Blond or fair hair is a hair color characterized by low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin. The resultant visible hue always has some yellowish color; the color can be from the pale blond to reddish "strawberry" blond or golden-brownish blond colors. Because hair color tends to darken with age, natural blond hair is very rare in adulthood. Naturally-occurring blond hair is found in populations of northern European descent and is believed to have evolved to enable more efficient synthesis of vitamin D, due to northern Europe's lower levels of sunlight. Blond hair has developed in other populations, although it is not as common, can be found among natives of the Solomon Islands and Fiji, among the Berbers of North Africa, among some Asians. In Western culture, blond hair has long been associated with female beauty. Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and beauty, was reputed to have blond hair. In ancient Greece and Rome, blond hair was associated with prostitutes, who dyed their hair using saffron dyes in order to attract customers.
The Greeks stereotyped Thracians and slaves as blond and the Romans associated blondness with the Celts and the Germans to the north. In western Europe during the Middle Ages, blond hair was idealized as the paragon of female beauty; the Norse goddess Sif and the medieval heroine Iseult were both portrayed as blond and, in medieval artwork, Mary Magdalene, the Virgin Mary are shown with blond hair. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, scientific racists categorized blond hair and blue eyes as characteristics of the supreme Nordic race. In contemporary western culture, blonde women are negatively stereotyped as sexually attractive, but unintelligent; the word "blond" is first documented in English in 1481 and derives from Old French blund, meaning "a colour midway between golden and light chestnut". It eclipsed the native term "fair", of same meaning, from Old English fæġer, causing "fair" to become a general term for "light complexioned"; this earlier use of "fair" survives in the proper name Fairfax, from Old English fæġer-feahs meaning "blond hair".
The word "blond" has two possible origins. Some linguists say it comes from Medieval Latin blundus, meaning "yellow", from Old Frankish blund which would relate it to Old English blonden-feax meaning "grey-haired", from blondan/blandan meaning "to mix". Old English beblonden meant "dyed", as ancient Germanic warriors were noted for dyeing their hair. However, linguists who favor a Latin origin for the word say that Medieval Latin blundus was a vulgar pronunciation of Latin flavus meaning "yellow". Most authorities French, attest to the Frankish origin; the word was reintroduced into English in the 17th century from French, was for some time considered French. "Blond", with its continued gender-varied usage, is one of few adjectives in written English to retain separate lexical genders. The two forms, are pronounced identically. American Heritage's Book of English Usage propounds that, insofar as "a blonde" can be used to describe a woman but not a man, said to possess blond hair, the term is an example of a "sexist stereotype women are defined by their physical characteristics."
The Oxford English Dictionary records that the phrase "big blond beast" was used in the 20th century to refer to men "of the Nordic type". The OED records that blond as an adjective is used with reference to women, in which case it is to be spelt "blonde", citing three Victorian usages of the term; the masculine version is used in the plural, in "blonds of the European race", in a citation from 1833 Penny cyclopedia, which distinguishes genuine blondness as a Caucasian feature distinct from albinism. By the early 1990s, "blonde moment" or being a "dumb blonde" had come into common parlance to mean "an instance of a person, esp. A woman... being foolish or scatter-brained." Another hair color word of French origin, functions in the same way in orthodox English. The OED gives "brunet" as meaning "dark-complexioned" or a "dark-complexioned person", citing a comparative usage of brunet and blond to Thomas Henry Huxley in saying, "The present contrast of blonds and brunets existed among them." "Brunette" can be used, like "blonde", to describe a mixed-gender populace.
