click links in text for more info


In many legal jurisdictions related to English common law, affray is a public order offence consisting of the fighting of one or more persons in a public place to the terror of ordinary people. Depending on their actions, the laws of the prevailing jurisdiction, those engaged in an affray may render themselves liable to prosecution for assault, unlawful assembly, or riot; the common law offence of affray was abolished for England and Wales on 1 April 1987. Affray is now a statutory offence, triable either way, it is created by section 3 of the Public Order Act 1986 which provides: The term "violence" is defined by section 8. Section 3 once provided that a constable could arrest without warrant anyone he reasonably suspected to be committing affray, but that subsection was repealed by paragraph 26 of Schedule 7 to, Schedule 17 to, the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005, which includes more general provisions for police to make arrests without warrant; the mens rea of affray is that person is guilty of affray only if he intends to use or threaten violence or is aware that his conduct may be violent or threaten violence.

The offence of affray has been used by HM Government to address the problem of drunken or violent individuals who cause serious trouble on airliners. In R v Childs & Price, the Court of Appeal quashed a murder verdict and replaced it with affray, having dismissed an allegation of common purpose. Affray is a serious offence for the purposes of Chapter 3 of the Criminal Justice Order 2008. In New South Wales, section 93C of the Crimes Act of 1900 defines that a person will be guilty of affray if he or she threatens unlawful violence towards another and his or her conduct is such as would cause a person of reasonable firmness present at the scene to fear for his or her personal safety. A person will only be guilty of affray if the person intends to use or threaten violence or is aware that his or her conduct may be violent or threaten violence; the maximum penalty for an offence of affray contrary to section 93C is a period of imprisonment of 10 years. In Queensland, section 72 of the Criminal Code of 1899 defines affray as taking part in a fight in a public highway or taking part in a fight of such a nature as to alarm the public in any other place to which the public have access.

This definition is taken from that in the English Criminal Code Bill of 1880, cl. 96. Section 72 says "Any person who takes part in a fight in a public place, or takes part in a fight of such a nature as to alarm the public in any other place to which the public have access, commits a misdemeanour. Maximum penalty—1 year’s imprisonment." The Indian Penal Code adopts the old English common law definition of affray, with the substitution of "actual disturbance of the peace for causing terror to the lieges". In New Zealand affray has been codified as "fighting in a public place" by section 7 of the Summary Offences Act 1981. Under the Roman-Dutch law in force in South Africa affray falls within the definition of vis publica. In the United States & Canada the English common law as to affray applies, subject to certain modifications by the statutes of particular states/provinces. Combat Assault Battery Blackstones Police Manual Volume 4: General police duties, Fraser Simpson. Pp. 247. Oxford University Press.

ISBN 0-19-928522-5 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Affray". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press

Bhusaval Junction railway station

Bhusaval Junction railway station serves Bhusawal in Jalgaon district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Bhusawal railway station is amongst the top hundred booking stations of Indian Railway. Around fourteen trains originate at Bhusaval railway station and 289 trains pass through it and halt. Bhusaval railway station was set up in 1863. In 1866 the GIPR branch line was extended in 1867 to Nagpur. Bhusawal is divisional HQ under Central Railways. Railways in the Bhusaval area were electrified in 1968-69; the railway uses 25 kilovolt AC supply for traction for all lines. Amenities at Bhusaval railway station include: computerized reservation office, subscriber trunk dialing/public call office booth, waiting room, retiring room and non-vegetarian refreshments, book stall; the northern and southern entrances have separate ticketing windows. There is a free 4 wheeler parking area at the northern entrance. Bhusawal railway station & ST stand are adjacent; the railway station has electronic vehicles to be used by the passengers.

The loco shed at Bhusaval was established by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway in 1919. At that time it was the largest in Asia and third largest in the world. Electric Loco Shed Bhusaval is o­ne of the pioneer maintenance shed o­n Indian Railways, situated o­n Mumbai - Howrah & Mumbai - Delhi main line and came in to existence in 1968. Electric Loco Shed Bhusaval is accredited with International Standard Certificate ISO 9008-2000 since April 2006. Bhusaval electric loco shed has WAP - 4, WAG-5, WAG-7 and WAG-9 locomotives. Departures from Bhusawal

Christ's School

Christ's School is a Church of England secondary school, located in Richmond, London. It has the distinction of being the only Church of England secondary school in Richmond upon Thames. Around 670 pupils, between the ages of 11 and 19, attend the school. Christ's is located near Richmond Park, one of London's largest parks; as with other schools, latest exam results and related data are published in the Department for Education's national tables. The school's origins date back to 1658 when John Frederick Bentley, a local business man and justice of the peace, offered to build a school at his own expense. However, the school was not formally established until 25 May 1713, when a number of well-intentioned citizens of Richmond, headed by Queen Anne, agreed to subscribe towards "The setting up of a Charity School in the Parish of Richmond, for teaching poor children to read, instructing them in the knowledge and practice of Christian religion as professed and taught in the Church of England." The original school building was located at the corner of George Street and Brewer's Lane and was attached to the local parish church of St Mary Magdalene.

