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Aeroelasticity is the branch of physics and engineering that studies the interactions between the inertial and aerodynamic forces that occur when an elastic body is exposed to a fluid flow. The study of aeroelasticity may be broadly classified into two fields: static aeroelasticity, which deals with the static or steady state response of an elastic body to a fluid flow. Aircraft are prone to aeroelastic effects because of their requirement to be lightweight and are subjected to large aerodynamic loads. Aircraft are designed to avoid the following aeroelastic problems: divergence where the aerodynamic forces increase the angle of attack of a wing which further increases the force. Aeroelasticity problems can be prevented by adjusting the mass, stiffness or aerodynamics of structures which can be determined and verified through the use of calculations, ground vibration tests and flight flutter trials. Flutter of control surfaces is eliminated by the careful placement of mass balances; the synthesis of aeroelasticity with thermodynamics is known as aerothermoelasticity, its synthesis with control theory is known as aeroservoelasticity.

The second failure of Samuel Langley's prototype plane on the Potomac has been attributed to aeroelastic effects. An early scientific work on the subject was George Bryan's Theory of the Stability of a Rigid Aeroplane published in 1906. Problems with torsional divergence plagued aircraft in the First World War and were solved by trial-and-error and ad-hoc stiffening of the wing; the first recorded and documented case of flutter in an aircraft was that which occurred to a Handley Page O/400 bomber during a flight in 1916, when it suffered a violent tail oscillation, which caused extreme distortion of the rear fuselage and the elevators to move asymmetrically. Although the aircraft landed safely, in the subsequent investigation F. W. Lanchester was consulted. One of his recommendations was that left and right elevators should be rigidly connected by a stiff shaft, to subsequently become a design requirement. In addition, the National Physical Laboratory was asked to investigate the phenomenon theoretically, subsequently carried out by Leonard Bairstow and Arthur Fage.

In 1926, Hans Reissner published a theory of wing divergence, leading to much further theoretical research on the subject. The term aeroelasticity itself was coined by Harold Roxbee Cox and Alfred Pugsley at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough in the early 1930s. In the development of aeronautical engineering at Caltech, Theodore von Kármán started a course "Elasticity applied to Aeronautics". After teaching the course for one term, Kármán passed it over to Ernest Edwin Sechler, who developed aeroelasticity in that course and in publication of textbooks on the subject. In 1947, Arthur Roderick Collar defined aeroelasticity as "the study of the mutual interaction that takes place within the triangle of the inertial and aerodynamic forces acting on structural members exposed to an airstream, the influence of this study on design". In an aeroplane, two significant static aeroelastic effects may occur. Divergence is a phenomenon in which the elastic twist of the wing becomes theoretically infinite causing the wing to fail.

Control reversal is a phenomenon occurring only in wings with ailerons or other control surfaces, in which these control surfaces reverse their usual functionality. Divergence occurs when a lifting surface deflects under aerodynamic load in a direction which further increases lift in a positive feedback loop; the increased lift deflects the structure further, which brings the structure to the point of divergence. Divergence can be understood as a simple property of the differential equation governing the wing deflection. For example, modelling the airplane wing as an isotropic Euler–Bernoulli beam, the uncoupled torsional equation of motion is G J d 2 θ d y 2 = − M ′, where y is the spanwise dimension, θ is the elastic twist of the beam, GJ is the torsional stiffness of the beam, L is the beam length, M’ is the aerodynamic moment per unit length. Under a simple lift forcing theory the aerodynamic moment is of the form M ′ = C U 2, where C is a coefficient, U is the free-stream fluid velocity, α0 is the initial angle of attack.

This yields an ordinary differential equation of the form d 2 θ d y 2 + λ 2 θ = − λ 2 α 0, where λ 2 = C U 2 G J. The boundary conditions for a clamped-free beam are θ | y

Israel F. Fischer

Israel Frederick Fischer was a United States Representative from New York, a Judge and Presiding Judge of the United States Customs Court and a member and President of the Board of General Appraisers. Born on August 17, 1858, in New York City, New York, Fischer attended the public schools and Cooper Institute in New York City and moved to Brooklyn, New York in September 1887, he was employed as a clerk in a law office, where he read law and was admitted to the bar in 1879. He entered private practice in New York City from 1880 to 1895, he was a member of the executive committee of the Republican state committee from 1888 to 1890. Fischer was elected as a Republican from New York's 4th congressional district to the United States House of Representatives of the 54th and 55th United States Congresses, serving from March 4, 1895, to March 3, 1899, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1898 to the 56th United States Congress. Fischer received a recess appointment from President William McKinley on May 2, 1899, to a seat on the Board of General Appraisers vacated by member Ferdinand N. Shurtleff.