The OED quotes Grant Allen, "The nation which resulted... being sometimes blonde, sometimes brunette.""Blond" and "blonde" are occasionally used to refer to objects that have a color reminiscent of fair hair. For example, the OED records its use in 19th-century poetic diction to describe flowers, "a variety of clay ironstone of the coal measures", "the colour of raw silk", a breed of ray, lager beer, pale wood. Various subcategories of blond hair have been defined to describe the different shades and sources of the hair color more accurately. Common examples include the following: ash-blond: grayish blond. Bleached blond, bottle blond, or peroxide blond: terms used to refer to artificially colored blond hair. Blond/flaxen: when distinguished from other varieties, "blond" by itself refers to a light but not whitish blond, with no traces of red, gold, or brown. Dirty blond or dishwater blond: dark blond with flecks of golden blond and brown. Golden blond: a darker to rich, golden-yellow blond (found in Northeastern Europe, i.e. Russia
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
New Caledonia is a special collectivity of France in the southwest Pacific Ocean, located to the south of Vanuatu, about 1,210 km east of Australia and 20,000 km from Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Chesterfield Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of Pines, a few remote islets; the Chesterfield Islands are in the Coral Sea. Locals refer to Grande Terre as Le Caillou. New Caledonia has a land area of 18,576 km2, its population of 268,767 consists of a mix of Kanak people, people of European descent, Polynesian people, Southeast Asian people, as well as a few people of Pied-Noir and North African descent. The capital of the territory is Nouméa; the earliest traces of human presence in New Caledonia date back to the Lapita period c. 1600 BC to c. 500 AD. The Lapita were skilled navigators and agriculturists with influence over a large area of the Pacific. British explorer Captain James Cook was the first European to sight New Caledonia, on 4 September 1774, during his second voyage.
He named it "New Caledonia". The west coast of Grande Terre was approached by the Comte de Lapérouse in 1788, shortly before his disappearance, the Loyalty Islands were first visited between 1793 and 1796 when Mare, Lifou and Ouvea were mapped by William Raven; the English whaler encountered the island named Britania, today known as Maré, in November 1793. From 1796 until 1840, only a few sporadic contacts with the archipelago were recorded. About fifty American whalers have been recorded in the region between 1793 and 1887. Contacts became more frequent because of the interest in sandalwood; as trade in sandalwood declined, it was replaced by a new business enterprise, "blackbirding", a euphemism for taking Melanesian or Western Pacific Islanders from New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, New Hebrides, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands into indentured or forced labour in the sugar cane plantations in Fiji and Queensland by various methods of trickery and deception. Blackbirding was practiced by both French and British-Australian traders, but in New Caledonia's case, the trade in the early decades of the twentieth century involved relocating children from the Loyalty Islands to the Grand Terre for labour in plantation agriculture.
New Caledonia's primary experience with blackbirding revolved around a trade from the New Hebrides to the Grand Terre for labour in plantation agriculture, mines, as well as guards over convicts and in some public works. The historian Dorothy Shineberg's milestone study, The People Trade, discusses this'migration'. In the early years of the trade, coercion was used to lure Melanesian islanders onto ships. In years indenture systems were developed; this represented a departure from the British experience, since increased regulations were developed to mitigate the abuses of blackbirding and'recruitment' strategies on the coastlines. The first missionaries from the London Missionary Society and the Marist Brothers arrived in the 1840s. In 1849, the crew of the American ship Cutter was eaten by the Pouma clan. Cannibalism was widespread throughout New Caledonia. On 24 September 1853, under orders from Emperor Napoleon III, Admiral Febvrier Despointes took formal possession of New Caledonia. Captain Louis-Marie-François Tardy de Montravel founded Port-de-France on 25 June 1854.
A few dozen free settlers settled on the west coast in the following years. New Caledonia became a penal colony in 1864, from the 1860s until the end of the transportations in 1897, France sent about 22,000 criminals and political prisoners to New Caledonia; the Bulletin de la Société générale des prisons for 1888 indicates that 10,428 convicts, including 2,329 freed ones, were on the island as of 1 May 1888, by far the largest number of convicts detained in French overseas penitentiaries. The convicts included many Communards, arrested after the failed Paris Commune of 1871, including Henri de Rochefort and Louise Michel. Between 1873 and 1876, 4,200 political prisoners were "relegated" to New Caledonia. Only 40 of them settled in the colony. In 1864 nickel was discovered on the banks of the Diahot River. To work the mines the French imported labourers from neighbouring islands and from the New Hebrides, from Japan, the Dutch East Indies, French Indochina; the French government attempted to encourage European immigration, without much success.