It was informally known as a bluecoat school as the pupils were provided with blue gowns – a tradition carried on with the current uniform of blue blazers. In 1854, the school moved to a bigger building at the junction of Paradise road. A century this was considered too small and ill-equipped by the standards of the 1944 Education Act, so the school moved to new buildings in 1960 and was known as St Mary Magdalene Church of England School; the school had links with St Edward the Confessor RC school which had opened in 1954. The two schools ran a joint sixth form during the late 1960s but this proved to be a short-lived experiment. In 1978, St Edward the Confessor RC School merged with the St Mary Magdalene School to form Christs School under the headship of Mr Baker; this was one of the first ecumenical maintained church schools in England. In 1997, by mutual agreement, the Roman Catholic Church withdrew from the management arrangement and Christ's School returned to being a Church of England maintained secondary school.

The school was re-launched in September 2000 on the old East side building, refurbished and expanded with art and textile rooms technical block housing science laboratories and technology workshops and food tech room, as well as a full-size sports hall. The West side building is now a gated housing development and a primary school. Notable students include Grammy Award-winner, singer/rapper Estelle Swaray, three Premiership football players, Professor John Alcolado. Https://

Mark Nelson (video game designer)

Mark Nelson is an American video game designer and humor writer best known for his work with Bethesda Game Studios and the game series The Elder Scrolls. In March 2007, he joined computer games company Big Huge Games to create a new role-playing game, joining industry veteran Brian Reynolds and long-time collaborator Ken Rolston. Mark is a member of the Writers Guild of America, he has been a professional games designer since 1999. In 2013, Nelson founded Nelson Game Design LLC, a game consulting company providing comprehensive design services. From 2014-2016, Nelson served as Design Director at robotics company Sphero. While there, he was responsible for the design of the successful BB-8 app-controlled droid released in 2015. In July 2017, Nelson was named Chief Design Officer of Bit Fry Game Studios, Inc.. Before entering the computer game field, Mark spent many years as both a editor, he designed multimedia training for Raytheon, edited environmental impact statements for the United States Department of Energy, was an editor of The Washington Wit, a Washington, DC-based humor magazine.

Nelson joined Bethesda Game Studios as a designer on The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind. He led the design on its expansions, The Elder Scrolls III: Tribunal and The Elder Scrolls III: Bloodmoon. Nelson went on to work as a designer on award-winning games The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion, Fallout 3, he was the lead designer on 2007's The Elder Scrolls IV: Shivering Isles. Mark joined Big Huge Games in 2007 and served as lead narrative designer on their RPG project, cancelled when the studio was sold in 2009. Nelson went on to be the lead designer and creative director of Kingdoms of Amalur: Reckoning, a single player RPG designed by Big Huge Games, a Baltimore subsidiary of 38 Studios; the game is set in the world of Amalur. In July 2007, Nelson became the Design Director for Zynga East, a Baltimore-based social game studio, which produced the titles FrontierVille and CityVille 2. In February 2013, Nelson left Zynga. CityVille 2 Kingdoms of Amalur: Reckoning Fallout 3 The Elder Scrolls IV: Shivering Isles The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion Pirates of the Caribbean

Haunted Love

Haunted Love was a horror-romance anthology comic book series published by Charlton Comics from 1973 - 1975. It was part of the Gothic Romance comic book mini-trend of the era, which included the short-lived DC Comics series The Dark Mansion Of Forbidden Love and The Sinister House of Secret Love, Atlas/Seaboard Comics' one-shot magazine Gothic Romances. Edited by George Wildman, contributors to Haunted Love included writers Joe Gill, Nick Cuti, Pete Morisi. Tom Sutton contributed many of the covers; the Charlton imprint Modern Comics published one issue of Haunted Love reprints in 1978

William Rowell

William Irvine Rowell was an English businessman and a sportsman who played rugby union for Cambridge University and first-class cricket for the university team as well. He was died at Stansted Mountfitchet, Essex. Rowell was educated at Jesus College, Cambridge, he was captain of cricket at Marlborough and was tried in trial matches and a few first-class games for Cambridge University in each of his first three years at the university from 1888 to 1890, without achieving any real success. The 1891 season, Rowell's last at the university, went in much the same direction with a few unsuccessful games, after which he was dropped from the university team; that led to his recall for the University Match against Oxford University at Lord's, which Cambridge won narrowly, though Rowell contributed scores of just 3 and 1. It was his last first-class match. Earlier in the same academic year, he had been selected for a rugby union Blue as a forward in the match against Oxford. Rowell graduated from Cambridge University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1891.

His career is not certain, but the directory of Cambridge alumni states that he became a brewer