He was nominated to the same position by President McKinley on December 15, 1899. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 17, 1900, received his commission on January 22, 1900, he served as President from 1902 to 1905. Fischer was reassigned by operation of law to the United States Customs Court on May 28, 1926, to a new Associate Justice seat authorized by 44 Stat. 669. He served as Chief Justice from 1927 to 1932, his service terminated on March 1932, due to his retirement. He was succeeded by Judge Frederick W. Dallinger. Fischer was a delegate to the International Customs Congress held in New York City in 1903, he died on March 1940, in New York City. He was interred in Maimonides Cemetery in Brooklyn. List of Jewish members of the United States Congress This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website "Israel F. Fischer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Israel Fredrick Fischer at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center

Robert G. Ingersoll

Robert Green "Bob" Ingersoll was an American writer and orator during the Golden Age of Free Thought, who campaigned in defense of agnosticism. He was nicknamed "The Great Agnostic". Robert Ingersoll was born in Yates County, New York, his father, John Ingersoll, was an abolitionist-sympathizing Congregationalist preacher, whose radical opinions caused him and his family to relocate frequently. For a time, Rev. John Ingersoll substituted as preacher for American revivalist Charles G. Finney while Finney was on a tour of Europe. Upon Finney's return, Rev. Ingersoll remained for a few months as co-pastor/associate pastor with Finney; the elder Ingersoll's pastoral experiences influenced young Robert negatively, however, as The Elmira Telegram described in 1890: Though for many years the most noted of American infidels, Colonel Ingersoll was born and reared in a devoutly Christian household. His father, John Ingersoll, was a Congregationalist minister and a man of mark in his time, a deep thinker, a logical and eloquent speaker, broad minded and generously tolerant of the views of others.

The popular impression which credits Ingersoll's infidelity in the main to his father's severe orthodoxy and the austere and gloomy surroundings in which his boyhood was spent is wholly wrong. On the contrary, the elder Ingersoll's liberal views were a source of constant trouble between him and his parishioners, they caused him to change his charges, several times made him the defendant in church trials. His ministerial career was, in fact brought to a close by a church trial which occurred while he was pastor of the Congregational Church at Madison, at which his third wife appeared as the prosecutor. Upon this occasion, he was charged with unministerial conduct; the evidence adduced – the trial is one of the abiding traditions of the dull little town of Madison – was of the most trivial and ridiculous character, but the committee which heard it decided that, though he had done "nothing inconsistent with his Christian character," he was "inconsistent with his ministerial character," and forbade him to preach in the future.

Elder John went before the higher church authorities and was permitted to continue his clerical labors. However, he soon removed to Wisconsin, where he died; the Madison trial occurred when young Robert was nine years old, it was the unjust and bigoted treatment his father received which made him the enemy, first of Calvinism, of Christianity in its other forms. During 1853, "Bob" Ingersoll taught a term of school in Metropolis, where he let one of his students, the future Judge Angus M. L. McBane, do the "greater part of the teaching, while Latin and history occupied his own attention". At some time prior to his Metropolis position, Ingersoll had taught school in Mount Vernon, Illinois; that year, the family settled in Marion, where Robert and his brother Ebon Clarke Ingersoll were admitted as lawyers during 1854. A county historian writing 22 years noted that local residents considered the Ingersolls as a "very intellectual family. During 1855, after Cunningham was named registrar for the federal land office in southeastern Illinois at Shawneetown, Ingersoll followed him to the riverfront city along the Ohio River.