The indigenous population or Kanak people were excluded from the French economy and from mining work, confined to reservations. This sparked a violent reaction in 1878, when High Chief Atal of La Foa managed to unite many of the central tribes and launched a guerrilla war that killed 200 Frenchmen and 1,000 Kanaks. A second guerrilla war took place in 1917, with Catholic missionaries like Maurice Leenhardt functioning as witnesses to the events of this war. Leenhardt would pen a number of ethnographic works on the Kanak of New Caledonia. Noel of Tiamou led the 1917 rebellion, which resulted in a number of orphaned children, one of whom was taken into th
Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Islas Filipinas
Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Islas Filipinas, more known as the Murillo Velarde map, is a map of the Philippines made and published in Manila in 1734 by the Spanish Jesuit cartographer Pedro Murillo Velarde, two Filipinos. The World Digital Library describes it as the "first and most important scientific map of the Philippines", it is referred to as the "Mother of all Philippine Maps". The map's title includes the following additional description: dedicada al Rey Nuestro Señor por el Mariscal d. Campo D. Fernando Valdes Tamon Cavallo del Orden de Santiago de Govor. Y Capn General de dichas Yslas; the map was created upon the behest of governor-general Fernando Valdes y Tamon in response to an order from Philip V of Spain. The map shows maritime routes from Manila to New Spain; the Spanish royal coat of arms occupies a prominent space in the upper-middle portion of the map. On its flanks are twelve images, six to a side. Eight of these images depict various ethnic groups residing in the archipelago.
The remaining four are cartographic depictions of islands. The ethnic groups and individuals depicted include Chinese Filipinos or Chinese, Kaffirs, a Camarin, a Lascar from India, mestizos, a Mardica, a Japanese, Criollos, Filipino natives, Aetas, an Armenian, a Mughal, a native of the Malabar region and a Visayan. Maps of Samboagan, a city in Mindanao, the port of Cavite, the island of Guajan and Manila, illustrations of endemic plants and animals occupy the remaining sections; the Murillo Velarde map was reprinted. These include reproductions in Manila, Vienna by Kaliwoda, Nuremberg by Lowitz, in the first volume of Juan de la Concepcion's Historia General de Philipinas. There are less than 50 extant copies of the map; some are mounted on a cloth backing measuring 112x120 cm. The map itself measures 108x71 cm and is on a scale approximating 1:1,400,000; the Library of Congress Geography and Map Division in Washington, D. C. has Call No. G8060 1734. M8; the National Library of Spain in Madrid has Call No.
MR/45/31. There is one copy in a private collection in the Philippines. In 2014 the Duke of Northumberland, Ralph Percy had a copy of the map auctioned off by Sotheby's. Filipino businessman Mel Velarde won the auction; this copy had been printed by the British using the 8 original Murillo Velarde copperplates, looted from Manila by William Draper during the British occupation of Manila in 1762. Draper donated the plates to Cambridge University and the university printed copies of the map, one of which came into the possession of the Duke of Northumberland of the late 18th century; the British however melted down the copperplates and reused the metal in printing their Admiralty charts. Velarde donated the map to the National Museum of the Philippines in 2017. Murillo Velarde published a smaller version of the Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas, one that did not include the twelve illustrations on the map's flanks; this version measures 51x33 cm. and was published in 1744.
There are extant copies in the collections of the Lopez Museum, National Library of the Philippines and the Boston Public Library Norman B. Leventhal Map Center; the Murillo Velarde map has been instrumental in the Philippines' efforts to assert territorial rights in the South China Sea. The map, along with 270 other maps, was used by the Philippines' team of experts to refute China's historic claim of ownership of the entire South China Sea, as it features Scarborough Shoal labelled as "Panacot", as well as "Los Bajos de Paragua" now known as the Spratly Islands. In 2016 the Permanent Court of Arbitration ruled in favor of the Philippines stating that China had "no historical rights" based on their Nine-Dash Line map. China however, rejected the ruling, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte has decided not to act upon it; the Murillo Velarde Map
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
Tarlac is a landlocked province located in the Central Luzon region of the Philippines. It is bounded on the north by the province of Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija on the east, Zambales on the west and Pampanga in the south; the province comprises three congressional districts and is subdivided into 17 municipalities and one city, Tarlac City, the provincial capital. The province is situated in the heartland of Luzon, in what is known as the Central Plain spanning the neighbouring provinces of Pampanga, Nueva Ecija and Bulacan. Tarlac covers a total land area of 3,053.45 km2. Early in history, what came to be known as Valenzuela Ranch today was once a thickly-forested area, peopled by roving tribes of nomadic Aetas who are said to be the aboriginal settlers of the Philippines, for a lengthy period, it was the remaining hinterland of Luzon's Central Plains. Today, Tarlac is the most multi-cultural of the provinces in the region for having a mixture of four distinct ethnic groups: the Kapampangans, the Pangasinans, the Ilocanos and the Tagalogs.
