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Aeolipile

An aeolipile known as a Hero's engine, is a simple, bladeless radial steam turbine which spins when the central water container is heated. Torque is produced by steam jets exiting the turbine, much like a tip rocket engine. In the 1st century AD, Hero of Alexandria described the device in Roman Egypt, many sources give him the credit for its invention; the aeolipile which Hero described is considered to be the first recorded steam engine or reaction steam turbine. The name – derived from the Greek word Αἴολος and Latin word pila – translates to "the ball of Aeolus", Aeolus being the Greek god of the air and wind. Predating Hero's writings, a device called an aeolipile was described in the 1st century BC by Vitruvius in his treatise De architectura; the aeolipile consists of a vessel a "simple" solid of revolution, such as a sphere or a cylinder, arranged to rotate on its axis, having oppositely bent or curved nozzles projecting from it. When the vessel is pressurised with steam, steam is expelled through the nozzles, which generates thrust due to the rocket principle as a consequence of the 2nd and 3rd of Newton's laws of motion.

When the nozzles, pointing in different directions, produce forces along different lines of action perpendicular to the axis of the bearings, the thrusts combine to result in a rotational moment, or torque, causing the vessel to spin about its axis. Aerodynamic drag and frictional forces in the bearings build up with increasing rotational speed and consume the accelerating torque cancelling it and achieving a steady state speed, and as Hero described the device, the water is heated in a simple boiler which forms part of a stand for the rotating vessel. Where this is the case, the boiler is connected to the rotating chamber by a pair of pipes that serve as the pivots for the chamber. Alternatively the rotating chamber may itself serve as the boiler, this arrangement simplifies the pivot/bearing arrangements, as they do not need to pass steam; this can be seen in the illustration of a classroom model shown here. Both Hero and Vitruvius draw on the much earlier work by Ctesibius, Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius was an inventor and mathematician in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt.

He wrote the first treatises on the science of its uses in pumps. Vitruvius mentions aeolipiles by name: Aeolipilae are hollow brazen vessels, which have an opening or mouth of small size, by means of which they can be filled with water. Prior to the water being heated over the fire, but little wind is emitted; as soon, however, as the water begins to boil, a violent wind issues forth. Hero takes a more practical approach, in that he gives instructions how to make one: No. 50. The Steam-Engine. PLACE a cauldron over a fire: a ball shall revolve on a pivot. A fire is ignited under a cauldron, A B, containing water, covered at the mouth by the lid C D. Opposite to the extremity G place a pivot, L M, resting on the lid C D; as the cauldron gets hot it will be found that the steam, entering the ball through E F G, passes out through the bent tubes towards the lid, causes the ball to revolve, as in the case of the dancing figures. It is not known whether the aeolipile was put to any practical use in ancient times, if it was seen as a pragmatic device, a whimsical novelty, an object of reverence, or some other thing.

A source described it as a mere curiosity for the ancient Greeks, or a "party trick". Hero's drawing shows a standalone device, was intended as a "temple wonder", like many of the other devices described in Pneumatica. Vitruvius, on the other hand, mentions use of the aeolipile for demonstrating the physical properties of the weather, he describes the aeolipile as a scientific invention discover a divine truth lurking in the laws of the heavens. After describing the device's construction he concludes: Thus from this slight and short experiment we may understand and judge the mighty and wonderful laws of the heavens and the nature of winds. In 1543, Blasco de Garay, a scientist and a captain in the Spanish navy demonstrated before the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V and a committee of high officials an invention he claimed could propel large ships in the absence of wind using an apparatus consisted of copper boiler and moving wheels on either side of the ship; this account was preserved by the royal Spanish archives at Simancas.

