Adrien-Marie Legendre was a French mathematician who made numerous contributions to mathematics. Well-known and important concepts such as the Legendre polynomials and Legendre transformation are named after him. Adrien-Marie Legendre was born in Paris on 18 September 1752 to a wealthy family, he received his education at the Collège Mazarin in Paris, defended his thesis in physics and mathematics in 1770. He taught at the École Militaire in Paris from 1775 to 1780 and at the École Normale from 1795. At the same time, he was associated with the Bureau des Longitudes. In 1782, the Berlin Academy awarded Legendre a prize for his treatise on projectiles in resistant media; this treatise brought him to the attention of Lagrange. The Académie des sciences made Legendre an adjoint member in 1783 and an associate in 1785. In 1789, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, he assisted with the Anglo-French Survey to calculate the precise distance between the Paris Observatory and the Royal Greenwich Observatory by means of trigonometry.
To this end in 1787 he visited Dover and London together with Dominique, comte de Cassini and Pierre Méchain. The three visited William Herschel, the discoverer of the planet Uranus. Legendre lost his private fortune in 1793 during the French Revolution; that year, he married Marguerite-Claudine Couhin, who helped him put his affairs in order. In 1795, Legendre became one of six members of the mathematics section of the reconstituted Académie des Sciences, renamed the Institut National des Sciences et des Arts. In 1803, Napoleon reorganized the Institut National, Legendre became a member of the Geometry section. From 1799 to 1812, Legendre served as mathematics examiner for graduating artillery students at the École Militaire and from 1799 to 1815 he served as permanent mathematics examiner for the École Polytechnique. In 1824, Legendre's pension from the École Militaire was stopped because he refused to vote for the government candidate at the Institut National, his pension was reinstated with the change in government in 1828.
In 1831, he was made an officer of the Légion d'Honneur. Legendre died in Paris on 9 January 1833, after a long and painful illness, Legendre's widow preserved his belongings to memorialize him. Upon her death in 1856, she was buried next to her husband in the village of Auteuil, where the couple had lived, left their last country house to the village. Legendre's name is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. Abel's work on elliptic functions was built on Legendre's and some of Gauss' work in statistics and number theory completed that of Legendre, he developed the least squares method and firstly communicated it to his contemporaries before Gauss, which has broad application in linear regression, signal processing and curve fitting. Today, the term "least squares method" is used as a direct translation from the French "méthode des moindres carrés", his major work is Exercices de Calcul Intégral, published in three volumes in 1811, 1817 and 1819. In the first volume he introduced the basic properties of elliptic integrals, beta functions and gamma functions, introducing the symbol Γ normalizing it to Γ = n!.
Further results on the beta and gamma functions along with their applications to mechanics - such as the rotation of the earth, the attraction of ellipsoids, appeared in the second volume. In 1830, he gave a proof of Fermat's last theorem for exponent n = 5, proven by Lejeune Dirichlet in 1828. In number theory, he conjectured the quadratic reciprocity law, subsequently proved by Gauss, he did pioneering work on the distribution of primes, on the application of analysis to number theory. His 1798 conjecture of the prime number theorem was rigorously proved by Hadamard and de la Vallée-Poussin in 1896. Legendre did an impressive amount of work on elliptic functions, including the classification of elliptic integrals, but it took Abel's stroke of genius to study the inverses of Jacobi's functions and solve the problem completely, he is known for the Legendre transformation, used to go from the Lagrangian to the Hamiltonian formulation of classical mechanics. In thermodynamics it is used to obtain the enthalpy and the Helmholtz and Gibbs energies from the internal energy.
He is the namesake of the Legendre polynomials, solutions to Legendre's differential equation, which occur in physics and engineering applications, e.g. electrostatics. Legendre is best known as the author of Éléments de géométrie, published in 1794 and was the leading elementary text on the topic for around 100 years; this text rearranged and simplified many of the propositions from Euclid's Elements to create a more effective textbook. Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences The Moon crater Legendre is named after him. Main-belt asteroid. Legendre is one of the 72 prominent French scientists who were commemorated on plaques at the first stage of the Eiffel Tower when it first opened. Essays1782 Recherches sur la trajectoire des projectiles dans les milieux résistants BooksEléments de géométrie, textbook 1794 Essai sur la Théorie des Nombres 1797-8, 2nd ed. 1808, 3rd ed. in 2 vol. 1830 Nouvelles Méthodes pour la Détermination des Orbites des Comètes, 1805 Exercices de Calcul Intégral, book in three volumes 1811, 1817, 1819 Traité des Fonctions Elliptiques, book in three volumes 1825, 1826, 1830Memoires in Histoire de l'Académie Royale des Science
Joe McLaughlin, born Joseph Carroll McLaughlin, was one of Texas' most well-known and respected professional sportswriters of the late 20th century. According to the Houston Chronicle, McLaughlin was considered "one of the true newspaper legends of the Southwest Conference," his name synonymous with high school and college sports in Texas during the 1960s, 1970's and 1980's. McLaughlin's success as a reporter out of Texas Tech University and the "Lubbock Avalanche-Journal" led to a read column called "Mac's Facts," which appeared in the Abilene Reporter News in the late'50s and early'60s. McLaughlin was sought out for expert commentary on television and radio, has been cited/referenced in and edited innumerable books and articles, his work, a relative time machine of sports in Texas, has been sought after by the Southwest Special Collections Library and Museum at Texas Tech University. His stories are recognized as a Who's Who of athletes, from Olympians to World Boxing Champions, including Wilfred Benitez, Muhammad Ali, George Foreman, Termite Watkins, Dave "Ziggy" Zyglewicz, many of whom trace their rise to fame over the decades through Joe's stories.
