Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, analysis and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model to be studied. Populations can be diverse groups of people or objects such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with every aspect of data, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. See glossary of probability and statistics; when census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples. Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can reasonably extend from the sample to the population as a whole. An experimental study involves taking measurements of the system under study, manipulating the system, taking additional measurements using the same procedure to determine if the manipulation has modified the values of the measurements.
In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation. Two main statistical methods are used in data analysis: descriptive statistics, which summarize data from a sample using indexes such as the mean or standard deviation, inferential statistics, which draw conclusions from data that are subject to random variation. Descriptive statistics are most concerned with two sets of properties of a distribution: central tendency seeks to characterize the distribution's central or typical value, while dispersion characterizes the extent to which members of the distribution depart from its center and each other. Inferences on mathematical statistics are made under the framework of probability theory, which deals with the analysis of random phenomena. A standard statistical procedure involves the test of the relationship between two statistical data sets, or a data set and synthetic data drawn from an idealized model. A hypothesis is proposed for the statistical relationship between the two data sets, this is compared as an alternative to an idealized null hypothesis of no relationship between two data sets.
Rejecting or disproving the null hypothesis is done using statistical tests that quantify the sense in which the null can be proven false, given the data that are used in the test. Working from a null hypothesis, two basic forms of error are recognized: Type I errors and Type II errors. Multiple problems have come to be associated with this framework: ranging from obtaining a sufficient sample size to specifying an adequate null hypothesis. Measurement processes that generate statistical data are subject to error. Many of these errors are classified as random or systematic, but other types of errors can occur; the presence of missing data or censoring may result in biased estimates and specific techniques have been developed to address these problems. The earliest writings on probability and statistics, statistical methods drawing from probability theory, date back to Arab mathematicians and cryptographers, notably Al-Khalil and Al-Kindi. In the 18th century, statistics started to draw from calculus.
In more recent years statistics has relied more on statistical software to produce tests such as descriptive analysis. Statistics is a mathematical body of science that pertains to the collection, interpretation or explanation, presentation of data, or as a branch of mathematics; some consider statistics to be a distinct mathematical science rather than a branch of mathematics. While many scientific investigations make use of data, statistics is concerned with the use of data in the context of uncertainty and decision making in the face of uncertainty. In applying statistics to a problem, it is common practice to start with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population; this may be organized by governmental statistical institutes. Descriptive statistics can be used to summarize the population data. Numerical descriptors include mean and standard deviation for continuous data types, while frequency and percentage are more useful in terms of describing categorical data.
When a census is not feasible, a chosen subset of the population called. Once a sample, representative of the population is determined, data is collected for the sample members in an observational or experimental setting. Again, descriptive statistics can be used to summarize the sample data. However, the drawing of the sample has been subject to an element of randomness, hence the established numerical descriptors from the sample are due to uncertainty. To still draw meaningful conclusions about the entire population, inferential statistics is needed, it uses patterns in the sample data to draw inferences about the population represented, accounting for randomness. These inferences may take the form of: answering yes/no questions about the data, estimating numerical characteristics of the data, describing associations within the data and modeling relationships within the data. Inference can extend to forecasting and estimation of unobs
Sanicula europaea is a perennial plant of the family Apiaceae. It has traditionally been a favoured ingredient of many herbal remedies, of it was said "he who has sanicle and self-heal needs neither physician nor surgeon". Sanicula europea L. is glabrous with coarsely toothed leaves. The pinkish flowers are borne in tight spherical umbels and are followed by bristly fruits which attach to clothing or animal fur and are thus distributed; the leaves are lobed and dark green. It is widespread in shady places in woodland across Europe. Sanicula comes from sanus, Latin for "healthy", reflecting its use in traditional remedies. Sanicula europaea was used in Europe for cleaning. Filtered leaf extracts of sanicula europaea have shown some antiviral properties, inhibiting the replication of type 2 Human parainfluenza viruses. Infusions of sanicle, made with water or wine, were used in France to cure dysentery and kidney injuries. To this list Culpeper added that sanicle heals tumours in any part of the body, alleviates gonorrhoea, bowel pain and more.