It is proposed that de Garay used Hero's aeolipile and combined it with the technology used in Roman boats and late medieval galleys. Here, de Garay's invention introduced an innovation where the aeolipile had practical usage, to generate motion to the paddlewheels, demonstrating the feasibility of steam-driven boats; this claim was denied by Spanish authorities

Ray Eddy

John Ray Eddy was an American college basketball coach and former player. He was the head men's basketball coach at Purdue University from 1950 to 1965, he grew up in Columbus, where he starred on the Columbus High School basketball team. After high school, he attended Purdue University, where he played basketball under head coach Ward Lambert; as a 3-year starter, he won two undisputed Big Ten crowns, averaging 6.1 points per game over his career. In 1932 was the second leading scorer on the Helms National Collegiate championship team. In 1934, he was an All-Big Ten forward for the conference championship team; when he accepted the Purdue University head coaching position, Eddy became the last coach to jump directly from the high school ranks to the Big Ten. Following his graduation, Eddy was hired as the head coach in Indiana. Eddy spent 5 seasons in the Ohio River town. In 1939, Eddy moved to Madison and became the head coach for the Madison Cubs. In his 11-year tenure, Eddy's teams won 10 Sectionals, 6 Regionals, 3 Semi-States & 1 State Championship, his 1941 and 1949 teams finished as the State Runner-Up.

In sixteen seasons at the high school level, Eddy's teams won 13 Sectionals, 6 Regionals, 3 Semi-States & 1 State Championship. In addition, he coached 7 Indiana All-Stars. Eddy led three of his Madison Cubs teams to the IHSAA State Finals; the third time proved the charm as the Cubs won the coveted Single-Class title in 1949-50. Eddy placed a great deal of emphasis on the academic success of his players. During his 15 years at Purdue, he was able to attract a number of talented players, including All-Americans Terry Dischinger and Dave Schellhase. While finishing as Big Ten runner-up on three different occasions, Purdue failed to win the title during Eddy's tenure, never advanced to postseason play. Eddy's 176 wins rank third all-time at Purdue. In addition, Eddy ranks 3rd all-time in Big Ten wins among Purdue coaches with 92, his 92 Big Ten wins rank 23rd in 100+ years of Big Ten history. In addition to All-Americans Dischinger and Schellhase. Several of Eddy's players went into coaching at the collegiate as well as high school level.

Mervin Hyman. "Basketball's Week". Sports Illustrated. John Underwood. "Twelve Flew Out Of The Pressure Cooker". Sports Illustrated

Joint Task Force North

Joint Task Force North Joint Task Force Six, is a multi-service operation by the United States Department of Defense for counterdrug and anti-terrorist operations. JTF-North is headquartered at Fort Bliss, Texas. United States Northern Command is the controlling Unified Combatant Command. On July 2, 2019, acting Commander, COL Paul Garcia, relinquished command to Brigadier General Reginald G. A. Neal, the current Commanding General; the JTF was activated as Joint Task Force Six in November 1989 with a purely counter-drug mission. In 2004 it was renamed JTF North and added counter-terrorism to its mission, due in part to the efforts of Major M. W. Robinson, who, in his spare time, wrote the threat assessments for the Gulf Coast ports and access points available to terror elements worldwide. However, he was unable to get senior military officials to adopt changes to the JTF-6 mission, he reasoned the prime threat to port security is the continued storage of foreign containers at port facilities that U.

S. Customs and Border Protection is unable to search and clear for numerous reasons, including manpower and Free Trade Zone restrictions, he reported to the U. S. Department of Defense that containers stored without controls were a continual threat from terrorist organizations who could store weapons of mass destruction for future use. Well-known former members of Joint Task Force 6 include: General Kevin P. Byrnes, U. S. Army, Ret. JTF-6 Commanding General. S. Army, Ret. and Captain Kirk Harrington, owner of EFMC, LLC. On 21 May 1995, during JTF-6 Mission "Smugglers Blues" Chief Warrant Officer 2 Kevin L. Jenkins and Chief Warrant Officer 2 John D. Peterson, both from Alpha Troop, 1st Squadron, 6th Cavalry Regiment station in Fort Hood, died when their OH-58C helicopter crashed during a night surveillance mission. On 2 June 1996, during JTF-6 Mission JT177-96, Lance Corporal Eric D. Davis of Company B, 1st Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment died as the result of a fall. On 20 May 1997, during an operation in Redford, near the United States–Mexico border, Corporal Clemente M. Banuelos, the leader of his squad, fatally shot 18-year-old American citizen Esequiel Hernández, Jr. on the American side of the border, as he was pointing a rifle at the Marines near his home.

