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Least squares

The method of least squares is a standard approach in regression analysis to approximate the solution of overdetermined systems by minimizing the sum of the squares of the residuals made in the results of every single equation. The most important application is in data fitting; the best fit in the least-squares sense minimizes the sum of squared residuals. When the problem has substantial uncertainties in the independent variable simple regression and least-squares methods have problems. Least-squares problems fall into two categories: linear or ordinary least squares and nonlinear least squares, depending on whether or not the residuals are linear in all unknowns; the linear least-squares problem occurs in statistical regression analysis. The nonlinear problem is solved by iterative refinement. Polynomial least squares describes the variance in a prediction of the dependent variable as a function of the independent variable and the deviations from the fitted curve; when the observations come from an exponential family and mild conditions are satisfied, least-squares estimates and maximum-likelihood estimates are identical.

The method of least squares can be derived as a method of moments estimator. The following discussion is presented in terms of linear functions but the use of least squares is valid and practical for more general families of functions. By iteratively applying local quadratic approximation to the likelihood, the least-squares method may be used to fit a generalized linear model; the least-squares method is credited to Carl Friedrich Gauss, but it was first published by Adrien-Marie Legendre. The method of least squares grew out of the fields of astronomy and geodesy, as scientists and mathematicians sought to provide solutions to the challenges of navigating the Earth's oceans during the Age of Exploration; the accurate description of the behavior of celestial bodies was the key to enabling ships to sail in open seas, where sailors could no longer rely on land sightings for navigation. The method was the culmination of several advances that took place during the course of the eighteenth century: The combination of different observations as being the best estimate of the true value.

The combination of different observations taken under the same conditions contrary to trying one's best to observe and record a single observation accurately. The approach was known as the method of averages; this approach was notably used by Tobias Mayer while studying the librations of the moon in 1750, by Pierre-Simon Laplace in his work in explaining the differences in motion of Jupiter and Saturn in 1788. The combination of different observations taken under different conditions; the method came to be known as the method of least absolute deviation. It was notably performed by Roger Joseph Boscovich in his work on the shape of the earth in 1757 and by Pierre-Simon Laplace for the same problem in 1799; the development of a criterion that can be evaluated to determine when the solution with the minimum error has been achieved. Laplace tried to specify a mathematical form of the probability density for the errors and define a method of estimation that minimizes the error of estimation. For this purpose, Laplace used a symmetric two-sided exponential distribution we now call Laplace distribution to model the error distribution, used the sum of absolute deviation as error of estimation.

He felt these to be the simplest assumptions he could make, he had hoped to obtain the arithmetic mean as the best estimate. Instead, his estimator was the posterior median; the first clear and concise exposition of the method of least squares was published by Legendre in 1805. The technique is described as an algebraic procedure for fitting linear equations to data and Legendre demonstrates the new method by analyzing the same data as Laplace for the shape of the earth; the value of Legendre's method of least squares was recognized by leading astronomers and geodesists of the time. In 1809 Carl Friedrich Gauss published his method of calculating the orbits of celestial bodies. In that work he claimed to have been in possession of the method of least squares since 1795; this led to a priority dispute with Legendre. However, to Gauss's credit, he went beyond Legendre and succeeded in connecting the method of least squares with the principles of probability and to the normal distribution, he had managed to complete Laplace's program of specifying a mathematical form of the probability density for the observations, depending on a finite number of unknown parameters, define a method of estimation that minimizes the error of estimation.