The roots have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally or externally for treatment of disorders of the skin, respiratory tract, locomotor system, gastrointestinal tract, infections. Sanicula laciniata 1510 book Compendium medicine tam morborum universalium quam particularium nondum
Jan Rudolph Slotemaker de Bruïne was a Dutch politician of the defunct Christian Historical Union party now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal party and theologian. Slotemaker de Bruïne applied at the Utrecht University in June 1889 majoring in Theology and obtaining an Bachelor of Theology degree in July 1891 and worked as a student researcher before graduating with an Master of Theology degree in July 1894 and got a doctorate as an Doctor of Theology in June 1896 and an Doctor of Philosophy in July 1898. Slotemaker de Bruïne served as a Minister of the Dutch Reformed Church from August 1894 until March 1926 in Haulerwijk from August 1894 until May 1897 in Beilen from May 1897 until January 1900 in Middelburg from January 1900 until September 1903 in Nijmegen from September 1903 until December 1907 and in Utrecht from December 1907 until March 1916. Slotemaker de Bruïne worked as editor of the newspaper De Voorzorg from April 1903 until November 1921 and was co-founder and editor-in-chief of christian magazine Stemmen des Tijds from January 1911 until May 1941.
Slotemaker de Bruïne worked as a professor of Theology and the History of Christianity and at the Utrecht University from March 1916 until April 1925. Slotemaker de Bruïne worked as editor-in-chief of the party newspaper De Nederlander from February 1921 until May 1941. Slotemaker de Bruïne was elected as a Member of the Senate after the Senate election of 1922, taking office on 25 July 1922. Slotemaker de Bruïne served as Chairman of the Christian Historical Union from 15 April 1925 until 20 September 1926. On 11 November 1925 the Cabinet Colijn I fell and continued to serve in a demissionary capacity until the cabinet formation of 1926 when it was replaced by the Cabinet De Geer I with Slotemaker de Bruïne appointed as Minister of Labour and Industry, taking office on 8 March 1926. Slotemaker de Bruïne was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives after the election of 1929, taking office on 17 September 1929. Following the cabinet formation of 1929 Slotemaker de Bruïne was not giving a cabinet post in the new cabinet, the Cabinet De Geer I was replaced by the Cabinet Ruijs de Beerenbrouck III on 10 August 1929 and he continued to serve in the House of Representatives as a frontbencher.
Slotemaker de Bruïne served again as Chairman of the Christian Historical Union from 5 January 1932 until 30 June 1933. After the election of 1933 Slotemaker de Bruïne was appointed again in the post as the newly renamed Minister of Social Affairs in the Cabinet Colijn II, taking office on 8 June 1933. Slotemaker de Bruïne served as acting Minister of Education and Sciences from 18 May 1935 following the resignation of Henri Marchant and dual served in both positions; the Cabinet Colijn II fell on 23 July 1935 and continued to serve in a demissionary capacity until the cabinet formation of 1935 when it was replaced by the Cabinet Colijn III with Slotemaker de Bruïne appointed as permanent Minister of Education and Sciences, taking office on 31 July 1935. After the election of 1937 Slotemaker de Bruïne returned as a Member of the House of Representatives, taking office on 8 June 1937. Following the cabinet formation of 1937 Slotemaker de Bruïne continued as Minister of Education and Sciences in the Cabinet Colijn IV, taking office on 24 June 1937.
After a railway strike in 1903 he realised that the Church holds important social obligations and since he has participated in politics. In 1926 he became minister of labour, in 1935 minister of social affairs and education. On 1 May 1941 Slotemaker de Bruine died in Wassenaar. Official Dr. J. R. Slotemaker de Bruïne Parlement & Politiek Dr. J. R. Slotemaker de Bruïne Eerste Kamer der Staten-Generaal