No charges were brought at the time or subsequently. The shooting inspired the 2005 film The Three Burials of Melquíades Estrada by Tommy Lee Jones; the 2007 documentary The Ballad of Esequiel Hernández explores the killing, analyzing both sides of the issue by interviewing the Hernández family and friends, the Marines, local officials. Official website Official factsheet Global Security: Joint Task Force Six Congressman Reyes: "JTF-6 Adds Their Expertise to War on Terror"

Charles E. Barber

Charles Edward Barber was the sixth chief engraver of the United States Mint from 1879 until his death in 1917. He had a long and fruitful career in coinage, designing most of the coins produced at the mint during his time as chief engraver, he did full coin designs, he designed about 30 medals in his lifetime. The Barber coinage were named after him. In addition, Barber designed a number of commemorative coins, some in partnership with assistant engraver George T. Morgan. For the popular Columbian half dollar, the Panama-Pacific half dollar and quarter eagle, Barber designed the obverse and Morgan the reverse. Barber designed the 1883 coins for the Kingdom of Hawaii, Cuban coinage of 1915. Barber's design on the Cuba 5 centavo coin remained in use until 1961. While much has been written about Barber being disagreeable and hostile to Morgan, this has been conclusively disproved, with concrete evidence that the two had a warm personal relationship; this of course, makes perfect sense, as the two worked together for over 40 years.

Again, contrary to what many people believe, Barber had a warm personal relationship with President Theodore Roosevelt. While it is true that Roosevelt wanted U. S. coinage in the new century to have a more modern look, solicited designs from artists outside the U. S. Mint, this does not mean; the descendants of Charles Barber possess artifacts. At the request of President Roosevelt and Mint director George E. Roberts, Barber made a trip to Europe to visit a number of foreign mints on an information-sharing mission, his goal was to observe and discuss the practices at the foreign mints to look for ways to improve operations and efficiency at the U. S. Mint, he combined this trip with a family vacation with his second wife Caroline and his 19-year-old daughter Edith. Barber carried with him memos from various departments within the mint with questions to ask their counterparts overseas; these memos, some of which today have Barber's hand-written notes, correspond to the various reports he submitted to Mint director Roberts after his return.

Edith's diary from the trip provide details on their itinerary and personal reflections on her father. Barber was known to be a meticulous professional. While different people have varying opinions about the artistic merits of his designs, it is indisputable that his coin designs hold up to years of heavy use and wear; this is one reason that so many Barber coins exist in such low grades—they were real workhorses in the U. S. economy and were found in circulation until the 1950s. In the end, Charles Barber was well liked and respected within the Treasury Department and the U. S. Mint; as evidence of this fact, the flags at the Philadelphia Mint were lowered to half staff on the day of his funeral. Roger Burdette provided a scan from the National Archives of the letter from Mint director F. H. von Engelken requesting permission to half-mast the flags. Charles E. Barber is the last mint official of any rank to have had this high honor bestowed upon him. Barber was born in London on the son of engraver William Barber.

In 1869, he was appointed the assistant engraver at the United States Mint in Philadelphia. On January 20, 1880, he was appointed by President Rutherford B. Hayes to succeed his father in the position as chief engraver, he was criticized for unimaginative designs, but R. W. Julian suggests that he "was capable of superb work when given a free hand." Barber's best known designs are the Liberty Head coins — Barber dime, Barber quarter, Barber half dollar, as well as the so-called "V" Liberty Head nickel. Some lesser known pattern coin designs include the trial copper-nickel cent, trial three-cent piece, the $4 Stella "Flowing Hair" pieces, he was critical of Augustus St. Gaudens' proposed high relief pattern for a new double eagle in 1907 and tried hard to stop them from being produced, citing the impracticality of the design. In reality, for a circulating coin, Saint-Gaudens' high-relief double eagle was impractical as each coin required three to five blows of the dies to produce. Barber had to lower the relief of the design to make a production-worthy coin.