Gauss showed that the arithmetic mean is indeed the best estimate of the location parameter by changing both the probability density and the method of estimation. He turned the problem around by asking what form the density should have and what method of estimation should be used to get the arithmetic mean as estimate of the location parameter. In this attempt, he invented the normal distribution. An early demonstration of the strength of Gauss's method came when it was used to predict the future location of the newly discovered asteroid Ceres. On 1 January 1801, the Italian astronomer

Priest (2011 film)

Priest is a 2011 American action horror film directed by Scott Stewart and stars Paul Bettany as the title character. It is loosely based on the Korean comic of the same name by Hyung Min-woo. In an alternate universe and vampires have warred for centuries. After the last Vampire War, a veteran Warrior Priest lives in obscurity until his niece is kidnapped by vampires; the film was released on May 13, 2011. The film earned over $78 million at the box office against a $60 million production budget, but it was panned by critics, who praised the film's visual style and art direction while criticising the movie's use of genre clichés, acting and action scenes — although, some of its action scenes were praised. A centuries-long war between humans and vampires has devastated the planet's surface and led to a theocracy under an organization called The Church, they constructed giant walled cities to protect mankind and developed a group of elite warriors, the Priests, to turn the tide against the vampires.

The majority of the vampires were killed. With the war over, the Clergy disbanded the Priests. Outside the walled cities, some humans seek out a living, free from the totalitarian control of the Church. Priest is approached by the sheriff of Augustine, a free town. Priest learns that his brother and his wife, Shannon—Priest's girlfriend before he entered the priesthood—were mortally wounded in a vampire attack, Priest's niece, was kidnapped. Hicks asks for Priest's help in rescuing Lucy. Priest asks the Clergy to reinstate his authority, but Church leader Monsignor Orelas does not believe the vampire story and refuses, not wanting to discourage the idea that the Church defeated the vampires for fear of compromising their authority over the city. Priest defiantly leaves Orelas sends three Priests and a Priestess to bring him back. Priest and Hicks arrive at Nightshade Reservation where humans called Familiars, people infected with a pathogen that makes them subservient to the vampires, live alongside a number of the surviving vampires.

After a fierce battle, the pair discovers that most of the vampires have taken shelter in Sola Mira, a vampire hive where Priest lost several of his comrades during a major battle. Priestess joins them at Sola Mira; the trio destroys a Hive Guardian vampire discover that the vampires have bred a new army and dug a tunnel out of the mountain towards a town called Jericho. The other three Priests have arrived at Jericho just as night falls and an armored train arrives, unleashing hundreds of vampires upon the population; the vampires are led by a mysterious human wearing a black hat. When the three Priests reject Black Hat's offer to join him, he kills them all; the next morning, Priest and Hicks arrive in Jericho and discover the town empty and the three dead Priests crucified. Priest and Priestess share an intimate moment where she makes her move, hoping that now that Shannon has died, he would no longer feel bound to her. Priest, not over Shannon refuses. Priest realizes that the vampires have been using the trains to travel by day and attack the free towns by night, with the walled cities at the end of the train line.

Hicks believes an attack on the cities would be unwise because of the sun, but Priest reveals that factories, producing massive clouds of smoke and ash, have permanently deprived the city of sunlight, so the vampire attack would be a slaughter. Hicks threatens Priest, claiming he will shoot him unless he promises to let Lucy live whether she has been infected or not. Hicks does not understand why Priest, a stranger to Lucy, cares so much about her. Priestess reveals that Lucy is Priest's daughter, that his brother, stepped in as a husband and a father when Priest was taken by The Church. While Priestess rushes ahead to plant a bomb on the railroad tracks and Hicks board the train to rescue Lucy. Battling vampires and Familiars, the two are overpowered by Black Hat just as they find Lucy. Black Hat is revealed as one of the Priests, defeated in the final attack on Sola Mira and a close friend of Priest. After being captured, the vampire Queen gave him her blood, turning him into the first Vampire-Human hybrid who can survive the sun.

