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Ordinary least squares

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In statistics, ordinary least squares (OLS) is a type of linear least squares method for choosing the unknown parameters in a linear regression model by the principle of least squares: minimizing the sum of the squares of the differences between the observed dependent variable in the input dataset and the output of the (linear) function of the independent variable.

Residuals to a quadratic fit for correctly and incorrectly converted data.

Statistics

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Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model to be studied. Populations can be diverse groups of people or objects such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with every aspect of data, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.

Bernoulli's Ars Conjectandi was the first work that dealt with probability theory as currently understood.

Carl Friedrich Gauss made major contributions to probabilistic methods leading to statistics.

Karl Pearson, a founder of mathematical statistics