McLaughlin began his career at the Lubbock Avalanche-Journal in the 1950s. This was followed by stints at the Fort Worth Star Telegram. By the mid-1960s, McLaughlin had begun what would be the first of 26 years at the Houston Chronicle as a writer and editor. While covering professional boxing, McLaughlin interviewed a rising star named Cassius Clay, who became known as Muhammad Ali and be counted amongst the numerous athletes McLaughlin had covered who would grow to be friends. McLaughlin's wife, Al-Rue, died in 2011 in Florida. Daughter, Prebble, is married with a daughter and lives in Destin, Florida
The Kington Tramway was an early narrow gauge horse-drawn tramway that linked limestone quarries at Burlinjob in Radnorshire to Eardisley in Herefordshire. The tramway received parliamentary authorisation on 23 May 1818. Construction started and was completed in two sections; the tramway was built to a gauge of 3 ft 6 in. The tramway adopted the use of cast iron'L'-shaped tramroad plates in its construction; the vertical portions of the two plates were positioned inside the wheels of the tramway wagons and the plates were spiked to stone blocks for stability. The first section from Eardisley to Kington was opened on 1 May 1820; the western section from Kington to quarries at Burlingjob, 3 miles east of New Radnor opened on 7 August 1820. For the tramway's opening, an end-on connection was made with the Hay Railway a 3 ft 6 in plateway; this co-operative arrangement allowed the through working of wagons, pulled by horses, along a continuous 36-mile line to wharves on the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal.
The tramway was intended for the carriage of goods and minerals, therefore did not carry any passengers. The Kington Tramway was acquired by the Kington and Eardisley Railway in 1862; the new company used much of the line of the tramway to build its standard gauge railway, utilising normal rails and steam locomotives, between Eardisley and Kington. Notes Bibliography
Rebel Youth is the bilingual magazine of the Young Communist League of Canada, published beginning in the late 1980s and relaunched in 2005. The name Rebel Youth is derived from Juventud Rebelde, it was adopted after the publication's previous title, New Horizons, had to be dropped due to a complaint from the Canadian federal government that was, at the time, operating a housing program with the same name. The earliest publication by the YCL and predecessor of Rebel Youth was The Young Worker, founded in 1923; the magazine specialized in youth issues and operated despite being declared illegal by the Government of Canada under the War Measures Act. Beginning in the late 1920s, the Young Worker published a supplementary magazine aimed at children which achieved a circulation of over 4,000 readers. Early contributors to the magazine include journalist and Communist Party of Canada leader Leslie Morris. By 1932, the Young Worker had become a bi-weekly publication under editor Stanley Ryerson. Due to the illegality of the magazine and of the Young Communist League of Canada, the YCL's offices were raided by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, distributors jailed or harassed, issues of the magazine seized.
Many university libraries and archives, such as the University of Toronto's Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, carry microfilm archives of The Young Worker compiled by the intelligence division of the Ministry of Labour. A relaunched magazine, replaced the Young Worker in the 1930s. Advance was launched by editor John Boyd, called for a united front strategy with other left-wing groups in response to the growth of fascism and a growing economic crisis. Advance was relaunched as New Advance, in the early 1940s as Challenge, published until the 1950s with a mission to broaden the magazine's audience. By the early 1960s, the magazine, now called Scan, was again relaunched under a new editorial team. Scan soon became a broadsheet publication and re-adopted the name The Young Worker by 1968. Due to the lack of popularity of the publication's new broadsheet format, the format was changed back to the original magazine format and was renamed New Horizons by the 1970s, the name derived from a speech by Communist Party of Canada leader Tim Buck.
