognised by Yugoslavia's successor states, but the maritime boundaries between Slovenian, Bosnian-Herzegovinian, Montenegrin waters are still disputed.

Italy and Albania agreed on their maritime boundary in 1992. Fisheries and tourism are significant sources of income all along the Adriatic coast. Adriatic Croatia's tourism industry has grown faster economically than the rest of the Adriatic Basin's. Maritime transport is a significant branch of the area's economy—there are 19 seaports in the Adriatic that each handle more than a million tonnes of cargo per year; the largest Adriatic seaport by annual cargo turnover is the Port of Trieste, while the Port of Split is the largest Adriatic seaport by passengers served per year. The origins of the name Adriatic are linked to the Etruscan settlement of Adria, which derives its name from the Illyrian adur meaning water or sea. In classical antiquity, the sea was known as Mare Adriaticum or, less as Mare Superum, " upper sea"; the two terms were not synonymous, however. Mare Adriaticum corresponds to the Adriatic Sea's extent, spanning from the Gulf of Venice to the Strait of Otranto; that boundary became more defined by Roman authors – early Greek sources place the boundary between the Adriatic and Ionian seas at various places ranging from adjacent to the Gulf of Venice to the southern tip of the Peloponnese, eastern shores of Sicily and western shores of Crete.

Mare Superum on the other hand encompassed both the modern Adriatic Sea and the sea off the Apennine peninsula's southern coast, as far as the Strait of Sicily. Another name used in the period was Mare Dalmaticum, applied to waters off the coast of Dalmatia or Illyricum; the names for the sea in the languages of the surrounding countries include Albanian: Deti Adriatik. In Serbo-Croatian and Slovene, the sea is referred to as Jadran; the Adriatic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea, bordered in the southwest by the Apennine or Italian Peninsula, in the northwest by the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, in the northeast by Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Alba

Encore (1951 film)

Encore is a 1951 anthology film composed of adaptations of three short stories by W. Somerset Maugham: "The Ant and the Grasshopper", directed by Pat Jackson and adapted by T. E. B. Clarke. Maugham introduces each part of the film with a piece to camera from his garden on the French Riviera. Encore was the final film in a Maugham trilogy, preceded by Trio; the film was entered into the 1952 Cannes Film Festival. Idle Tom Ramsay continually borrows from his hard-working brother George. George puts up the Ramsay estate for sale so he can buy out his business partner, despite Tom's protests. Shortly afterwards, George is approached by car dealer Philip Cronshaw, who notifies him that Tom has stolen one of his automobiles. To avoid a scandal, George pays for it. However, it was a fraud. While squandering his ill-gotten funds, Tom discovers that Gertrude Wilmot, the third richest woman in the world, is staying at the same seaside resort, he becomes acquainted with her frankly admits that he is a scoundrel attracted to her great wealth.

This approach works and they become engaged. Tom pays George back for all the money; when George complains about the injustice of Tom not having to work for his good fortune, Tom mentions that Gertrude is buying the family estate. English spinster Molly Reid takes a sea cruise to Jamaica. To the annoyance of the other passengers and the crew, she talks non-stop on the outbound voyage; when the captain learns that she will be returning on the same ship, he decides that something must be done to save the sanity of the crew. The ship's doctor suggests setting her up with a suitor. Pierre, the steward, is ordered to keep Molly occupied; the plan works. When disembarking from the ship, Molly tells the captain and crew that she knew all along that the romance had been arranged. In Monte Carlo and Syd Cotman have a successful nightclub act, she dives from a great height into a shallow tank of flaming water. However, a visit by Flora and Carlo Penezzi unnerves her; the older Penezzis used to have a dangerous act: Flora was shot out of a cannon.

Stella and Syd argue when she refuses to dive a second time each night, forcing Syd to change their contract with the nightclub manager. In desperation, Stella takes their life savings, attempts to win enough at the gambling tables so she can quit, but loses everything. Syd is infuriated. With no choice, she goes on with the act though she is terrified that she will be killed; when Flora tells Syd how frightened his wife is, he rushes up the tower to stop her. But she, seeing his concern, dives safely into the tank. Nigel Patrick as Tom Ramsay Roland Culver as George Ramsay Alison Leggatt as Freda Ramsay Peter Graves as Philip Cronshaw Margaret Vyner as Gertrude Wilmot Michael Trubshawe as Ascot Man Kay Walsh as Miss Molly Reid Noel Purcell as Captain Tom Ronald Squire as the ship's doctor John Laurie as Andrews, the engineer Jacques François as Pierre, the steward Glynis Johns as Stella Cotman Terence Morgan as Syd Cotman Mary Merrall as Flora Penezzi Martin Miller as Carlo Penezzi The film was success at the box-office.

Encore on IMDb Encore at the TCM Movie Database

Renuka (actress)

Renuka is an Indian television and film actress, known for playing the lead role Premi in K. Balachander's Tamil tele-serial of the same name, she has acted in lot of Malayalam and some Hindi films in her career. According to an interview given by Renuka to The Hindu, her family hailed from the town of Srirangam. Due to adverse circumstances caused by the early death of her father, she was compelled to move to the city of Chennai at an early age in search of work. In a short while, she was able to get a job as a drama artiste with Komal Swaminathan's troupe. Renuka got a break in Tamil films with the 1989 movie Samsara Sangeetham directed by T. Rajender, she did few episodes in Telugu Dooradarshan at her early stage. Renuka had done a few Tamil films and about 75 Malayalam movies when she was introduced to Tamil film director K. Balachander by colleague Geetha. Renuka was cast in a supporting role in the teleserial Kaialavu Manasu directed by Balachander. Following Kaialavu Manasu, Renuka did a supporting role in Kadhal Pagadai, which made her popular and lead roles in Premi and Ganga Yamuna Saraswathi.

She earned good reviews for her performance in Premi. Renuka has two younger brothers, she is married to the Managing Director of Aloha India. Renuka on IMDb