From 1907 to 1933, over 70 million "Saints" would be struck, impossible with Saint-Gaudens' original design. Charles Barber was married to Martha, who died in 1899. In 1902, he married Caroline Gaston, his wife until his death in 1917. Charles and Martha had a daughter in Anna May, named for Charles' mother; the baby died in 1876. Ten years Charles and Martha had a daughter named Edith. Charles E. Barber died on February 18, 1917, was buried 3 days with Martha and infant daughter Anna May in Mount Peace Cemetery in Philadelphia. Barber was succeeded as chief engraver by George T. Morgan. Barber half dollar Barber quarter Barber dime Liberty Head nickel The obverse of the Columbian Exposition half dollar Isabella Quarter Silver Lafayette Dollar Louisiana Purchase Exposition gold dollar Lewis and Clark Exposition gold dollar The obverse of the Panama-Pacific Exposition half dollar The obverse of the Panama-Pacific Exposition quarter eagle The obverse of the William McKinley Memorial gold dollar Pikes Peak "Southwest Expedition" medal Kingdom of Hawaii 1883 dime, quarter and dollar Szechuan Province of China, 1897 Cuba 1915-1961 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 & 40 Centavos Flowing Hair Stella 1879-1880 "Washlady" silver pattern quarter Famous 1891 Liberty Head patterns 1896 experimental pieces - cent and five cents Evans, George Greenlief (1

Ashok Lokhande

Ashok Lokhande is an Indian film and theatre actor. He is best known for playing the role of Arun Rathi in Star Plus Show Diya Aur Baati Hum and its sequel Tu Sooraj, Main Saanjh Piyaji, he is an alumnus of the National School of Drama in India. He is alumnus of LOK-HIT Higher Secondary School, Pusad. Lokhande has appeared in small parts in television series including Chanakya, Just Mohabbat and Saans, he has acted in films including Khamoshi: The Musical and Sarfarosh. Chanakya Babasaheb Ambedkar Mrignayanee Khamoshi: The Musical Just Mohabbat Saans Sarfarosh Your Honour Son Pari Jo Kahunga Sach Kahunga as Fateh Singh Diya Aur Baati Hum Mohabatain Brothers Raman Raghav 2.0 TV, Biwi aur Main Tu Sooraj Main Saanjh, Piyaji Main Maike Chali Jaungi, Tum Dekhte Rahiyo Ashok Lokhande on IMDb

Arawwala

Arawwala or is a town situated in the Kesbewa electorate, Colombo District, in the Western Province, Sri Lanka. It is located about 20 km distance via High Level & Maharagama - Piliyandala road from the commercial capital Colombo. Arawwala is governed by the Kesbewa Urban Council; the village is divided into three Grama Niladhari divisions, under Kesbewa Divisional Secretariat. Although village has an agricultural background, lifestyle has changed due to urbanization and possessed of facilities like supermarkets, food shops, private educational institutes to fulfill the needs of villagers. Surrounding towns are Maharagama, Kottawa, Bokundara. Arawwala has its own hereditary of low country “Thovil” or "Yathukarma"; as a result, the village organizes an annual village ritual ceremony, called “Gammaduwa” by expecting the fertility, prevention of disease & prosperity. Arawwala Nandimithra well known character as a short story writer and a novelist, Mr. Nandimithra has established himself as one of the best writers in the country.

Arawwala North Arawwala East Arawwala West A three way junction situated on the Maharagama - Piliyandala road. This junction is connected to Moraketiya junction by the Arawwala Road. Route No.212/341 buses operate through Arawwala. The most accessible cities from Arawwala are Maharagama and Piliyandala. Maharagama-Piliyandala buses operate through Arawwala. Arawwala Purana Temple Siri Wijaya Nandanaramaya Siri Wijayasiriwardanaramaya Vidyaloka Maha Vidyalaya Arawwala Dharmapala Maha Vidyalaya Linfield International College Arpico Daily Supermarket Colorzone Limited