As Priest fights Black Hat, Lucy discovers the truth about her parentage. Priestess battles several Familiars placing the explosives on her motor bike and crashing it into the train engine; the explosion and subsequent derailment kills the vampires and engulfs Black Hat in fire, while Hicks, Priest and Lucy are able to escape. Priest returns to the city and confronts Monsignor Orelas during Mass, telling him of the burnt train containing the vampires' bodies, but not the Queen's, he proves this by throwing a vampire head onto the floor and shocking everyone in the room. Orelas still refuses to believe him, declaring that the war is over, while Priest says that it is just beginning. Outside the city Priest meets Priestess, she reveals that the other Priests have been notified and will meet them at a rendezvous point. Priest sets off into the sunset. Paul Bettany as Priest Karl Urban as Black Hat Cam Gigandet as Hicks Maggie Q as Priestess Lily Collins as Lucy Pace Brad Dourif as Salesman Stephen Moyer as Owen Pace Christopher Plummer as Monsignor Orelas Alan Dale as Monsignor Chamberlain Mädchen Amick as Shannon Pace Jacob Hopkins as Boy Dave Florek as Crocker Joel Polinsky as Dr. Tomlin Josh

Arturo Muñoz (intelligence)

Arturo G. Muñoz is a former Central Intelligence Agency senior intelligence officer with three decades of analytical skills and operational experience, both in the Directorate of Intelligence and in the Directorate of Operations, he managed classified covert-operations and HUMINT collections for the CIA National Clandestine Service in various high-ranking positions. Muñoz is regarded at the CIA as an Intelligence Officer and a Psychological Operations expert with countless successful programs. Muñoz is a well known pundit on national security, international affairs, espionage and U. S. foreign policy. Muñoz holds a B. A. in history and Spanish literature from Loyola University. A. in anthropology and a Ph. D. Magna Cum Laude in Latin American history, from Stanford University. B. D. in anthropology, from UCLA. As a graduate student, Muñoz lived with the Emberá people in Panama’s Darién Province, the Yanomamo, conducting years of field work in Venezuela’s Upper Orinoco; as a Sierra Club activist, Muñoz lobbied in Washington D.

C. against U. S. funding for the Pan-American Highway in the Darien Gap, arguing that completion of this road would devastate the tropical forest environment, as well as its indigenous people. Muñoz joined the CIA in 1980. In the Directorate of Intelligence, he contributed to National Intelligence Estimates: wrote for President’s Daily Brief and National Intelligence Daily. Muñoz pioneered the application of anthropology to intelligence in groundbreaking intel assessments on insurgencies in Latin America; as a certified Case Officer in the CIA Directorate of Operations Muñoz recruited and handled assets covertly, producing disseminated intelligence reports. Additionally, he implemented U. S. Military projects in Central America as Special Advisor for Counterinsurgency and Psychological Operations detailee at USSOUTHCOM. During his tenure with the CIA, Muñoz established numerous successful Special Activities Division programs, as well as counterterrorism, counterinsurgency and counternarcotics strategies, from initial HQS planning to full-fledged field operation.

In 2009, Muñoz retired overtly from the CIA and works in the private sector as a Senior Political Scientist. for RAND Corporation specializing in intelligence, national security, covert-action, al-Qaeda, Pakistan, Psychological Operations, Counterinsurgency, Counterterrorism. Muñoz returned to Afghanistan and Pakistan in 2009, 2010 and 2013, meeting a broad range of civilians and military officials, as well as Pashtun tribal leaders, Arbakai commanders and Taliban members. Muñoz provided new insights on enemy forces to U. S. Military and participated in advisory panel for ISAF Commander, he supported SOCOM Afghan mission. Muñoz's PSYOP effectiveness study contributed to ongoing Pentagon reassessment of doctrine and methods. In addition to numerous performance awards and meritorious citations, Muñoz received a prestigious award from the U. S. Government in 2013 for classified case study used as a lessons learned reference for ongoing projects. Muñoz spent his post-CIA career participating in diverse international endeavors.