It is known for its fine food and vast sugar and rice plantations in Central Luzon. Tarlac's name is a Hispanized derivation from a talahib weed called Malatarlak. Tarlac was divided into two parts: the southern division belonging to Pampanga and the northern division belonging to Pangasinan, it was the last province in Central Luzon to be organized under the Spanish colonial administration in 1874. During the Philippine Revolution of 1896, Tarlac was among the first eight provinces to rise against Spain, alongside neighbouring Pampanga, it became the new seat of the first Philippine Republic in March 1899 when General Emilio Aguinaldo abandoned the former capital, Bulacan. This lasted only for a month before the seat was moved to Nueva Ecija in Aguinaldo's attempt to elude the pursuing Americans. On October 23, 1899, Gregorio Aglipay, military vicar general of the revolutionary forces, called the Filipino clergy to a conference in Paniqui. There, they drafted the constitution of the Philippine Independent Church.
They called for the Filipinization of the clergy, which led to a separation from the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines. Tarlac was captured by American forces on November 1899. A civil government was established in the province in 1901. During World War II, Camp O'Donnell in Capas became the terminal point of the infamous Bataan Death March of Filipino and American soldiers who surrendered at Bataan on April 9, 1942. Many prisoners died of disease and/or execution; the general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was established from January 03, 1942 to June 30, 1946 and the 3rd Constabulary Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was founding again from October 28, 1944 to June 30, 1946 and military stationed in the province of Tarlac and some parts in Central Luzon due to Japanese Occupation. Local troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army units has sending the clearing military operations in the province of Tarlac and Central Luzon from 1942 to 1945 and aided them by the recognized guerrilla groups including Hukbalahap Communist fighters and attacking Japanese Imperial forces.
But in the aftermath, some local guerrilla resistance fighters and Hukbahalap groups are became retreating Imperial Japanese troops around the province and before the liberation from the Allied forces. In early 1945, combined American and Filipino military forces with the recognized Aringay Command guerillas liberated Camp O'Donnell; the raid in Capas resulted in the rescue of American and other allied Prisoners of War. From January 20, 1945 to August 15, 1945, Tarlac was recaptured by combined Filipino and American troops together with the recognized guerrilla fighters against the Japanese Imperial forces during the liberation and beginning for the Battle of Tarlac under the Luzon Campaign; the Philippine Army has used Crow Valley in the borders of Barangay Patling and Santa Lucia in Capas, Tarlac as a testing ground for both Philippine forces and allies. Many of the Philippine military testings were done on March 17, 2006 most as a part of Operation Enduring Freedom - Philippines; the landlocked province is situated at the center of the central plains of Luzon, landlocked by four provinces: Pampanga on the south, Nueva Ecija on the east, Pangasinan on the north, Zambales on the west.
The province covers a total area of 3,053.60 square kilometres. 75% of the province is plains while the rest is hilly to mountainous. Eastern Tarlac is a plain, while Western Tarlac is hilly to mountainous; because of this, the province includes a large portion of mountains like Mt. Telakawa, located at Capas, Tarlac. Mt. Bueno, Mt. Mor-Asia and Mt. Canouman are located in Capas as well as Mt. Dalin; the other mountains are Mt. Maasin, found in the municipality of San Clemente. Noted are Mt. Damas of Camiling. A portion of Mount Pinatubo rests in Bamban and Capas; the whole of Mayantoc and San Jose are mountainous so it is suitable for the highest natural resources and forest products in the province such as coal, copper, temperate-climate fruits and vegetables, fire logs, sand and forest animals such as wild boar and deer. The main water sources for agriculture include the Tarlac River at Tarlac City, the Lucong and Parua rivers in Concepcion, Sacobia-Bamban River in Bamban and the Rio Chico in La Paz.