By 1983, the magazine adopted Rebel Youth. As the YCL was liquidated in the 1990s in response to growing disagreement within the league regarding the future of the socialist movement, Rebel Youth ceased publication, it was relaunched in 2004 following the reorganization of the YCL. The magazine aims to publish at least biannually. Though printed in a bilingual format, the Ligue de la Jeunesse Communiste maintains the website of the magazine's French-language articles to complement the English-language Rebel Youth website. Rebel Youth blog Jeunesse Militante blog Young Communist League of Canada website
The National Workers Memorial in the national capital, Australian Capital Territory, is Australia's place for honouring workers who have died as a result of work-related accidents and disease. In May 2011, the Australian Government provided funding for the design and construction of a memorial "to honour and pay tribute to working Australians who have died as a result of work-related accidents and disease"; the other stated purposes are: To serve "as a poignant reminder of the importance of work health and safety and the need for a determined and continued effort by all to prevent work-related accidents and disease. It is a place to reflect on the evolving values and aspirations of the Australian community in relation to work health and safety." To provide "a place for visitors to lay a tribute for a loved one, a location to pause and reflect within earshot of the National Carillon’s bells, as well as allowing a space for congregation and ceremony." To provide "an important focal point for the national commemoration of Workers Memorial Day, recognised internationally on 28 April each year."Workplace deaths amount to around 300 per year in Australia.
The site in Canberra is within the sound of the bells of the National Carillon, in Kings Park, beside Lake Burley Griffin. The other memorials nearby are: National Police Memorial HMAS Canberra The memorial has been sanctioned by the National Capital Authority as the memorial is within the Parliamentary Triangle of Canberra; the memorial consists of eight tall stone poles, symbolically sighted across a stylised map of Australia in the places of the state and territory capital cities. Architectural firm Johnson Pilton Walker has placed concentric circles around the poles with words representing the intended outcome of knowledge and application of good practices of work health and safety; the lead-in path has two inscriptions along its edge, saying: every worker has the right to return home every workplace death diminishes us as a nationConstruction is reported to have cost A$3 million. The inauguration ceremony was held on Sunday 28 April 2013. National Workers Memorial - United States The Muster Point National Workers Memorial official website
Ameeksha Dilchand. Ameeksha attended the Notre Dame de la Confiance RCA school for her primary education joined the Loreto College of Rose-Hill for her secondary studies. Ameeksha completed her LLB from University College London, she was crowned Miss Mauritius in the year 2011. In October 2012, she became the second Mauritian woman to win an award for Mauritius, after Anaïs Veerapatren, she participated in Miss Universe 2012 at Las Vegas and at the Miss International 2012 where she finished 17th. Following her election as Miss Mauritius, Ameeksha has joined a NGO to be able to help kids who suffer from Cleft lip and palate as the Operation Smile Ambassador, she is a member of the Lupus Alert, helping to raise awareness about the life-threatening disease, lupus. Ameksha was born on 26 October 1988 in Mauritius to Dilchands - her father worked as a teacher and her mother, Meera, as a nurse. Ameeksha attended the Notre Dame de la Confiance RCA school for her primary education joined the Loreto College of Rose-Hill for her secondary studies.
Ameeksha is a LLB holder from the University College London. Ameeksha received a scholarship from the IIFT for a course in "Fashion and Design" in India during the Miss Mauritius Pageant 2011, she played football at national level. Ameeksha married Ankur Narain in November 2018, she has been very active on her personal blog, revealing a lot of wrongdoings of her surroundings. She is a Manchester United fan. Following her election as Miss Mauritius, Ameeksha has joined a NGO to be able to help kids who suffer from Cleft lip and palate as the Operation Smile Ambassador, she is a member of the Lupus Alert, helping to raise awareness about the life-threatening disease, lupus. Ameeksha announced on her Facebook account, that she now holds the franchise of Miss Supranational Mauritius, which means Mauritius will now participate in Miss Supranational as well. Dilchand was crowned as the Miss Mauritius 2011 during the annual ceremony held on Saturday night, August 6, 2011 at the J & J Auditorium, Phoenix.
A week prior to the finale, she won the Miss Talent Award, a preliminary of the Miss Mauritius contest. She came as runner up for the beach beauty-swimsuit competition. At the Miss International 2012, held at Okinawa, Japan on 21 October 2012, Ameeksha ranked 5th in Miss Internet Popularity and 4th in Miss Talent, ranking 17th overall and won the Miss Friendship award. Being the Miss Mauritius 2011, the winner represented Mauritius in Miss Universe 2012 at Las Vegas, United States on 19 December 2012, competing for the crown with 88 others. Official Miss Mauritius website Ameeksha Dilchand in List of Mauritian models