Furthermore, Muñoz lectures on "Social Political Issues in Afghanistan" at the Foreign Service Institute, as well as teaching courses on “Covert Action and Counterintelligence” and “Intelligence and Diplomacy" at Georgetown University’s Center for Security Studies. Muñoz has lectured on various military, national security, intelligence topics at National Defense University. S. Army War College, U. S. Marine Corps School of Advanced Warfighting, Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force. Muñoz's analysis and commentaries have been aired on international media, cable stations, national television, streamed all over the internet and cited by newspapers/magazines. Amazigh: The Berbers of Morocco Afghanistan's Local War: Building Local Defense Forces The Long Shadow of 9/11. U. S. Military Information Operations in Afghanistan Bent by History in Afghanistan Santa Muerte Syncretism A Long-Overdue Adaptation to the Afghan Environment Response to Why RAND Missed the Point Civil defense forces in Afghanistan USMIL information operations in Afghanistan Taliban strategy and tactics Taliban propaganda and psychological operations Taliban shadow government Assessing Military Information Operations in Afghanistan Information O

Guillaume Cousinot de Montreuil

Guillaume Cousinot de Montreuil was a French diplomat and civil servant. He served as France's diplomatic representative in England between 1444 and 1449, during a period of truce between the two countries. Guillaume Cousinot de Montreuil was nicknamed Guillaume Cousinot II or Le Jeune, due to his being the son of Guillaume Cousinot le Chancelier; this family link was long debated by historians. Until the 19th century, they were thought of as an uncle and a nephew until the archivist Jules Doinel, based on historical documents, proved they were indeed father and son. Guillaume was a student at the University of Orléans. Apart from his diplomat occupation, he was a poet and historian. Between 1418 and 1436, he fought for the Armagnac Faction, he received the duty of Grand Maistre Gouverneur and judge of the mines and outbuildings, Chancellor and Chamberlain of the Kings Charles VII and Louis XI. He was appointed as Conseiller et Maître des requêtes à l’Hôtel du Roi, he became lord of Montreuil from 1456 until his death.

On his seal, a lady holds in one hand a heater shield, in the other a helm. In 1438, he became the secretary of the king, Conseiller et Maître des requêtes à l’Hôtel du Roi. During that time, he was named commissioner of the king and was charged with the administration and finance. In 1442, he becomes the first president of the Conseil delphinal, who would soon become the Parliament of the Dauphiné due to his function as an advisor of the prince Louis, who would become Louis XI. Between 1444 and 1449, he is appointed as diplomat and sent in an embassy to England during a truce between the two countries, he is made knight during the siege of Rouen, subsequently made Bailiff of the city from 1449 to 1461. In 1451, he is made ambassador to the Scottish Court, but is shipwrecked on English coasts and kept captive for 3 years, he is ransomed by Charles VII by a ransom of 20,000 écus levied from a salt tax on Normandy. In 1459, Cousinot de Montreuil represents the king at the Council of Mantua in Italy and would become his ambassador in Rome.

In 1461, Charles VII dies, his son, Louis XI, succeeds him. Louis XI puts Guillaume Cousinot de Montreuil in jail, before changing his mind and making him his chamberlain, he is named concierge of the Conciergerie, made captain of Cabrières in Languedoc, following the Treaty of Bayonne. He obtained the titles of Lord of Lattes-lès-Montpellier, captain of Sauxes, near Perpignan and governor and bailiff of Montpellier. In a letter of Louis XI from Abeville on September 29, 1464, he is cited as one of the king's advisors and knights. In 1465, he stays loyal to his king during the Ligue du Bien public, for this, Louis XI rewards him with an increase in his pension ranging from 600 to 3000 francs. In 1467, he starts writing a medieval historical chronicle, the "Chronique de la Pucelle"; the chronicle is introduced by parts of the chronicle written by his father, the "Geste des Nobles" and tells the life of Joan of Arc. However, the historian Craig Taylor states that Cousinot is not the author of this chronicle, attributing to him a polemic treatise defending the Valois monarchy against its English counterpart, titled *Pour ce que Plusieurs * written in 1465 in the context of the meetings between Louis XI and Edward IV.