After a brief time there, he accepted the deputy clerk position with John E. Hall, the county clerk and circuit clerk of Gallatin County, a son-in-law of John Hart Crenshaw. On November 11, 1856, Ingersoll caught Hall in his arms when the son of a political opponent assassinated his employer in their office; when he relocated to Shawneetown, he continued to practice law with Judge William G. Bowman who had a large library of both law and the classics. In addition to his job as a clerk, he and his brother began their law practice using the name "E. C. and R. G. Ingersoll". During this time they had an office in Raleigh, Illinois the county seat of neighboring Saline County; as attorneys following the court circuit he practiced alongside Cunningham's soon-to-be son-in-law, John A. Logan, the state's attorney and political ally to Hall. With his earlier mentor Cunningham having relocated back to Marion after the land office's closing during 1856, Logan's relocation to Benton, after his marriage that autumn and his brother relocated to Peoria, where they settled during 1857.

Ingersoll was married, February 1862, to Eva Amelia Parker. They had two daughters; the elder daughter, Eva Ingersoll-Brown, was suffragist. With the beginning of the American Civil War, he raised the 11th Regiment Illinois Volunteer Cavalry of the Union Army and assumed command; the regiment fought in the Battle of Shiloh. Ingersoll was captured in a skirmish with the Confederates near Lexington, Tennessee on December 18, 1862 paroled - i.e. released on his oath that he would not fight again against the Confederate States of America until formally exchanged for a captured Confederate soldier or officer of like rank. This was an old practice, still observed early in the war, until the Dix–Hill Cartel broke down under political distress. Unable to perform his duties under his officer's commission while paroled, he tendered his resignation as commanding officer

Dave Trembley

David Michael Trembley is an American professional baseball executive who served as director of player development of the Atlanta Braves in 2015. Trembley has been the bench coach for the Houston Astros, a manager of the Baltimore Orioles. Before managing the Orioles Trembley was a minor league manager for twenty seasons compiling a 1369–1413 record, he earned Manager of the Year awards in three leagues. In December 2001, Baseball America selected him as one of minor league baseball's top five managers of the previous 20 years, he served as a coach in the inaugural Futures Game in 1999 and served as manager for the Southern League and Double-A All-Star Games that season. Trembley has worked for the Baltimore Orioles, Chicago Cubs, Pittsburgh Pirates, San Diego Padres and Atlanta Braves. Trembley taught and coached baseball for three years at Daniel Murphy High School in Los Angeles and was the head baseball coach for five years at Antelope Valley College in Los Angeles County, where he was a physical education instructor.

He began his career in professional baseball as a Los Angeles-area scout for the Chicago Cubs in 1984. The next season, he became an instructor in the Cubs minor league system until June, when he was named to coach at their Wytheville club in the Appalachian League. Trembley left the Cubs organization to embark on his managing career with the unaffiliated Kinston Eagles franchise of the Class A Carolina League in 1986, it began a stretch. He joined the Pirates organization in 1987, skippered their AA Harrisburg Senators of the Eastern League for three seasons, capturing an EL title and being named the loop's Manager of the Year, he was named the Minor League Manager of the Year by Baseball America in 1987. At the end of the 1989 season, he managed the Eastern League All-Star Team that toured the Soviet Union Diamond Diplomacy Tour. In 1990 he served as Director of the day-to-day operation of Pittsburgh's minor league complex and spring training facility at Bradenton, Florida. Trembley was hired by the San Diego Padres in 1991, managed their Class A South Atlantic League affiliate Charleston Rainbows in 1991 and 1992.

He spent the 1993 season guiding the AA Wichita Wranglers before rejoining the Cubs organization, where he managed nine years at three different levels. Trembley earned his second league title and Manager of the Year honor in 1995 when he led Class A Daytona to the Florida State League title, was named Manager of the Year in the Southern League in 1999 after guiding the Class AA West Tenn Diamond Jaxx to first-place finishes in each half of the split-season. Trembley joined the Baltimore Orioles organization when he was named manager of the Bowie Baysox on January 27, 2003, his hiring was part of the Orioles' plan to improve its underachieving farm system with an emphasis on fundamentals and discipline. Taking over a ballclub that had ended its previous three seasons in or below fifth place in the Eastern League's Southern Division, he led the Baysox to fourth at 69–72 in 2003; the ​13 1⁄2-game improvement earned him the organization's Cal Ripken, Sr. Player Development Award; the only Orioles affiliate to post a winning record in 2004, the Baysox finished above.500 for the first time since 1997 at 73–69.