Tarlac is subdivided into 17 municipalities and 1 component city, all encompassed by three congressional districts. There are a total of 511 barangays comprising the p
Melanesians are the predominant inhabitants of Melanesia. Most speak either one of the many Austronesian languages in the Oceanic branch of Malayo-Polynesian, or one of the Papuan languages. Other languages spoken are the numerous creoles or pidgins in the region, such as Tok Pisin, Hiri Motu, Solomon Islands Pijin and Papuan Malay. Melanesians occupy islands in a wide area from Eastern Indonesia to as far east as the islands of Vanuatu and Fiji. A 2011 survey found; the original inhabitants of the group of islands now named Melanesia were the ancestors of the present-day Papuan-speaking people. Migrating from Southeast Asia, they appear to have occupied these islands as far east as the main islands in the Solomon Islands, including Makira and the smaller islands farther to the east. Along the north coast of New Guinea and in the islands north and east of New Guinea, the Austronesian people, who had migrated into the area more than 3,000 years ago, came into contact with these pre-existing populations of Papuan-speaking peoples.
In the late 20th century, some scholars theorized a long period of interaction, which resulted in many complex changes in genetics and culture among the peoples. Kayser, et al. proposed that, from this area, a small group of people departed to the east to become the forebears of the Polynesian people. This Polynesian theory is somewhat contradicted by the findings of a genetic study published by Temple University in 2008; the study was based on genome scans and evaluation of more than 800 genetic markers among a wide variety of Pacific peoples. It found that neither Micronesians have much genetic relation to Melanesians. Both groups are related genetically to East Asians Taiwanese aborigines, it appeared that, having developed their sailing outrigger canoes, the ancestors of the Polynesians migrated from East Asia, moved through the Melanesian area on their way, kept going to eastern areas, where they settled. They left little genetic evidence in Melanesia, "and only intermixed to a modest degree with the indigenous populations there".
The study still found a small Austronesian genetic signature in some of the Melanesian groups who speak Austronesian languages, and, absent in the Papuan-speaking groups. The study found a high rate of genetic differentiation and diversity among the groups living within the Melanesian islands, with the peoples not only distinguished between the islands, but by the languages and size of an island; such diversity developed over the tens of thousands of years since initial settlement, as well as after the more recent arrival of Polynesian ancestors at the islands. Papuan-speaking groups in particular were found to be the most differentiated, while Austronesian-speaking groups along the coastlines were more intermixed. Further DNA analysis has taken research into new directions, as more human species have been discovered since the late 20th century. Based on his genetic studies of the Denisova hominin, an ancient human species discovered in 2010, Svante Pääbo claims that ancient human ancestors of the Melanesians interbred in Asia with these humans.
He has found that people of New Guinea share 4%–6% of their genome with the Denisovans, indicating this exchange. The Denisovans are considered cousin to the Neanderthals. Both groups are now understood to have migrated out of Africa, with the Neanderthals going into Europe, the Denisovans heading east about 400,000 years ago; this is based on genetic evidence from a fossil found in Siberia. The evidence from Melanesia suggests their territory extended into south Asia, where ancestors of the Melanesians developed. Melanesians of some islands are one of the few non-European peoples, the only dark-skinned group of people outside Australia, known to have blond hair; the blonde trait developed via the TYRP1 gene, not the same gene that causes blondness in European blonds. Early European explorers noted the physical differences among groups of Pacific Islanders. In 1756 Charles de Brosses theorized that there was an'old black race' in the Pacific who were conquered or defeated by the peoples of what is now called Polynesia, whom he distinguished as having lighter skin.
By 1825 Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent developed a more elaborate, 15-race model of human diversity. He described the inhabitants of modern-day Melanesia as Mélaniens, a distinct racial group from the Australian and Neptunian races surrounding them. In 1832 Dumont D'Urville simplified much of this earlier work, he classified the peoples of Oceania into four racial groups: Malayans, Polynesians and Melanesians. D'Urville's model differed from that of Bory de Saint-Vincent in referring to'Melanesians' rather than'Mélaniens.' Bory de Saint-Vincent had distinguished Mélaniens from the indigenous Australians. Dumont D'Urville combined the two peoples into one group. Soares et al. have argued for an older pre-Holocene Sundaland origin in Island Southeast Asia based on mitochondrial DNA. The "out of Taiwan model" was challenged by a study from Leeds University and published in Molecular Biology and Evolution. Examination of mitochondrial DNA lineages shows that they have been evolving in ISEA for longer than believed.
Ancestors of the Polynesians arrived in the Bismarck Archipelago of Papua New Guinea at least 6,000 to 8,000 years ago. Paternal Y chromosome analysis by Kayser et al. showed that Polynesians have significant Melanesian genetic admixture. A follow-up study by Kayser et al. discovered that only 21% of the Polynesian autosomal gene pool is of Melanesian origin