In 1469, he writes a poetic text, in verse and in prose, Réponse à Robertet sur le départ de la belle Étiennette. In 1470 he is made ambassador to Rome. In 1483, after the death of Louis XI, despite being old, is an advisor of new king, Charles VIII of France. In 1484, he attends the Estates General in Tours and dies the same year

Company man

A company man in the petroleum industry refers to a representative of an operating/exploration company. Other terms that may be used are company representative, drill site supervisor, company consultant, rigsite leader or "well site manager". In a normal scenario, gas/oil-drilling companies rent or lease the rigs from another company that owns the rig, the drilling contractor; the majority of the personnel on the drilling rig, called'the rig crew', are employees of the drilling contractor. The company man is the on-site representative of the operating/exploration company and is in overall charge of the drilling and associated activities. Rig operations and maintenance and crew upkeep are attended to by the toolpusher, who works for the drilling contractor. A company man is not a supervisor in the traditional sense. He/she is representing the oil company, paying for the well amongst other companies performing the services. In matters where safety may be questioned the oil rig workers, who aren't employed by the same company as the company man, may refuse to perform an action requested by the company man.

In recent years it has become standard safety policy that anyone can "Stop the Job" if they feel there is a hazard that has not been properly addressed. This can be found in most contractor safety manuals and is encouraged by the drilling company also; the company man is knowledgeable in the area of drilling operations and to some extent completion operations. He/she is not responsible for defining the technical aspects of the well, but instead works with a team of office-based engineers and geologists and is the team member responsible for carrying out the written drilling program in an efficient and safe fashion. Since most of the physical work is carried out by contractors that may have separate interests from the oil company, the company man is the sole representative of the oil company on location to ensure that plans are carried out according to specifications, time-lines and budgets; the company man gives orders only to the supervisor of the drilling contractor and various service companies, lest he/she run the risk of violating the "Independent Contractor" concept and incurring additional liability for his/her own company.

In the modern era, many company men have a degree in petroleum engineering or some other discipline of engineering with broad experience in a variety of oilfield jobs. However, many others have some of the skills of a drilling engineer but without a degree, have worked their way from being a "worm" manual laborer to the position of highest authority on the drilling site, similar to a private working to the position of general through a demonstration of competence; the next step for a company man is to become a specialist "floating foreman,", skilled at solving complex drilling problems, or to become a "rig superintendent" who may oversee many rigs and have company men as direct reports. From there it is possible for some to move on to upper management in an oil company, or to branch off into a multitude of other careers requiring technical management experience. 24-hour supervision is required at the well site. To achieve this, a night company man may be utilized. "Company man" is a term relating to a "yes-man", or someone who will do anything demanded of them by those who are supervising them: that is, someone whose primary allegiance is to the company rather than colleagues or friends.

In modern times the term has been used to describe as a man that has one or more sexual partners in an office or work environment. It is used a badge of honor among'City Boys' within the UK

The Pizza Man

The Pizza Man is an American Thoroughbred racehorse who won multiple stakes races including the Arlington Million in 2015 and the Northern Dancer Turf Stakes in 2016, becoming the first Illinois-bred horse to win either of these Grade I races. In 2015, The Pizza Man was named Illinois-bred Champion Turf Male, Champion Handicap Male, Illinois Horse of the Year, he retired in 2017 as the all-time leading money earner among Illinois-breds. The Pizza Man is a bay gelding who raced as a homebred for Midwest Thoroughbreds, the stable of Richard and Karen Papiese of Chicago, his dam I Can Fan Fan, a daughter of Lear Fan, was claimed by Papiese in 2005 for $18,000. The Pizza Man was her third foal, he was sired by English Channel, who won the Breeders' Cup Turf in 2007 and has since sired stakes winners on both dirt and turf, such as 2014 Travers Stakes winner V. E. Day and Heart to Heart; the Pizza Man received the name because Papiese thought the blaze on his forehead resembled a pizza slice. He was trained by Roger Brueggemann, an Illinois native, training horses since the 1980s.