Trembley achieved his 1,200th victory as a minor-league manager during that campaign in a win over the Binghamton Mets on July 9. He managed the Eastern League All Star Team that season, he moved up to the Ottawa Lynx in a similar capacity, replacing Tim Leiper on December 2, 2004. Trembley managed the Orioles' AAA team at Ottawa Lynx in 2005 and 2006 combining to go 143–144, he was promoted to Baltimore when he was named its bullpen coach on February 14, 2007. He succeeded Rick Dempsey who joined the Mid-Atlantic Sports Network as the primary studio analyst for Orioles game telecasts. In addition to his tenure in organized Minor League Baseball, Trembley managed one winter at Navajoa in the Mexican Pacific League, coached third base for two years for Magallanes in the Venezuelan Winter League, he managed 16 seasons in the Arizona Instructional League. Trembley was named interim manager of the Orioles following Sam Perlozzo's dismissal on June 18, 2007, he inherited a 29–40 ballclub, mired in last place in the American League East and in the midst of an eight-game losing streak.

As a result of a 29–25 stretch, he had the interim tag removed from his title as his contract was extended through the 2008 season on August 22. That same night, the Orioles began a nine-game losing streak by surrendering the most runs in an AL contest in a 30–3 defeat to the Texas Rangers in the first game of a twi-night doubleheader at Camden Yards; the team avoided last place in the AL East despite losing 28 of its last 39 contests. The Orioles exercised their option on Trembley's contract through the 2009 season on September 5, 2008 though they were in last place at 63–76, they finished at the bottom of the division this time by dropping 17 of its final 22 games, including ten in a row. His contract was extended again a year on October 2, 2009 despite another last-place finish, a worse record and a 24–50 performance after the All-Star break; the moves were made because the team was in a rebuilding phase, it was hoped that his emphasis on fundamentals would help the development of its young players.

With the Orioles still stuck in last place in the AL East with a major-league-worst 15–39 record and an eight-game losing streak, Trembley was fired on June 4, 2010 and replaced by third-base coach Juan Samuel. The ballclub's 2–16 start was the second worst in

USS City of Dalhart (IX-156)

USS City of Dalhart, an unclassified miscellaneous vessel, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the city of Dalhart, Texas. The ship was built for the United States Shipping Board and delivered to the USSB 28 November 1920 by Oscar Daniels Company, in Tampa, Florida; the company built a ship designated Design 1027, standard cargo, Oscar Daniels type of which ten were built. The ship was launched and delivered on the same day and not completed for some time. After delivery City of Dalhart a steam vessel held in the James River, was selected by the USSB to be converted from the delivered reciprocating steam engine to diesel power. Eight of the 7,400 DWT vessels delivered by the Oscar Daniels Company were among fourteen designated for conversion. Difficulty with foreign patents required new contracting for the engines and auxiliary equipment for full conversion to a motor ship. According to Maritime Administration information the 5,878 GRT ship was completed 28 February 1921 and given official number 221006.

Shipping reports show the MV City of Dalhart in the Pacific and Indian Ocean trade by 1928. On 21 February 1940 the Maritime Commission, owner of the ship, awarded United States Lines the routes and ships of the Commission owned American Pioneer Line. City of Dalhart was among the ships awarded with a charter bid of $4,776.20 per month. After tests on land the Brodie landing system was first tested in September 1943 for shipboard use with an installation on City of Dalhart. Staff Sergeant R. A. Gregory made ten good hookups with a Stinson L-5 light plane. City of Dalhart was acquired by the Navy 29 February 1944 under bareboat charter from the War Shipping Administration. On 2 June 1944 the ship was commissioned as USS City of Dalhart at San Francisco, California designated IX-156 with Lieutenant Commander C. M. Lokey, USNR, in command to report to the Pacific Fleet. City of Dalhart stood out from San Francisco 9 June 1944, carrying sailors and cargo to Pearl Harbor. Assigned as a mobile barracks for the 301st Naval Construction Battalion, she departed Pearl Harbor 16 July with the men and machinery of this unit aboard, called at Eniwetok from 3 August to 5 August, put into Guam on 11 August, one day after the island was declared secure.