The Pizza Man finished eighth in his first and only start as a two-year-old, a six-furlong race on the dirt at Hawthorne Park on December 31, 2011. The Pizza Man was switched to the turf course at Hawthorne for his first start as a three-year-old on April 13, 2012 and responded with a ​3 3⁄4-length win, he followed up with two allowance race wins at Arlington Park in June. He took a step up in class when he was entered in the Grade III American Derby in July, but finished sixth, he returned to the winner's circle in an allowance race at Arlington in August finished the year with wins in two Illinois-bred restricted stakes races, the Tex's Zing in September and the Buck Boy in October. In the Buck Boy, The Pizza Man won by ​2 3⁄4 lengths in a "commanding performance". "I had a perfect trip," said jockey Florent Geroux. "It looked like there was going to be a lot of pace and it worked out that way. I just tried to save as much ground as I could; when I swung him out, he just took off. He is just getting better and better."

With a record of six wins from seven starts, The Pizza Man was named the 2012 Illinois-bred champion three-year-old. The Pizza Man won his first start of 2013 in an allowance race at the Fair Grounds in March, he experienced a three race losing streak that included a sixth place finish in an allowance race at Churchill Downs, a second in the Black Tie Affair Handicap and a third in the Stars and Stripes Stakes. He rebounded in the fall to win the Illinois Owners Stakes and the Robert F. Carey Memorial Handicap, finishing the year with three wins from six starts; the Pizza Man started his five-year-old campaign on June 21, 2014 at Arlington in the Black Tie Affair Handicap. He raced in third place through the early portion of the race closed ground to win by half a length. On July 12, he won his first graded stakes race, the ​1 1⁄2-mile Stars and Stripes, in front-running fashion. "I had the best horse in the race, so I took the lead and went with it," said Geroux. "The plan was to get to wherever he was comfortable and he was comfortable on the lead."The win gave The Pizza Man an automatic entry in the $400,000 American St. Leger in August.

For the ​1 11⁄16-mile marathon, he faced a strong field of horses from across not only North America but Europe as well, including the previous year's winner Dandino and the favorite, Eye of the Storm. The Pizza Man and Eye of the Storm raced just behind the early pace made their move entering the final turn; the Pizza Man drew away from Eye of the Storm withstood a late run from Dandino to win by a length. "I had the perfect race," said Dandino's jockey Frankie Dettori. "Turning in I thought, but never stopped. He ran hard to the line. He's coming back to form now."The Pizza Man shipped to Woodbine racetrack in Toronto to take on Grade I company for the first time in the Northern Dancer Turf Stakes. He stalked the pace started to make a run in the stretch but "evened out" and was passed by several late closers, finishing fifth, he started in the Canadian International at Woodbine, held on October 19. He took the lead entering the stretch, he continued to chase, finishing fourth. His final start of the year was in the Hollywood Turf Cup at Del Mar in late November, where he finished third.

The Pizza Man was given a long layoff. "I think we had a tired horse at the end of the year," said Papiese. The horse made his 2015 debut on May 30 in the Opening Verse Stakes at Churchill Downs, winning the ​1 1⁄16-mile race by ​2 1⁄2 lengths. On July 11, he returned to Arlington to defend his title in the Stars and Stripes as the 4–5 favorite, he raced behind a slow pace set by Roman Approval made his move and hit the lead in mid-stretch. Roman Approval fought back and the two dueled to the wire, with The Pizza Man prevailing by a neck. For his next start in August, Papiese chose to enter the gelding in the Grade I Arlington Million rather than attempt to defend his title in the American St. Leger. Papiese felt confident despite the world-class field in the Million. "He has never been better," he said. "I respect all of the people here — all the great owners and trainers and jockeys — and all of the horses we're running against, but I wouldn't trade places with anybody." On a soft turf course, The Pizza Man struggled in the early going but made a strong move down the stretch to win by a neck over Big Blue Kitten.

"When I put him outside he started to hold up and grabbed the bit again," said Geroux. "I was thinking'Oh boy, he's going for a big one here!' He is a l