She remained at Guam until 22 November. City of Dalhart was decommissioned on 28 January 1946, returned to her owner. City of Dalhart received one battle star for World War II service; the ship was sold to Florida Pipe and Supply Company for $10,250 for delivery to be scrapped 22 January 1947. EFC Design 1027: Illustrations Sponsor group at the launching of the "City of Dalhart": Tampa, Fla. Photo gallery at Barracks ship

Seated Liberty dollar

The Seated Liberty dollar was a dollar coin struck by the United States Mint from 1840 to 1873 and designed by its chief engraver, Christian Gobrecht. It was the last silver coin of that denomination to be struck before passage of the Coinage Act of 1873, which temporarily ended production of the silver dollar for American commerce; the coin's obverse is based on that of the Gobrecht dollar, minted experimentally from 1836 to 1839. However, the soaring eagle used on the reverse of the Gobrecht dollar was not used. Seated Liberty dollars were struck only at the Philadelphia Mint. In the late 1840s, the price of silver increased relative to gold because of an increase in supply of the latter caused by the California Gold Rush; the Coinage Act of 1853 decreased the weight of all silver coins of five cents or higher, except for the dollar, but required a supplemental payment from those wishing their bullion struck into dollar coins. As little silver was being presented to the US Mint at the time, production remained low.

In the final years of the series, there was more silver produced in the US, mintages increased. In 1866, "In God We Trust" was added to the dollar following its introduction to United States coinage earlier in the decade. Seated Liberty dollar production was halted by the Coinage Act of 1873, which authorized the trade dollar for use in foreign commerce. Representatives of silver interests were unhappy when the metal's price dropped again in the mid-1870s; the Mint Act of 1792 made silver legal tender. The United States Mint struck gold and silver only when depositors supplied metal, returned in the form of coin; the fluctuation of market prices for commodities meant that either precious metal would be overvalued in terms of the other, leading to hoarding and melting. In 1806, President Thomas Jefferson ordered all silver dollar mintage halted, though production had not occurred since 1804; this was done in part to prevent the coins from being exported to foreign nations for melting, causing a strain on the fledgling Mint for little gain.

Over the next quarter century, the silver coin struck for bullion depositors was the half dollar. In 1831, Mint Director Samuel Moore requested that President Andrew Jackson lift the restriction against dollar coin production. Despite the approval to strike the coins, no silver dollars were minted until 1836; the Bureau of the Mint in the 1830s was undergoing a period of significant change, as new technologies were adopted. In 1828, the Mint, whose authorization had been subject to periodic renewal by Congress since its inception in 1792, was given permanent status. A new building to house the Philadelphia Mint was authorized by Congress, opened in 1832. Congress adjusted the precious-metal content of US coins in 1834 and 1837, was able to achieve a balance whereby US coins remained in circulation alongside those of foreign nations. In 1836, the first steam machinery was introduced at the Mint. Congress had in 1835 authorized branch mints at Dahlonega in Georgia, Charlotte in North Carolina, at New Orleans in Louisiana.

The Charlotte and Dahlonega mints only struck gold, catering to miners in the South who sought to deposit that metal, but the New Orleans facility would strike silver coins, including the Seated Liberty dollar. In mid-1835, newly appointed Mint Director Robert M. Patterson engaged artists Titian Peale and Thomas Sully to create new designs for American coinage. In an August 1, 1835, Patterson proposed that Sully create an obverse design consisting of Liberty seated on a boulder, holding a "liberty pole" in her right hand topped by a pileus, the headgear given by the Romans to an emancipated slave, he asked Sully to create a reverse design consisting of an "eagle flying, rising in flight, amidst the constellation irregularly dispersed of twenty-four stars". Patterson requested. Mint Chief Engraver William Kneass prepared a sketch based on Patterson's conception, but suffered a stroke, leaving him paralyzed. In 1835, Christian Gobrecht was hired at the Mint as a draftsman, die sinker, assistant engraver to Kneass.

Although nominally a subordinate, Gobrecht would perform much of the engraving work for the Mint until Kneass' death in 1840, when Gobrecht was appointed chief engraver. Sully prepared sketches of the artwork, which Gobrecht used as a guide in engraving copper plates; the plates were approved by various government officials, the production of trial strikes began. The design was not free from controversy. Quoting former president Thomas Jefferson, Moore had written to Secretary of the Treasury Levi Woodbury, "We are not emancipated slaves."Following a series of trial strikes and modifications through 1836, the first of what would come to be known as the Gobrecht dollars were minted in December of that year. The dollars of 1836